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【工程施工类翻译】桥梁、涵洞
发布时间:2011-7-14 22:10:00||  点击:3746次||  文章分类:翻译案例||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)


 

桥梁、涵洞

一、范围

1. 本章工程包括桥梁、涵洞、渡槽、天桥及其附属结构物的施工。通道、排水、防护及隧道工程,亦可参照本章有关内容施工。

2. 特殊结构物的施工,必须同时符合相应的有关规范。

二、 一般要求

1. 核对图纸和补充调查

承包人在施工开始前应对设计文件、图纸、资料进行现场核对,必要时应进行补充调查,并将调查结果提交监理工程师批准。

2. 平整场地

承包人应按照要求,平整施工场地,并得到监理工程师认可。

3. 复测

承包人应在开工前对桥梁中心位置桩、三角网基点桩、水准基点桩及其他测量资料进行核对、复测。若桩志不足或不符合要求时,应按《公路桥涵施工技术规范》(JTJ 041—2000)第3章“施工准备和施工测量”有关要求重新补测,并将复测或补测结果报监理工程师认可。

承包人应对桥梁中心桩、水准基点桩等控制标志加以妥善保护,直至工程竣工验收。

4. 编制施工方案

承包人在开工前,应根据图纸资料和有关合同条款,编制施工方案和实施性施工组织设计,对重点、难点工程、控制性工程还应编制专项的施工组织设计,一并提交监理工程师审批。

5. 预制场地

预制场地由承包人自行选择,并经监理工程师、业主批准。场地应满足如下要求;进入预制场的便道畅通,能有足够的空间搭设水泥库房、钢筋堆放场、加工制作场及存梁堆放空间。能保证砂、石集料堆放规范有序、拌合站空间操作便利、排水方便。要保证整个预制场地排水设施完善。承包人应向监理工程师报送一份预制场地的平面位置布置图、预制场地的平整计划以及对环境保护采用的措施等。工程完成后,应将场地上的设备和废弃物清除干净,并恢复原状,使监理工程师认可。

6. 图纸

(1)承包人开工前应仔细阅读图纸,发现疑问、发现地质情况与图纸不符,应及时向监理工程师提出。

(2)承包人必须按照图纸及其有关说明施工。结构物的外形、尺寸、线条应符合图纸规定,其施工偏差应在本规范规定的允许值范围内。图纸中未超过本规范所列的新技术、新工艺时,承包人应严格按照图纸要求进行施工,费用由承包人负责。本项目的钻孔桩与挖孔桩采用统一的综合单价,承包人应根据自己了解的情况,根据自己的施工组织计划对圆柱形砼灌注桩作出综合报价。

(3)当图纸内有关施工说明与本规范规定有矛盾时,应以图纸为准。图纸及本规范均缺少有关的要求和规定时,由监理工程师参照国内外已建同类工程及相应的规定并结合实际情况确定或规定。

7. 承包人必须按照国家有关的基本建设程序进行施工,并建立完善的质量体系,在施工过程中对工程进行自检,在工程完成后应配合监理工程师进行检查验收。桥梁施工用水,应按相关法律法规办理用水许可。

8. 安全技术措施

(1)桥梁施工前,应对施工现场、机具设备及安全防护设施等进行全面检查,确认符合安全检查要求后方可施工。

(2)手持式电动工具应按《手持式电动工具的管理、使用、检查和维修安全技术规程》(GB 3789—2006)的规定,根据手持式电动工具的类别和作业场所的安全要求,加设漏电保护器。

(3)桥梁施工,采用多层、高空作业或桥下有通车、行人等情况进行立体施工时,应布设安全网,并根据实际情况确定安全网的规格。

(4)对于通航江河上的桥梁工程,施工前应与当地港航监督部门联系,商定有关通航、作业安全事宜。

(5)高处露天作业、缆索吊装及大型构件起重吊装时,应根据作业高度和现场风力大小及其对作业的影响程度,制定适于施工的风力标准。遇有六级(含六级)以上大风时,上述施工应停止作业。

