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【工程施工类翻译】路基
发布时间:2011-7-14 22:03:00||  点击:3499次||  文章分类:翻译案例||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)


路   基

 

一、 范围

本章为路基工程,其工作内容包括路基土石方工程、排水工程及路基防护工程的施工及其有关作业。

1. 路基土石方工程包括:填方路基、挖方路基和特殊路基处理及其有关的作业。

2. 排水工程包括:坡面排水施工及其有关作业。

3. 路基防护工程包括:石砌护坡、护面墙、挡土墙、抗滑桩、河道防护及锥坡和其他防护工程的砌筑,以及其基础开挖与回填的施工作业。

二、 材料

1.    路基土石方材料

(1)挖土石方

在公路路基土石方挖方中用不小于235.2kw(320马力)推土机、单齿松动器无法松动,须用爆破或用钢钎大锤或用气钻方法开挖的,以及体积大于或等于1m3的孤石为石方,余为土方。其土石分类应由监理工程师审核并报业主批准确定。

(2)填方材料

指未被压实到规定密实度和一定的强度形成稳定填方的材料。所有用作路基填方的材料应按本规范第204.03节的规定进行试验,经监理工程师批准后方可采用。

在通常情况下不能被压实和强度不够不能形成稳定填方的材料为非适用材料。它包括:

a. 沼泽土、淤泥、泥炭

b. 含有树根和易腐朽物质的材料

c. 有机质含量大于4%的材料

d. 液限大于50%及塑性指数大于26的材料;含水量过大材料,但在晾干后可作为路基填料;填方材料强度应符合204-1表规定。

e. 土样材料CBR﹤3%(4d浸水)。

(3)表土

指自然地表层有利于植物生长的土,挖除的不含树根、石块和垃圾的表土,应堆放在承包人提供并经监理工程师同意的地点,以备绿化时使用。

(4)透水性材料

指水位以下路堤或桥涵台背使用的渗水性材料,由石块或砾石组成,最大粒径一般为300mm,通过20mm筛孔的粒径含量不大于10%,其塑性指数不超过6。

(5)弃方

非适用材料(包括场地清理的淤泥、腐植土和杂物)或保证路基及其它工程利用填筑之后剩余的并经监理工程师批准可弃的材料,且必须清运到公路用地以外的挖方为弃方。

(6)利用方

根据设计要求或监理工程师指示,路基挖方中的适用材料,用来填筑路基或其它填筑工程的为利用方。

除图纸规定或被认定为非适用材料外,承包人不得将利用方任意废弃,开挖石料应优先利用至对填料有特殊要求的部位,如浸水路堤、清淤回填等。否则因此增加的借方或造成填筑成本增加的费用由承包人承担。

(7)借方

根据设计要求或监理工程师的批准,从公路用地范围外的借土场取得的适用材料,用来填筑路基或其它填筑工程的为借方。

(8)岩渣(土石混合料)材料

用于填方路基或特殊路基处理,是经开采(或利用)的,其粒径大于40mm的石块含量大于30%的土石混合料,其石块的最大粒径不大于150mm(用于路基顶面以下30cm范围内,最大粒径不大于100mm)。

2. 混凝土、水泥砂浆

混凝土、水泥砂浆应符合图纸要求和本规范第410节和第413节的规定。

3. 钢筋

钢筋应符合图纸要求和本规范第403节的规定。

4. 模板、支架

模板、支架应符合图纸要求和本规范第402节的规定。

5. 石料

石砌体所用材料应符合图纸要求及本规范第413节的规定。

6. 沥青材料

(1)沥青涂层按重量由3份“石油沥青30号甲”、7份汽油配制而成。“石油沥青30号甲”须符合《建筑防腐工程施工及验收规范》(GB50212—2002)的要求,其主要指标见表-1。

 “石油沥青30号甲”主要技术指标        表-1 

名    称

规 定 值

针入度(25℃ ,100g)(0.1mm)

21~40

延度(25℃) (㎝)

≥3

软化点(环球法) (℃)

