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oneself 的六种用法
发布时间:2011-8-30 15:22:00||  点击:1987次||  文章分类:翻译学习||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)


  【问题】“王先生和我本人都要到会的”一句,译成英文 Mr.Wong and myself will be present,为何不对?请将 myself 的用法详为说明。
  【解答】在古代英语中,曾经以 me,him,them 等单纯代名词,当作 myself,himself,themselves 来用,使之具有反身的意味(Reflexive Meaning),如 Shakespeare 说的 I have writ me here a letter.(我在此写了一封信。)及 Byron 说的 To their salutations he bends him slightly.(对于他们的敬礼,他略微弯身回答。)反过来具有 -self 的字,却用于没有反身的意思(non- reflexively)了,如 I am inviting yourself and your wife.(我要招待你和你的太太。)所以问句中翻译的英文句子,在古代是通的,但现代英语却不许这样说了,必须改为:
  Mr.Wong and I will be present.
才可以。同样They invited my wife and myself.句中末字也要改为me才合乎现代英语的语法。
  现在且说这种 -self 代名词的正当的用法又是怎样的。
  (1)用作及物动词的宾语,句中主语和宾语为同一人或同一物时:
  The child has burnt itself.(那孩子烫了自己。)
  Jesus called himself the Son of God.(耶稣叫他自己为上帝之子。)
  Don't excuse yourself.(不必道歉。)
  (2)“及物动词+反身代名词=不及物动词。时:
  I seated myself(=sat down)beside him.(我在他旁边坐下了。
  Don't overeat yourself.(勿过食。)
  I have enjoyed myself very much.(我玩得很愉快。)
  (3)成为介词的宾语时:
  You must take good care of yourself.(你必须善自珍摄。)
  The door opened of itself.(门自开了。)
  He always lives by himself.(他总是独居。)
  You must do that for yourself.(你得自己做。)
  He looked at himself in the mirror.(他对镜自照。)
  Our captors left us to ourselves.(俘虏我们的人让我们自由行动,不加管束。)
  (4)用于主语、宾语、补语的同格,以加强其意义,不加时意思也一样。
  The matter itself is very clear.(事情本身很明白。)
  He wrote the letter himself.(他亲笔写的信。)
  Napoleon himself could not do it.(拿破化本人也不能做到。)
  Even the very gods themselves weep over the slavery of wisdom to folly. -Carlyle(见到贤人为愚人所酷使,鬼神也为之哭泣。)
  The old gentleman is hospitality itself.(那老人客气极了。)
  (5)用于避免发生误会时:
She asked for a ticket for herself.(她为她自己买了一张票。)如用for her 则可能是指别人。
  (6)在比较时,用有than,like,so,as时:
  She is much taller than myself.(她比我高得多。)
  The photo is not in the least like myself.(那照片一点也不象我。)
  They are quite as well educated as myself.(他们和我一样受过高深的教育。)
  比较:(a)He himself did it.
     (b)He did it himself.
  (a)近乎文言,(b)为口语;(a)有点装腔作势,(b)有点回想(afterthought)意味,这是根据Jespersen说的。

          --摘自钱歌川《英文疑难详解续篇》



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