(6)深水大跨及桥梁高度较大的特大型桥或结构复杂的大型桥梁施工,应对施工安全做专项调查研究,并制定相应的安全技术措施。

(7)单项工程开工前,应根据《公路工程施工安全技术规程》(JTJ 076—95)及工程实际情况制定安全操作细则,并向施工人员进行安全技术交底。

(8)在进行桥梁桩基的人工挖孔作业时,应配备有害气体检测仪,对孔内气体进行全过程的检测。

(9)桥梁施工现场,电线电缆等应架空或埋置于地面以下。严禁将电线电缆裸露或搁置于地面。

(10)桥梁施工过程中,所有的机械设备,如:卷扬机、架桥机、龙门吊、搅拌机等的操作人员都应经过培训并持证上岗。同时应建立各项操作规程。

(11)在桥梁高墩施工时,应配备供工作人员上下的电梯,严禁采用攀爬方式到达高空施工点。

(12)进行桥梁的梁、板安装时,应采用专门的架桥机进行架设。不宜选用钓鱼法、扒杆法等落后方法。

(13)施工中遇到高压电线电缆、原有道路、其他重要构造物时,应考虑搭设安全防护棚等措施,以保证施工安全。

(14)本项目多处与铁路发生干扰,在施工中,应保证铁路的安全及营运通畅。承包人应自行与铁路部门协调,并承担一切费用。

三、质量检验

1. 线形

竣工后的桥梁应线形平顺,外形美观,弯度、坡度、超高、加宽要做到流畅顺适。桥面、缘石、栏杆、护栏等的高程要符合图纸要求。

2. 外观要求

(1)同一或相邻结构物表面、纹理和颜色应均匀一致。除非监理工程师另有书面批准,承包人应采用同一类型的模板、修饰方法、脱模剂等。结构物所用的水泥及外加剂宜采用同一厂家产品。

(2)一种结构形式与另一种结构形式连接处的过渡段坡度、半圆型接头等应适顺,以使结构物具有美感。

(3)结构物外露的表面应平整,无蜂窝、麻面、露筋及空洞。分段浇筑时,段与段之间不得有错台。

(4)桥面铺装防水混凝土表面不得有麻面、蜂窝和裂纹,施工缝处不得有裂缝。

(5)伸缩装置应有效,无阻塞、渗漏、松脱和开裂现象。

(6)伸缩装置应保持顺直、平整,车辆通过时无跳动现象。

(7)泄水管周围不允许漏水,进水口应略低于桥面面层。

(8)预制构件尺寸准确,拼装时接头平顺。

(9)为了获得满意的外观质量,监理工程师认为有必要进行修整时,其费用由承包人负责。

(10)桥梁的内外侧轮廓线应顺滑清晰,无突变、明显折变或反复现象。

(11)栏杆、防护栏、灯柱等的线型应顺滑流畅,无折弯现象。

3. 桥梁总体质量

桥梁总体质量应符合表-1的要求。

                          桥梁总体质量要求               表-1

项次

检 查 项 目

规定值或允许偏差

检 查 方 法

1

桥面中心线偏位(mm)

20

用经纬仪检查3~8处

2

桥宽(mm)

车行道

±10

用钢尺量,每孔3~5处

人行道

±10

3

桥长(mm)

+300,-100

用测距仪检查

4

引道中心线与桥梁中心线的衔接(mm)

±20

分别将引道中心线和桥梁中心线延长至两岸桥长端部,比较其平面位置

5

桥头高程衔接(mm)

±3

用水准仪测量

四、桥梁桩基检测

    1. 桥梁的桩基,应随机抽样进行无破损检测。重要部位的桩基,原则上应当逐根检测。在桥梁梁板制作过程中,承包人应配合监理和业主对单片梁板进行荷载试验,以验证梁板的施工质量及承载能力。