≥70

(2)沥青油毡应符合《石油沥青纸胎油毡、油纸》(GB326—1989)的要求。

(3)沥青麻絮应符合图纸要求或经监理工程师批准的标准。

7. 垫层材料

(1)砂:宜采用洁净的中、粗砂,含泥量不应大于5﹪,有机质含量不大于1﹪。

(2)砂砾碎石垫层材料粒径不大于50mm,含泥量不超过5﹪,含砂量不超过40﹪。

(3)石灰土应符合图纸要求和本规范第205节的有关规定。

8. 反滤层

(1)材料粒径应满足表-2的规定。

                  反滤材料粒径规定值               表-2

材料名称

粒径范围(mm)

平均粒径(mm)

砂砾

0.5~5

2.5

粗砾

15~20

17

卵石

75~100

片石

150以上

(2)砂砾及粗砾反滤层的空隙率均得小于35﹪。

(3)用作反滤层的材料应清洗干净,不允许含有有机物或其他有害物质。粗砾和卵石应质地坚硬,耐久。

9. 土工织物:用于防水的土工织物应符合图纸及本规范第205节有关要求。

三、一般要求

1. 路基土石方工程一般要求

(1)施工测量

a. 承包人应在开工之前进行现场恢复和固定路线。其内容包括导线、中线的复测,水准点的复测与增设,横断面的测量与绘制等。承包人应在监理工程师的指导下,对相邻标段连接处的水准点、中线控制点进行检查和闭合测量,并应控制在规定的误差范围内。

b. 承包人应对所有的测量进行记录并整理这些资料。每段测量完成后,测量记录本及成果资料由承包人的测量员及其主管技术人员共同签字,送交监理工程师核查。

c. 在监理工程师核查全部或任何一部分工程的测量成果时,承包人应无偿提供设备及辅助人员。

d. 在监理工程师核准测量成果后,承包人应按图纸要求,在施工活动开展前现场设置路基用地界桩和坡脚、路堑堑顶、截水沟、边坡、护坡道、取土坑、弃土堆等的具体位置桩,标明其轮廓,报请监理工程师检查批准。

e. 施工测量的横断面成果作为施工放样使用,计量时的原始地面线仍以设计单位提供的横断面为准,除非发现原地面线测量有明显错误或地勘不准,具体按以下情况处理:

(a)以每个合同段为一核查单元,当实际土石方数量与设计数量相比较误差在5%以内时,不予调整;

(b)如果一个合同段的土石方数量误差超过5%,按实际误差比例减去5%进行调整。即误差为6%时,按1%进行增减。

(c)设计文件确定的土石成份一律不作调整,作为投标人的风险。

出现上述任何情况承包人应立即报请监理工程师、设计代表、业主代表共同核查,经核查确实需要修正时,由设计代表进行设计修正。在共同核查前,如果地面线已遭破坏,则一律不予认可。

    f. 施工测量的精度应符合《公路勘测规范》(JTG C10-2007)的要求。施工放样还应符合《公路路基施工技术规范》(JTG F10-2006)的规定。

g. 承包人应按图纸的要求,设置路基用地的地界桩。并按监理工程师提供的图纸预制地界桩。预制和安装地界桩所需的费用已包含在相关细目的报价中,不另行计量。

(2)调查与试验

a. 路基施工前,承包人应对施工范围内的地质、水文、障碍物、文物古迹及各种管线等情况进行详细调查。

b. 承包人应对图纸所示的挖方、借土场的路堤填料取有代表性的土样进行试验,试验方法按《公路土工试验规程》(JTJ051—93)执行。试验项目如下:

(a)液限、塑限、塑性指数、天然稠度。

(b)颗粒大小分析试验。

(c)含水量试验。

(d)密度试验。

(e)相对密度试验。

(f)土的击实试验。

(g)土的承载比试验(CBR值)。

(h)有机质含量及易溶盐含量试验。

c. 承包人应将调查与试验结果以书面形式报告监理工程师备案。如所调查与试验的结果与图纸资料不符时,应提出解决方案报监理工程师审批。否则,路基不得施工。

d. 本规范中集料的粒径均采用ISO565的R40/3系列中的标准筛孔(方孔筛),水泥混凝土路面用集料粒径仍采用圆孔筛标准。

(3)施工期间防水、排水

a. 在路基工程施工期间,为防止工程或附近农田、建筑物及其它设施受冲刷或造成淤积,应修建临时排水设施,以保持施工场地处于良好的排水状态。

b. 临时排水设施应与永久性排水设施相结合。施工场地流水不得排入农田、耕地或污染自然水源,也不应引起淤积、阻塞和冲刷。

c. 施工时,不论挖方或填方,均应做到各施工层表面不积水,因此,各施工层应随时保持一定的泄水横坡或纵向排水通道。挖方路基顶面或填方基底含水量过大时,承包人应采取措施降低其含水量。

