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汉语量词与英文用法对照
发布时间:2011-8-30 14:06:00||  点击:3431次||  文章分类:翻译学习||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)


汉语量词与英文用法对照(Comparison between Chinese Words of Measurement and Their English Equivalents)

 

  量词是现代汉语11类词中的一种,运用非常普遍,大约有500多个量词。除了表“量”以外,它的一个显著特点就是习惯搭配。即使是华人也有弄错的时候,学中文的外国人更是头疼。所以正确认识量词,准确翻译汉语量词也是很重要的。英语中没有像汉语这样的“量词”分类,但有类似的用法和修辞结构,如quantitive determinatives(量词限定词),portative(量词),quantifiers(量词)。它们之间有相同之处,但更多的是差异。因而,本节以一定的版面来分析其不同结构和用法,不过,更多的还是靠读者自己潜心收集认识,才能掌握如何翻译。

  1、一群
    一群人  a crowd/group/multitude/throng/army/team/class of people;a gang/swarm/horde/pack/band of people(in a derogatory way)
  troop 通常指聚在一起活动的、生气勃勃的一群人。如:
  a troop of demonstrators/shoppers/visitors
  bevy 特指女性的“一群”,有时指鸟类,尤指鹌鹑或云雀。如:
  a bevy of actresses/young women/ladies/shop girls/quails
  表贬义的“一群”有:a mob of angry people/rioters/slaves/liars/blackguards
  horde 原意为游牧部落,通常含有轻蔑色彩:
  a horde of lazy-bones/swindlers/locusts/hooligans
  band;gang 常指“帮”:
    a band of robbers/gangsters/thieves/outlaws
    a gang of criminals/slaves/prisoners
    一群牛、象、马、天鹅 a herd of cattle/elephants/horses/swans
    一群鸟 a flock of birds/geese/hens/goats/swallows/sheep/chickens
    一群猎狗 a pack of hounds/wolves/grouse
    一群狐狸 a skulk of foxes
    一群狮子 a pride of lions
    一群星星 a cluster of stars
    一群鱼 a school/shoal of fish/shrimps
    一群马 a stud/drove of horses
    一群鹅 a gaggle/flock of geese
    一群蚊子/蝴蝶 a swarm of mosquitoes/butterflies
    一群(窝)蚂蚁 a colony of ants/bees
    一群建筑物 a clump/complex of buildings

  2、一丝/点/层/片
    一片草皮 a chunk of turf
    一丝睡意 a wink of sleep
    一丝怀疑 a shadow of doubt
    一点点工作 a stroke of work
    一线未来之光 a glimpse of future
    一缕月光 a streak of moonlight/amber(fig)
    一丝绿意;一片绿色 a tint of green
    一片心意 a small token of our hearts
    一丝嫉妒;一阵窘迫 a slight twinge of jealousy/embarrassment
    一丝恻隐之心 a sign of sympathy for...
    一丝懊悔 a slight twinge of remorse
    一层霜/雪/糖霜 a layer of frost/snow/cream
    一丝失望的眼神 a flicker of disappointment
    (剩下)一口气/一丝气 a spark/breath of life
    一丝失望的情绪 a taint/faint of disappointment
    一片漆黑 completely dark;dismal night;pitch dark
    一片汪洋 a flood of  water

  3、英译“一阵”,颇有学问,且看以下译例
    (突然爆发出的)一阵哭泣/喝彩/炮击/雷声
    a burst of tears/cheers/gunfire/thunder
    (量如洪水的)一阵泪雨/瓢泼大雨/夸夸其谈
    a flood of tears/rain/boasts
  少量或稀疏的
    一阵(小)雨/射击 a spatter of rain/bullets
     一阵稀疏的掌声/喝彩 a spatter of applause/cheers
  声响很大的
       一阵隆隆的炮声/雷声 a peal of artillery/thunder
  突然而猛烈的
    一阵暴雨/狂风/烈火 a gust/blast of rain/wind/flame
  持续短暂的
    一阵怒气/激情/咳嗽 a fit of anger/passion/coughing
    一阵呕吐 a vomiting fit
  持续一段时间的
    一阵厄运/暑热 a spell of bad luck/summer heat
    一阵寒潮 a cold spell of weather
    一阵昏厥 a fainting spell
    (针捻刀刺般的)一阵内疚/牙痛/风湿痛 a twinge of remorse/toothache/rheumatism
    一阵尴尬 a twinge of embarrassment
    (抽搐或颤抖的)一阵痛苦/伤心/咳嗽/激动 a spasm of pain/grief/coughing/excitement
  雹打雨淋般的
    一阵轰炸/打击/咒骂 a hail of bombs/blows/curse
    一阵弹雨/批评 a shower of bullets/criticism
  更多的例子
    一阵欢乐 an agony of joy
    一阵子爱意 a flush of love
    一点点工作 a stroke of work
    一阵心脏病发作 a stroke of heart attack
    一点点满足 a crumb of satisfaction
    一种混乱的政治局面 a chaos of politics