    2. 对质量有怀疑的桩,应进行钻芯取样,并作必要的试验。费用计入承包人的工程量清单,以暂定金额计列。经钻取检验后,如砼质量合格,钻取芯样的费用由业主在暂定金额中支付;否则由承包人自行承担。

    3.钻芯取样由业主委托有资质的单位承担。

五、桥梁荷载试验

1. 特大桥、结构复杂的大桥完工以后,承包人应协助和配合业主对桥梁或桥梁的某一部分进行荷载试验,以验证结构物具有足够承受设计荷载的能力。

2. 荷载试验由业主委托有资格的科研或设计单位承担。

3. 桥梁荷载测试项目按图纸规定,一般动载试验包括冲击、自振频率、动挠度、脉动、动应变试验;静载试验包括静挠度及静应变试验。上述项目业主将根据具体情况,选择部分或全部进行试验,必要时可增加其他项目进行试验。

4. 根据试验结果,结构物或结构物的任一部分,如由于施工原因不能满足图纸要求,承包人应进行重建或补强,重建或补强结构物的费用由承包人负责。

 

 

BRIDGES AND CULVERTS

I. SCOPE

l. The works of this chapter consists of the construction of bridges, culverts, aqueduct overbridges and the accessory structures. Provisions of this chapter may also be applied to the construction of passages, drainage, protection and tunnel works.

2. The construction of special structures shall be in accordance with the relevant standards.

 

II. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1. Checking Drawings and Supplementary Survey

Before commencement of works, the Contractor shall carry out the in-situ checking of design documents, drawings and data, make supplementary survey if necessary, and submit the survey results to the Enginner for approval.

2. Site Leveling

The Contractor shall level the construction site in accordance with the requirements, to be approved by the Enginner.

3. Check Survey

Before commencement of works, the Contractor shall carry out the check survey for the bridge centeral point peg,  triangulation network base point pegs,  bench marks and other survey data. If the marks are not enough or do not conform to the requirements, the Contractor shall carry out the supplementary survey according to relevant stipulations in chapter 3 Construction Preparation and Construction Survey of Technical Specification for Highway, Bridges and Culverts Construction (JTJ041-2000), and shall submit the results of check survey and supplementary survey to the Engineer for approval.

The Contractor shall take good care to protect the control marks of bridge center point pegs and bench marks, until the project is completed for acceptance.

4. Preparing Construction Scheme

Before commencement of works, the Contractor shall prepare the construction scheme and the implementary construction organization design according to the drawings and the relevant contract provisions, and submit them to the Engineer for approval.

5. Precasting Yards

The precasting yards shall be selected by the Contractor who shall submit the layout plan of the precasting yard, the leveling plan for the precasting yards and the environmental protection measures to the Engineer for approval. The yard should satisfy the following requirements: the detour to enter the precasting yard is unimpeded, there is enough space for building the cement storehouse, the steel bar stacking yard, the processing and operating yard and the stacking room of the beams. It can guarantee that the stacking of sandy and stone aggregates are standard and in good order, the operation and the drainage in the mixing plant are convenient. A perfect drainage facility of the hole precasting yard also must be ensured. After the work is completed, the equipment and waste shall be cleared of the site, and the site shall be restored to its original state, for the approval by the Engineer.

 6. Drawings

(1) Before construction, the Contractor shall read the drawings with due care, and in case of any doubt, shall report it to the Engineer promptly.

(2) The Contractor shall carry out the construction in accordance with the drawings and the relevant instructions. The shapes, dimensions, lines of the structure shall be in conformity with those specified on the drawings, and deviation shall be controlled within the tolerance set forth in the specifications. When the requirement of the design drawings has not surpassed the new technology and new craft in this specification, the Contractor should accord to the design drawings to carry on the construction strictly, the expense is responsible by the Contractor. The bored piles and digging piles in this project apply an unified comprehensive unit price, the Contractor should make a synthesis quotation to the cylindrical concrete cast-in-situ pile based on their own understanding to the situation and their own construction organization plan.