d. 承包人的临时排水设施及排水方案应报请监理工程师检查验收。任何因污染、淤积和冲刷遭受的损失,均应由承包人负担。承包人因未设有足够的排水设施,使土方工程遭受损坏时,应由承包人自费加以修复。

e. 附属工程严禁在路基主体工程完成后安排施工,应尽可能的早开工,至少与主体工程平行施工。否则,引起的线内地基内涝、积水浸泡造成清淤、二次清表、软基换填、处理边坡滑坡、处理路面污染以及线外污染等有关作业,一律由承包人自行承担,不另行计量与支付。

(4)冬季施工

在反复冻融地区,当昼夜平均气温连续10d以上在-3℃以下时,或者昼夜平均温度虽然升到-3℃以上,但冻土未完全融化时,承包人进行施工应按照《公路路基施工技术规范》(JTG F10-2006)有关冬季施工的规定执行,并将计划安排的工程项目和施工方案报监理工程师审批。

(5)雨季施工

雨季施工前,承包人应根据现场具体情况确定可进行雨季施工地段,按照《公路路基施工技术规范》(JTG F10-2006)有关雨季施工的规定执行,并编制雨季施工组织计划,报监理工程师审批。

(6)特殊地区路基的施工

特殊地区的路基施工应根据不同的特殊土、特殊地段、季节气候等条件按照《公路路基施工技术规范》(JTG F10-2006)及《公路软土地基路堤设计与施工技术规范》(JTJ 017—96)的规定,组织安排施工。施工计划及施工方案应报监理工程师审批。

2. 排水工程一般要求

(1)在开工之前,承包人应向监理工程师提供本工程的有关施工方法和施工安排的书面报告,只有在获得监理工程师的批准后,该项工程才能开工。

(2)承包人应按图纸确定的排水构造物的位置和标高,进行施工放样测量,并经监理工程师核准。

(3)排水构造物的基槽开挖和回填,应按本规范第204节的有关规定进行。

(4)排水构造物的基槽底面应夯实到图纸规定的压实度。若基槽底面的地质状况与图纸要求不符时,承包人应根据实际情况提出处理方案,经监理工程师审核批准后进行地基处理。

(5)为防止排水构造物的基底冲刷,承包人应严格按图纸要求施工。若监理工程师根据实际地形指示增加基底深度,承包人应按监理工程师的指示执行。

(6)所有砂浆砌体均应按《公路桥涵施工技术规范》(JTJ 041—2000)第13章第13.6节的有关规定进行勾缝及养护。所有混凝土的养生和表面缺陷修整弥补,应按照本规范第410节的有关规定执行。

(7)所有地面以下的隐蔽工程,只有在经监理工程师检验合格之后,才能掩埋。

(8)由于承包人未执行上述有关规定而导致排水构造物的损坏和缺陷,应由承包人自费拆除重建。

(9)预制构件应符合图纸要求及本规范410节有关规定。

3. 防护工程一般要求

(1)承包人应在防护工程开工前对工程所处位置的原地面进行复测,以核实图纸上结构物尺寸、形状和基础标高是否符合实际。复测结果应作详细记录,经监理工程师批准后方可施工。