  4、“一阵”为何有这么多不同的译法
  其实原因很简单,汉语“一阵”这个数量词不含修辞色彩,可用于各类描述;而在英语中,“一阵”这个概念则是由许多不同的名词来表述的,而且这些词一般分别具有不同的修辞色彩。如:
    spatter “少量”,“稀疏”之义;
    peal 专指一阵响亮或轰鸣的声音;
    twinge 特指肉体或心灵上的一阵剧烈的刺痛;
    burst 泛指突然爆发出的一阵,有突如其来之感;
    hail 和shower的比喻色彩也很浓,有雹打雨淋之感;
    spell常用于描述天气、疾病等,表持续一阵子;
    flood一词比喻色彩浓厚,给人以量如洪水,滔滔不绝之感;
    gust则专指风、雨、雹、火、烟等的突然而猛烈的一阵。也可用喻感情的猛烈进发;
    fit常指持续时间短暂的一阵——尤指疾病的短暂发作或感情的短暂进发;
    spasm原指痉挛,抽搐,用于动作、感情的一阵突发时,表抽搐或浑身颤抖之感。
  由此可见,英译“一阵”,宜细心推敲,酌情翻译。

  5、其他类似的汉译英所用的修辞性的用法
  a)暗喻Metaphor
    一串香蕉a hand of bananas
    颗颗汗珠beads of sweat
    一长串汽车a string of cars
    很大的朋友圈a large circle of friends
  b)借代Metonymy
    一串珍珠  a rope of pearls
    一炉钢 a heat of steel
    一年三熟  three crops a year
    一大群飞机 a cloud of planes
    林立的烟囱 a forest of chimneys
    一片沙滩 a beach of sands
  c)夸张Hyperbole
    多如牛毛的问题 a sea of troubles
    一大笔钱 a pile of money
    勃然大怒 a wave of anger
    开怀大笑 gales of laughter
    无数次 heaps of times
    小不点 a dot of child
    一小撮敌人 a pinch of enemy
    滔滔不绝的话语 a flood of words

  6、英语常用单位词及汉语对应词(Commonly-used unit nouns and their Chinese equivalents)
    piece块;片;段;项;件;篇;首;幅;张
    a piece of bread/paper/wood/furniture/land/advice/news/meat/cloth/music...
    bit一点;一些;一片 
    a bit of water/wood/grass/trouble...
    item条;则;项
    an item of news/information/business/programme...
    article件;项;条
    an article of furniture/clothing/luggage/export...
    grain粒;颗
    a grain of ricce/wheat/salt/sand...
    drop滴
    a drop of water/oil/rain/blood/dew...
    slice薄片
    a slice of meat/bread/cake/ham...
    cake块
    a cake of soap/mud/ice...
    bar块;条
    a bar of chocolate/candy/soap...
    ear穗
    an ear of corn/rice/wheat/millet...
    loaf块;条
    a loaf of bread...
    lump块;团
    a lump of clay/sugar/earth...
    spiral盘
    a spiral of mosquito incense...
    card板
    a card of buttons
    pack副;盒
    a pack of cards/cigarettes

    fistful(s)一把
    a fistful of sand/rice...
    handful(s)一把
    a handful of soil...
    armful(s)一抱
    an armful of flowers...
    cupful(s)一杯
    four cupfuls of jam...
    mouthful(s)一口
    a mouthful of snow/whys...
    spoonful(s)一汤匙
    a spoonful of sugar...
    spadeful(s)一铲
    a spadeful of coal...
    bagful(s)一袋
    a bagful of letters...

  但an eyeful of…的意思是“对……大饱眼福”

