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翻译学习
 
Objective “it”
发布时间:2011-8-30 15:22:00||  点击:1785次||  文章分类:翻译学习||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)


  【问题】“英文要写得好很难,要说得好更难”一句,译成英文It is very difficult to write English well,but it is still more difficult to speak well.据说错了,应在speak后加it一字才对,请就it的宾语用法扼要说明。
  【解答】这也是中英两种语文不同的地方。中文常把及物动词的宾语略去,而英文则非得说出不可。如问句中的英译句,write和speak都是及物动词,write后有English一个宾语,speak后还得再说出宾语来,现为避免重复用English一字,故用代名词it来代替。下列各句同样的用法,值得注意,因为中文的宾语常被略去。
  We would have appreciated it better if you had written to him personally.(如蒙亲笔去函,尤为感激。)句中的it是指“如蒙亲笔去函”,在中文应略,而英文则非要不可。
  When you have received a letter,you must answer it as soon as possible.(接到别人的信,须马上回复。)英文在answer的及物动词后,必须加上代表letter的it字样,否则不通。
  I never rely upon his word,for he never makes a promise with the will to keep it.(我从不信任他说的话,因为他总是轻诺而不履行。)
  They say he has left town,but I do not believe it.(据说他已离开本市,但我不信。)英文在及物动词 believe 后必须加代表 he has left town 的 it 一个宾语不可。
  现就Objective“It”,举例如下:
  The Japanese lorded it over the natives of Taiwan.(=played the lord with;domineered over).(日本人曾欺凌台湾人民。)
  The actress is starring it in the provinces.(=attracting great attention).(那女伶在各地方演出大为卖座。)
  You'll catch it!(=You'll be scolded,punished,etc.)(你将要受到处罚,挨骂。)
  He is too old to rough it.(他年纪太大,过不了这种艰苦生活。)
  He tried to swim it.(他努力想游过去。)
  We must fight it out.(我们必须奋斗到底。)
  Let us make an evening of it.(让我们愉快地过一个晚上。)
  He had the best of it.(他成功了。)
  He had the worst of it.(他失败了。)
  We had nothing for it(=no alternative left)but to rough it out.(=face and overcome any difficulties that might arise).(我们没有别的办法,只好面对事实,克服困难。)
  They are making a jolly life of it.(他们生活得非常愉快。)
  You are in for it.(=You are caught in a critical situation,and can not escape.)(你现陷于困难,不得脱身。)
  It's very near,so you can walk it.(很近,你可以走去。)
  现再就美国两位作家,一新一旧,对it的特别用法,例示如下:
  Bob:I was at the appointed place on time. When you struck the match to light your cigar I saw it was the face of the man wanted in Chicago. Somehow I couldn't do it myself, so I went around and got the plain clothes man to do the job.一0.Henry,After Twenty Years(鲍布君:我准时到达了指定的地点。当你擦燃火柴来点雪茄时,我就看到了那个面孔正是芝加哥警方所要追捕的人。可是我自己不好意思拘捕你,所以我便走开去,而找了一个便衣警察来干这件事。)作者不说arrest you而用do it和do the job来代替,因为前文已经说明白了。
  All he did was keep talking about some babe he was supposed to have had sexual intercourse with.Every time he told it,it was different. One minute he'd be giving it to her in his  cousin's Buick,the next minute he'd be giving it to her under some boardwalk.一J.D.Salinger,The Catcher in the Rye(他只一味继续讲述和他发生过肉体关系的女孩子的事情。每次他说的时候,都有所不同。有时他是在从他表哥处借来的汽车里和她干那回事,有时他又在海滨木板铺成的步道底下来干。)

          --摘自钱歌川《英文疑难详解续篇》



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