(2)所有防护工程及有关作业除应符合本规范的要求外,还应按照图纸所示和监理工程师的指示进行施工。

(3)有水浸或属风化岩石的边坡,应在土石方施工同时,按图纸或监理工程师指示,及时进行防护工程的施工。

(4)防护工程的清理场地应符合图纸和本规范第202节的要求。

(5)防护工程的挖基和回填应符合图纸和本规范第404节的要求。

(6)砌体的砌筑工艺应符合图纸和本规范第413节的要求;混凝土的浇筑应符合图纸和本规范第410节的要求。

(7)除有监理工程师的书面允许外,不得在昼夜平均气温低于+5℃或石料受冻的情况下进行浆砌砌体的施工。所有的混凝土圬工及石料砌体应按《公路桥涵施工技术规范》(JTJ 041—2000)第11章11.8节及第13章13.6节中的有关规定进行养生。

(8)砌体应按图纸要求进行勾缝,如图纸上无规定,则采用M7.5水泥砂浆勾凹缝。砌体勾缝应嵌入砌缝内不小于2cm。

(9)填方边坡防护应做到路基外观线型顺适,坡面平顺稳定,不得亏坡。

(10)拱形护坡及实体护坡,不得直接在路基坡面上砌筑,然后填土。必须在填筑好的路基上刷坡后、从坡面下挖,将砌体嵌入路基坡面。

(11)护坡要求衔接顺适,表面平整。其外观要求按外露面砌石圬工标准执行。

 

 

 

SUBGRADE

I. SCOPE

This chapter covers subgrade works which include subgrade earthwork and rockwork, drainage project, subgrade protection project, and other related work.

1. Subgrade earthwork and rockwork shall include: fill subgrade earthwork, cut subgrade, special subgrade treatment and other relevant activities.

2. Drainage project shall include: slope drainage construction and other related activities.

3. Subgrade Protection project shall include: rock slope protection, Curtain Wall, Retaining Wall, antislide Pile, riverway Protection, construction of conical slope and other defense project, as well as subgrade excavation and backfill.    

 

II. MATERIALS

1. Material of the earth and rock for subgrade

(1) Excavation of earth and rock

Rock excavation is defined as followed: in excavation of the earth and rock for the subgrade, only bulldozers with power of no less than 235.2kw (320 horsepower) shall be used; in case the scarifier fails, explosion, steel sledgehammers and pneumatic drill shall be used and the cubage is no less than 1m3. All the others shall be defined as earth excavation. The classification of earth and rock shall get the examination of Engineer and the approval the Employer.

(2) Fill material

Fill material refers to the material which is under the standard density and intensity. All fill material for subgrade construction shall be tested complying with the regulations of 204.03, and utilized with the approval of the Engineer.

Materials that shall not be used as fill material for low density and low intensity are as followed:

a. Swamp earth, sullage and turf

b. Materials that contain plant root and easily moldered substance

c. Materials that contain organic compound over 4%

d. Materials that contain water over 50% and flexibility index over 26; high moisture content material; after airingthe intensity of fill material shall comply with the regulations of table 204-1.

e. Earth sample CBR3 (4d founder).

(3) Surface soil

Surface soil refers to the soil that is good for plant. It is on the surface of earth without plant root, rock and garbage. It shall be put on place afforded by the Contractor with the approval of the Engineer in case it shall be used for virescence.

(4) Pervious material

Pervious material shall be used by under water level road mound and bridge and its culvert. It is made up of rock and gravel, with the maximum diameter of 300mm. The proportion of the granule passing through the 20mm sieve pore shall be less than 10%, and the flexibility index shall be less than 6.

(5) Deserted excavated material

Deserted material refers to excavated materials that shall not be applicable (including sullage, corroded topsoil and dire) and the materials after subgrade and other construction utilization with the approval of the Engineer to be deserted and the deserted material shall be removed to areas outside the road construction site.

(6) Utilization of excavated material

Utilization of excavated material refers to the applicable materials of subgrade excavation which shall be used as subgrade reclamation and other reclamation project with the requirement of the design or the indication of the Engineer.

The Contractor shall not desert utilization of excavated material at will. The rock excavation shall be prior utilized to those special parts, such as inundated embankment, desludging and back-filling area. The increased costs caused by that shall be borne by the Contractor.

(7) Earth borrowing

Earth borrowing refers to the applicable materials borrowed from the area outside the road construction site to be used as subgrade reclamation and other reclamation projects with the requirement of the design or the indication of the Engineer.