(3) If there is any discrepancy between the relevant construction instruction of the drawings and the stipulations of the specifications, the drawings shall prevail; if the related  requirements and stipulations are absent in the drawings and the specifications, combining the actual condition, the Engineer shall determine, in consideration of actual conditions and similar works completed home and abroad, what shall be applicable in this project.

7. The Contractor shall execute the works according to the relevant basic national construction procedures, establish a complete quality control system, and carry out self-checking for the construction, and cooperate with the Engineer in acceptance of the work after completion. As to the use of water in bridge construction, a special permit for the use of water shall be went through according to the relative laws and regulations.

8. Safety Measures

(1) Before bridge construction, overall inspection of the construction site, machines and tools, and facilities for safety protection shall be conducted. The construction can proceed only after it is up to safety standard.

(2) The  hand-held electric tools shall conform to the stipulations of Technical Specification for Safety for Management, Use, Check and Maintenance of Hand-Held  Electric Tools(GB 3789-2006), and the protective device shall be installed according to the type of the hand-held electric tools and the safety requirements of  the construction site.

(3) The protective net shall be set up when bridge construction is carried out on different levels or the work is done high above the ground, or there is traffic or pedestrian under the bridge. In addition, the specification of the protective net shall be determined based on the actual situation.

(4) When bridge construction is carried out over a navigable river, the Contractor shall contact the local navigation supervising department before construction, to prepare the safety measures for navigation and execution of works.

(5) A wind-force standard suitable for execution of works shall be determined according to the wind force on the site and the height of works as well as the impact on the work, when the construction is carried out in high open space, or with hoist with cable or rope, and large structural member lifting. When the wind froce is more than grade 6 (incl. grade 6), all construction shall stop.

(6) As to construction of extra large bridges or bridges with complex stucture i.e. bridges over deep water, with long span or with high underspace, special investigation concerning construction safety shall be done,  and corresponding technical measures for safety shall be formulated.

(7) Before commencement of individual items of works, a detailed guide for safety operation according to Technical Specification for Safety in Highway Engineering Construction (JTJ076-95) shall be prepared and made clear to the workers.

(8) During the operation of artificial hole-digging, the pernicious gas detecting instrument should be equiped, in order to carry on a whole course detecting to the gases in the hole.

(9) At the bridge constructionsite, the electric wire, electric cable and so on should be built on stilts or embeded underground. It is prohibited that the electric wire and electric cable are exposed or placed on the ground.

(10) During the bridge construction, the operators of all mechanical devices, for example: the hoister, the bridge girder erection equipment, the gantry crane, the mixer and so on, should hold the certificate after being trained. Simultaneously various operating rules should be established.

(11) When the high bridge pier being constructed, elevator should be provided for the staff to go up and down. It is prohibited to reach the construction spot in high altitudeand by climbing up.

(12) During erection of the bridge beam or slab, some special erecting equipment should be adopted for bridging. Those backward construction methods, such as fishing method, are unsuitable.

(13) In construction, when meeting the high voltage electric wire and electric cable, the original road and other important structures, some special measures like putting up protective shed should be adopted in order to ensure the construction safety.

(14) In this project there are many places where the highway and the railway interfere each other, during construction, the safety and unblocked running of the railway should be guaranteed. The Contractor should be voluntarily coordinated with the Railway Department, and bears all expenses.

 

III. QUALITY INSPECTION

1. Alignment

The completed bridges shall be smooth in alignment, and shall be graceful in appearance. Elevation of all bridge deck, kerbs, railings and guardrails shall conform to requirements on the drawings; the camber, gradient and superelevatlon and widening shall be reasonably streamlined.

2. Appearance

(l) The surfaces of the same structure or the neighboring structures shall be homogeneous and shall be consistent in grain and color. Unless otherwise approved in writing by the Engineer, the Contractor shall use the same type of formwork,  trimming method and the form-release agent. The cement and admixture of the same manufacturer shall be used for the same structure.