    truckload一货车
    a truckload of apples...
    shipload一船
    a shipload of TV sets...
    lorryload一卡车
    a lorryload of iron...
    fit一阵子
    a fit of coughing/fever/laughter/anger/...
    ray一线
    a ray of hope/intelligence/sunlight…
    peal一阵
    a peal of thunder/laughter/applause...
    flash闪现一下
    a flash of hope/lightening/wit...
    display炫耀一下
    a display of power/courage/force/learning/skill...
    attack一疾病的发作
    an attack of fever/malaria
    group组;群;批
    a group of students...
    team队:组
    a team of experts/footballers/scientists...
    gang帮;伙;群;队;组
    a gang of four/thieves/robbers...
    army大群;队
    an army of beggars/ants/bees...
    troop群;伙
    a troop of soldiers...
    host大群
    a host of friends/heroes...
    pack群;伙
    a pack of liars/thieves/rascals/hounds...
    band帮;伙
    a band of music(players)/brigands...
    choir队;组;群
    a choir of singers...
    bunch串;束;挂;群;帮;伙
    a bunch of bananas/fools/flowers/keys/thieves.
    bouquet束;把
    bouquet of flowers
    string串;挂;节
    a string of beads/pearls/words/thread
    sheaf p1.sheaves捆;束
    a sheaf of wheat/arrows/papers
    crew帮;伙;全体
    a crew of sailors/pilots
    party组;伙;批
    a party of guests/children...
    batch批
    a batch of letters/telegrams/visitors...
    gaggle群
    a gaggle of geese/girls...
    litter一窝
    a litter of kittens/little piglets/puppies...
    herd群
    a herd of elephants/deer/cattle...s
    swarm群
    a swarm of ants/locusts/bees/people/stars...
    cluster串;束;群;组
    a cluster of flowers/grapes/bees/islands/stars...
    a cluster of butterflies/grapes/berries/consonants/houses
    brood窝;群;组
    a brood of chickens/paintings/thieves...
    school群
    a school of whales/dolphins...
    shoal群
    a shoal of fish/whales/people...
    flock群
    a flock of geese/birds/pigeons/ducks/visitors/customers...
    dozen一打
    a dozen(of)pencils/eggs/red roses...
    gross一罗
    a gross of nails/pencils/can openers...
    pile一大堆
    a pile of what-ifs一大堆假定
    mound一大堆
    a mound(mouthful)maybes满嘴的可能
    clump一群
    a clump of islands/buildings
    school流派
    the school of traditional grammar
    train一列
    a train of cars一列火车厢
    pot一锅
    a pot of soup/tea/water...
    fleck片
    a fleck of snow...

  7、 汉英表量的对应名词(Quantity and amount in both languages)
  中英文都有表量的手法,除了常见的平铺直叙的说法,还有一些修辞性说法。如:
    a sea of people/flames/blood/flags/flowers/happy faces 如海般的/如潮一样的人群;火海;血海;旗海;花海;无数幸福的面孔
    an ocean of trouble/time/space/cheering 无穷的麻烦;无休止的时间;浩瀚的宇宙;欢乐的海洋
    a scene of great rejoicing 一片欢腾
    a chorus of protest/praise 一片抗议之声/赞扬之声
    a trove of Chinese porcelain 一批中国磁器
    a grove of coco(a)nut/bamboo 一片椰林/竹林
    a blaze of lights 一片灯火
    a mountain of debts/rubbish/money/dirty clothes 债台高筑/垃圾如山;家财万贯;一大堆脏衣服
    a mass of images/facts/figures/data 大量的图像/事实/数据等
    a rain/storm of tears/ashes/arrows/bullets 嚎啕大哭;尘土蒙蒙;一阵箭雨,一阵弹雨
    a storm of applause/criticism/cheering 一阵暴雨般的掌声;激烈的批评;狂热的欢呼
    a gale of laughter/excitement 阵阵欢笑;一阵激动
    a flood of tears/words/1ight/terror 泪如潮涌;滔滔言辞;一片光明;一片恐惧
    a store of learning/experience 知识渊博;经验丰富
    a wealth of experience/data/troubles/good/goods 经验丰富;丰富数据;问题多多;大有好处;商品丰富
    a surfeit of food/drug dosage过量的食品;过量的药品
    a succession of defeat接二连三的挫败
    a world of goods/food/pleasure/meaning/to do sb a world of good/harm
    a forest of hills/flags/chimneys/hands
  这些表量的手法也可用复数,像lots of,thousands of一样,如seas of,mountains of,stores of,swarms of,thunders of,showers of ,in showers,in stores,in numbers。
    a(great)number of books 许多的书
    numbers of peoples 许多的民族
    a quantity of energy 大量的能量
    quantities of oxidize 大量的氧化酶
    an amount of material 大量的材料
    small amount of water 少量的水
    The amount of energy possessed by a given quantity of radiation depends strictly on its frequency.一定量的辐射所拥有的能量完全基于其频率。
    The total amount of radiation 辐射的总量
    What's the size? 尺码多少?
    What's the linear size of the Galaxy? 银河系的直线长度是多少?
    the linear dimensions 直线尺寸
    all sizes of gloves 各种尺码的手套
    (in)all shapes and sizes 大大小小,各式各样
    (in)life size (如)实物大小
    What are the dimensions of the room? 这房间的长、宽、高各多少?
    the dimensions of the solar system 太阳系的范围
    the dimensions of a building lot 一座建筑物的准确面积
    the magnitude of this angle 这角度的大小
    the value of the balloon 气球的体积
    the value of this correction 修正值
    the extent of a judge’s power/his knowledge 法官的权力范围/他的知识面
    be…in length/width/height/diameter/perimeter/shape/size
    be…in quantity/amount/great numbers/extent/dimension/value

 



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