(8) Soil and rock

Soil and rock refers to the soil and rock mixtures explored or utilized for subgrade reclamation or other special subgrade project and the proportion of rock with diameter between 40mm and 150mm shall be over 30%.

2. Concrete, cement and mortar

Concrete, cement and mortar shall comply with the requirement of the drawing and regulations of Section 410 and 413.

3. Reinforcing bar

Reinforcing bar shall comply with the requirement of the drawing and the regulations of Section 403.

4. Stencil and supporting frame

Stencil and supporting frame shall comply with the requirement of the drawing and the regulations of Section 402.

5. Rock material

Rocks material used for masonry shall comply with the requirement of the drawing and the regulations of Section 413.

Table-1 Major technical index of Petroleum Bitumen No. 30 A

Name

Fixed volume

Penetration number 25 100g)(0.1mm

2140

extensibility(25℃) ()`

≥3

Standard test method for softening point of bitumen (Ring-and-ball apparatus)(℃)

≥70

6. Bitumen

(1) Bitumen coat shall be confected by Petroleum Bitumen No. 30 A and gasoline according to the weight proportion of 3:7. Petroleum Bitumen No. 30 A shall comply with the requirement of GB50212-91with the major index see table 201-1.

(2) Bitumen and pitched felt shall comply with the requirement of BG326-1989.

(3) Bitumen oakum shall comply with the requirement of the drawing or under the approval of the Engineer.

7. Under course material

(1) Gravel: medium granular sand and harsh sand with proportion of sediment less than 5% and proportion of organic substance less than 1% shall be used.

(2) Undercourse material like gravel and pebble with diameter of less than 50mm, and with proportion of sediment less than 5% and proportion of gravel less than 40% shall be used.

(3) Limerock soil shall comply with the requirement of the drawing and the regulations of Section 205.

8. Filtering layer

(1) The diameter of the filtering layer material shall comply with the requirement of table-2.

Table -2  Fixed Diameter Value of the Filtering Layer

Name

Range of diameter(mm)

Average diameter(mm)

pebble

0.5~5

2.5

shingle

15~20

17

cobblerock

75~100

flagrock

Above 150

(2) The voidage of pebble and shingle filtering layer shall be less than 35%.

(3) Materials used as filtering layer shall be clean and without organic substances and other deleterious substances. Shingle and cobble rock shall have flinty structure and be durable.

9. Geotextiles: geotextiles used as water proof shall comply with the requirement of the drawing and the regulations of Section 205.

 

III. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1. General requirements for subgrade earthwork and rockwork

(1)Construction Survey

a. The Contractor shall restore the site and locate the route before construction. The work includes counter survey of traverse and center line, checking and adding both of the B.M. and elevation as well as survey and drawing of the profile etc. The Contractor shall, under the supervision the Engineering engineer, conduct the checking and survey of the B.M. and elevation and the center line at the joint with other contracted section, and the deviation shall be within the stipulated limit.

b. The Contractor shall keep a record of all the measurements and sort out all the materials after finishing the measurement of each section, the minute books and the results shall be signed jointly by the Contractor’s surveyor and key technician before submitting them to the Engineer for checking.

c. In the process of the Engineer’s checking of all or any part of the measurement results, the Contractor shall supply equipment and auxiliary staff members free of charge.

d. Once the measurement results have been approved by the Engineer, the Contractor shall set up stakes and pegs on site according to the Drawings before starting the construction to mark the boundary of the land for the subgrade and indicate the specific positions and outline of the slope foot, top of the road cutting, intercepting ditches, slope, berms, borrow pit, waste bank which shall be reported to the Engineer for approval.

e. The construction survey results of cross-sections shall be used for the construction setting out while the original ground lines for the measurement shall be still based on the cross-sections provided by the Designer except for the situation of obvious error in the survey of the original ground line or inaccurate geological survey that shall be otherwise handled with based on the following cases:

(a) Regarding every Contract as one checking unit, when the error between the actual earthwork volume and the designed one is within 15%, the volume would not be adjusted;

(b) When the error of earthwork volume exceeds 5% of that in the Bill of Quantities in one Contract, the adjustment should be carried out after deducting 5%. That is to say, when the error is 6%, it shall be adjusted with 1% of the error.