(2) Where one structural form is connected with another structural form, a transition section shall be provided at the junction, its grades and the semicircular joints shall be well proportioned and brought into line, to make the structure looks beautiful.

(3) The exposed surface of the structure shall be even, and shall be free from honeycombs, pitting surface, exposed reinforcing bars and cavities. When casting by section, there shall be no staggered steps between the sections.

(4) No honeycombs, pitting surface and cracks may exist on the surface of the waterproofing concrete along the bridge deck pavement, there shall be no cracks at the construction joints.

(5) Expansion facilities shall be of effective expansion and contraction function;no chokes, seepage, loose contact and cracks shall exist at expansion joints.

(6) All expansion facilities shall be installed and kept smooth, straight and neat, no jumpiness will occur when the vehicles pass across them.

(7) Neither leakage nor seepage shall be allowed around the drain pipes; the inlets of drain pipes shall be slightly lower than those of the bridge deck surface.

(8) The dimensions of the precast structure members shall be accurate, the connecting part shall be straight and smooth.

(9) When the Engineer instructs for trimming to improve the appearance,  the consequential cost shall be borne by the Contractor.

(10) The contour line of the inner and outer of bridge shall be smooth and clear, without sudden break, obvious flection or recurrence.

(11) The contour line of railings, guardrail and lamp post shall be smooth, without any bending.

3. Overall Quality of the Bridge

The overall quality of a bridge shall be in accordance with Table-l.

Table -l Overall Quality Requirement for Bridges

No.

Inspection Item

Specified Value or Tolerance(mm)

Inspection Method

1

Deviation of the center line of bridge deck(mm)

20

Check 3 to 8 places with a theodolite

2

Bridge

width

Traffic lane

±10

check 3 to 5 places for each hole with a steel tape

Sidewalk

±10

3

Bridge length(mm)

+300, -100

Check by a rangefinder

4

Connection between the centre line of approach road and the centre line of bridge

±20

To extend the center line of approach road and center line of bridge to the both ends of the bridge on the shore, then compare their plan locations

5

Connection elevations of bridgeheads(mm)

±3

Check with a level

 

401.04 BRIDGE PILE FOUNDATION TESTING

1. The pile foundation of bridge should be checked through non-destructive test. Principly the pile foundation of key positions should be checked one by one. In the manufacturing operation of the bridge beam and slab, the Contractor should cooperate with the Engineer and the Employer to carry on load test to each single beam and slab, so as to test and verify the construction quality and bearing capacity of the beams and slabs.

2. Those piles suspected to have qualified problem shall be core-sampled and tested, the relative expenses shall be included in the Bill of Quantities of the Contractor and listed as the provisional sum. After being core-sampled and tested, if the concrete is qualified, the expense for core-sampling and testing should be paid by the Employer from the provisional sum; otherwise, it should be borne by the Contractor himself.

3. The pile foundation core sampling shall be done by the qualified unit entrusted by the Employer.

 

V. BRIDGE LOADING TESTS

1. After the huge or large bridge with complex structure is completed, the Contractor shall assist in and cooperate with the Employer to carry out the loading tests on the bridge or a certain part of the bridge, to verify that the structure has enough load bearing capacity specified in the design.

2. The Employer shall entrust the qualified design or research agencies to carry out the loading tests.

3. Items for bridge loading test shall be in accordance with the stipulations of the drawings.  In general, the dynamic load tests include:impact test, natural frequency of vibration test, dynamic deviation test, fluctuation test, and dynamic strain test. The static load tests include: static deviation test and static strain test. The Employer may select a part or all of the said items to be tested, and increase other items to be tested if necessary.

4.When the testing results show that the completed structure or any part therein is unable to meet the requirements shown on the drawings due to construction reasons, the Contractor shall reconstruct or strengthen the defective works at his own expense.



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