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Company的含义及用法
发布时间:2011-8-30 15:16:00||  点击:2059次||  文章分类:翻译学习||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)


  【问题】If you can neither receive nor bestow benefit,you had better leave that company at once.一句译成“如果你既不能得到好处,也不能给予好处,你最好马上离开那家公司。”不知对否,又请将company的含义及用法举例说明。
  【解答】问句中的英文句子应译作“如果你交的朋友对你无益,你也不能对他有所帮助,你就得马上离开他。”因为句中的company一字,意为交友而误为公司,所以因一字之差而全文皆错。
  英文的company有下列九种用法:
  (1)一群人(a group of people),例如:
  A great company came to the exhibition.(许多人来看展览会。)
  (2)为某种目的而集合的人(a number of people combined, esp. one with a common purpose),例如:
  The company are now enjoying a feast.(会众正在宴会中。)
  (3)同伴,陪伴(companionship),例如:
  He kept me company.(他陪伴了我。)
  (4)交友(companions),例如:
  A man is known by the company he keeps.(看一个人所交的朋友,就可知道他的好坏。近朱者赤,近墨者黑。)
His father asked him to avoid bad company.(他父亲要他别交损友。)
  (5)宾客,来宾(a number of invited guests),例如:
  We are expecting company next week. (下星期我们要请客。)
  We have company today. (我们今日请客。)
  (6)公司,行号(a business organization),例如:
  We organized a publishing company.(我们组织一家出版公司。)
  (7)(陆军中的)连(the part of an army commanded by a captain),例如:
  This company commanded the passage to the fortress.(这连军队控制住通往要塞的路。)
  (8)全体船员(a ship's crew),例如:
  The ship's company assembled On deck for inspection.(全体船员在甲板上集合,以备检阅。)
   (9)剧团(a party of actors playing together),例如:
  The play Was staged by a theatrical company.(那出戏由一个剧团演出。)
  中国请帖上说的“敬备菲酌,恭候光临”,英译时也用得着company一字,即   request the pleasure of your company at dinner或   request the honour of   ’s company at dinner或简单地说   request the company of   at dinner.
  Company在用作“宾客”解时,前面不加冠词,不问来客有多少人,也不能用复数的companies,只能说:
  We have company at dinner.(请客吃饭。)
  He always has company on Saturday evenings.(他礼拜六晚上总要请客。)
  作“公司”解的company的用法,也有需要注意的地方。把company看作单数或复数都可以,如:
  The cinema company is(或are) holding its(或their) annual meeting.(电影公司正在召开年会。)
  在company(普通略作Co.)的前面,&的有无随便,如Smith和另外的一些人合资经营一个商号,普通叫做Smith & Co.,但也可以叫做The Smith Company。凡有&的,前面不可加the(不可说The Smith & Co.);如没有&,则前面用the或不用the皆可。没有姓的公司名,决不可以用&,即不可以说The Cinema & Co.,只能说The Cinema Company。至于The Smith & Jones Company是可以的,因为&并不在company字前,而是用来联结两个人名的。
  单独一个公司不可说成复数,但几个公司则是要用复数的,如:the“Big Three” vehicle producing companies(三大汽车制造公司),affiliated companies(分公司)。  
  现再就作“友伴”解的company举例说明一下。首先使我想到的是培根(F.Bacon)在谈友谊(On Friendship)一文中说:
A crowd is not company,and faces are but a gallery of pictures…when there is no love.(群众并不等于友伴,要是没有爱的话,那些人的面孔不过是画廊中所见到的肖像画罢了。)
  从前的政治家和现在民主时代的不同,他们那时还不知要捉住群众的心,而加以利用呢。现代的政治家决不会说群众不是友伴的话的。  
  王尔德(Oscar Wilde)说:
  In married life three is company and two none.(在婚姻生活中,没有孩子是寂寞的。)
  王尔德说的这句话是从一句英文Proverb套出来的逆说。那谚语说:
  Two is company,but three is none.(两个和尚抬水吃,三个和尚没水吃。)
  最后请看R.Lynd 在The Shy Father一文中说了什么:
  It is not that l dislike the company of women and children;On the whole,I think讧the best company in the world.But,as Bacon has said,a crowd is not company,and the loneliness of a man entirely surrounded by women and children surpasses even the loneliness of a mail isolated in the middle of the Sahara.(并不是我不喜欢有女人和孩子作伴;大概说起来,我想这是世间最好的友伴。不过培根却说群众并不等于友伴,由女人和孩子完全包围着的男人的孤寂,比独自在撒哈拉沙漠当中的一个男人的孤寂尤有过之。)


          --摘自钱歌川《英文疑难详解续篇》



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