(c)   Without exception, the proportioning deviation of earth and rock in every Contract shall not be adjusted, this shall be regarded as the risk of the bidder.

In case of any one of the above situations, the Contractor shall report to the Engineer, the design representative, and the Employer representative immediately for a joint verification. If the situation is verified, the design representative will carry out a design change. The condition will not be recognized if the ground line described in Paragraph (a) and (b) above, or the interfacing line of rock stratum described in Paragraph (c) above has been damaged before such joint verification.

f. The precision of construction survey shall comply with the requirements set forth in Specifications for Highway Reconnaissance (JTG C10-2007) and the setting out shall conform to stipulations in Technical Specification for Construction of Highway Subgrades (JTG F10-2006).

g. The Contractor shall set up the boundary stakes for the subgrade land according to the Drawings. The land boundary stakes shall be prefabricated according to the drawings provided by the Engineer. The cost for the fabrication and installation of such land boundary stakes has been incorporated into the price for the related items, which will not be measured separately.

(2) Investigation and test

a. Before construction of sugrade, the Contractor shall investigate in detail the geological, hydrological situation, and situations of obstacles, historic relics and various pipe lines within the construction area.

b. The Contractor shall take representative samples of soil for test in excavation area and borrow pit for subgrade filling. The testing method shall conform to Test Code for Highway Earthwork (JTJ051-93), the tests shall be:

(a) Tests of liquid limit, plastic limit, plastic index, natural consistency

(b) Tests of grain size analysis

(c)Test of moisture content

(d) Test of density

(e) Test of relative density

(f) Soil compaction test

(g) Test of CBR value of soil

(h) Tests for determination of content of organic matters and readily soluble salt

c. The Contractor shall submit in writing the results of investigation and tests to the Engineer for later checking. If there is any discrepancy between the investigation and/or test results and the situation shown on the Drawing, the Contractor shall put forward his opinion for solving this problem and ask for the Engineer’s approval. The construction shall start otherwise.

d. All grain size of aggregates shown in the Specification refers to standardsieves (square sieve hole) of R40/3 series of ISO565, but for aggregates used in cement concrete paving, their grain size still applies the standard of round hole meshes.

(3)Water-proofing and drainage during construction

a. During the construction of the subgrade, to prevent erosion or deposition in work area or neighboring farmland, buildings and other facilities, temporary drainage facilities shall be built to keep the construction site in good drainable state.

b. Temporary drainage facilities shall be incorporated with permanent drainage facilities. The running water from construction site shall not be discharged into farm lands, cultivated lands or contaminating natural water resources as well as cause deposition and erosion.

c. During construction, regardless of cutting work or filling work, on surface of each construction layer, there shall be no rain water accumulated, therefore, certain draining transverse slope or longitudinal draining channel shall be kept all the time in each layer, once the water content on cut subgrade top or filling bedding is too high, the Contractor shall take measures to decrease the water content.

d. The plan for temporary drainage facility and arrangement of water drainage shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval. Any loss due to contamination, deposition and erosion shall be borne by the Contractor. Any of the earth work damaged due to the Contractor’s inadequate provision of drain facilities shall be repaired by the Contractor at his own expense.

e. It is prohibited that the auxiliary works are constructed after completion of the body engineering of subgrade. The auxiliary works should be started as early as possible, at least be operated parallel to the body engineering. Otherwise, relative works caused by that, such as subgrade waterlogging, desludging, secondary surface clearing, soft ground replacing, slide treating, pavement pollution and off-line pollution, and so on, would be borne by the Contractor himself, and shall not measured and paid separately.

(4) Construction in winter

In areas of repeated freezing and thawing, when the average day and night temperature below -3℃ continuously exceeds 10 days, or although the average day and night temperature has risen to -3℃ and up, but the frozen soil not yet thaws out, the Contractor shall carry out construction according to relevant winter construction regulations specified in Technical Specification for Construction of Highway Subgrades (JTG F10-2006) and submit for approval of the Engineer the items planned and the arrangement of construction.

(5) Construction in the Rainy Season

The Contractor shall in advance, identify the road sections possible to execute works in rainy season in accordance with related stipulations of Rainy Season Construction of Highway Subgrade in the Technical Specification for Construction of Highway Subgrades (JTG F10-2006) and the actual conditions of the site, he shall also prepare an organization program for implementation of works in rainy season to be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

(6) Subgrade construction in special areas

The construction of subgrade in special areas shall be according to the different conditions of special soil, special region and climate etc. and conform with the Technical Specification for Construction of Highway Subgrades (JTG F10-2006) and Technical Specification for Highway Embankment Design and Construction on Soft Ground Base (JTJ017-96). The plan of construction and arrangement shall be submitted to the Engineer for his approval.

2. General requirements for drainage

(1) The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a report in writing concerning the construction method and plan for his approval before the construction commences. The construction shall not start otherwise.

(2) The Contractor shall conduct the construction setting out survey in accordance with the position and height of the drainage structure in the drawing, and shall be approved by the Engineer.

(3) The excavation and filling of the foundation trench of the drainage structure shall be conducted according to the relative prescriptions in Section 204.

(4) The base of the foundation trench of the drainage structure shall be rammed to the degree as stipulated in the drawing. If geological condition under the trench does not conform to the requirement of the drawing, the Contractor shall provide treatment plan and consolidation measure according to the actual situation, and conduct treatment after gaining approval from the Engineer.

(5) To prevent erosion of the base of drainage structure, the Contractor shall strictly follow the requirement of the drawing in construction. If the Engineer asks to increase the depth of the base according to the actual topography, the Contractor shall follow his direction.

(6) All mortar masonry shall be pointed and cured as stipulated in section 13.6 of Technical Specifications for Construction of Highway Bridges and Culverts (JTJ 041-2000). All curing work and repairing of the facial defects of the concrete shall be conducted in accordance with the stipulations set forth in Section 410 of this Specification.

(7) All projects underground shall not be buried before being verified by the Engineer as having met the requirement.

(8) If any damage or defect occurs in the drainage structure due to the Contractor’s failure to observe the above stipulations, the Contractor shall tear down the structure and reconstruct it at his own expense.

(9) Premade materials shall conform to the requirement of the drawing as the relevant stipulations set forth in Section 410 of this Specification.

3. General requirements for the protection works

(1) Before the protective works starts, the Contractor shall counter-survey the original ground of the site of the works, so as to verify whether the structure’s size, shape and the base height are feasible. The results of counter-survey shall be recorded in detail, and submitted to the Engineer for approval before construction commences.

(2) All protective works and other related works shall observe not only the requirements set forth in this Specification, but also the requirement of the drawing and the direction of the Engineer.

(3) If the slope has water erosion or wind-eroded rocks, construction of the protective works shall be done in time according to the drawing or the Engineer’s direction while earthwork and rockwork is ongoing.

(4) Site-clearing of the protective works shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements set forth in Section 202 of this Specification.

(5) The excavation and filling for the protective works shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements set forth in Section 404 of this Specification.

(6) The technique and craft of mortar masonry conform to the requirements of the drawing and those set forth in Section 413 of this Specification. The pouring of concrete shall conform to the requirements of the drawing and those set forth in Section 413 of this Specification.

(7) Unless with the written permission of the Engineer, mortar masonry shall not be conducted when day and night average temperature is under +5℃ or rock material is frozen. All concrete and mortar shall be cured in accordance with Section 11.8 and Section 13.6 of Technical Specifications for Construction of Highway Bridges and Culverts (JTJ 041-2000).

(8) Masonry works shall be pointed in accordance with the requirements of the drawing. If the drawing does not stipulate, M7.5 concrete masonry shall be applied. Joint-pointing depth shall exceed 20mm.

(9) Slope protection filling, subgrade shall have pleasing appearance, with smooth line and flat, stable, clean slope.

(10) Arch slope protection works and solid slope protection works shall not be directly constructed on the slope of the subgrade and then fill soil. Instead, slope cutting should be done first, and masonry works should be inlaid into the slope.

(11) Slope protection works should have smooth joints, with flat and neat surface. The requirement on the appearance shall observe the standard for visible face of stone masonry dam.



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