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国务院关于加强和完善文物工作的通知
发布时间:2011-8-30 21:12:00||  点击:1996次||  文章分类:翻译案例||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)


国务院关于加强和完善文物工作的通知(1997年3月30日)

Circular of the State Council Concerning the Strengthening and Improvement of the Work Related to Cultural Relics(March 30, 1997)

我国是有着悠久历史和灿烂文化的文明古国,拥有极为丰厚的历史文化遗产。

Ours is a country with a long history, splendid culture and ancient civilization and has an extremely rich historical and cultural heritage.

保护和利用好祖国珍贵文物,是我们义不容辞的责任和义务。

It is our unshakable responsibility and obligation to protect and make good use of the rare and precious cultural relics of the motherland.

当前,在发展社会主义市场经济条件下,文物工作面临许多新情况和新问题,较为突出的是:

At present, under the conditions of developing the socialist market economy, the work related to cultural relics faces many new situations and new problems, among them the more outstanding ones are as follows:

造成文物损失的法人违法案件有所增加.

there has been an increase in law-breaking cases by legal entities causing losses of cultural relics;

盗掘古墓葬、盗窃馆藏文物、走私文物等犯罪活动和文物非法交易活动屡禁不止;

repeated occurrences of such criminal activities as pirate excavations of ancient burial sites, robbery and pilferage from collections of cultural relics in museums and art galleries and smuggling of cultural relics and illegal transactions of cultural relics despite prohibitions;

一些地方文物保护工作得不到应有的重视和支持,影响了文物事业的正常发展。

no due importance and support have been given to the work of protection of cultural relics in a number of localities which has adversely affected the normal development of the undertakings of cultural relics.

因此,必须以党的十四届六中全会精神为指导,继续坚持“保护为主,抢救第一”的方针,贯彻“有效保护,合理利用,加强管理”的原则;

Therefore, the spirit of the Sixth Plenary Session of the Fourteenth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China must be taken as the guidance, the policy of "putting protection and rescue first” must continue to be adhered to, the principle of "effective protection, rational utilization and enhanced control" shall be implemented.

正确处理好文物保护与经济建设的关系、文物事业发展中社会效益和经济效益的关系,建立与社会主义市场经济体制相适应的文物保护体制。

the relations between the protection of cultural relics and economic construction and the relations between social benefits and economic benefits in the development of the undertakings of cultural relics should be handled correctly, and the structure for the protection of cultural relics commensurate with the socialist market economic system should be built.

现就有关问题通知如下;

The related questions are hereby notified as follows:

一、建立与社会主义市场经济体制相适应的文物保护体制

I.Building the Structure for the Protection of Cultural Relics Commensurate with the Socialist Market Economic System

努力建立适应社会主义市场经济体制要求、遵循文物工作自身规律、国家保护为主并动员全社会参与的文物保护体制。

Efforts should be made to the building of the structure for the protection of cultural relics commensurate with the requirements of the socialist market economic system, observing the inherent laws of the work related to cultural relics, and putting state protection first and mobilizing the whole society to participate.

各地方、各有关部门应把文物保护纳入当地经济和社会发展计划,纳入城乡建设规划,纳入财政预算、纳入体制改革,纳入各级领导责任制。

All localities and departments concerned should integrate the protection of cultural relics into local socio-economic development plans, urban and rural construction plans, financial budgets, structural reform and the leadership responsibility system at all levels.

财政预算中安排的文物保护经费应逐年有所增加,同时要制定相应的政策鼓励、引导并广泛吸收有关部门和企事业单位及个人参与文物保护事业。

There should be an increase year by year in expenditures for the protection of cultural relics in the financial budgets and in the meantime corresponding policy incentives should be worked out to guide and extensively draw the departments concerned, enterprises and institutions as well as individuals into undertakings for the protection of cultural relics.

国家文物行政管理部门要加强对全国文物工作的宏观管理,搞好全国文物事业发展的总体规划,根据工作需要对现行的法律法规加以补充完善,逐步健全我国文物保护的法律体系。

The department of administration of cultural relics of the State should step up the macro control over the work related to cultural relics throughout the country, work out a sound overall plan for the development of the undertakings of cultural relics nationwide, supplement and perfect the existing laws and regulations in the light of the work requirements and build step by step a sound legal system for the protection of cultural relics in China.

地方各级人民政府要健全、完善所辖地区的文物保护管理制度,加强文物行政管理部门的力量。

People’s Governments at all levels must perfect the rules for the administration of the protection of cultural relics in areas under their respective jurisdiction and build up the strength of the departments of administration of cultural relics.

有关职能部门要进一步明确职责,在政府统一领导下互相配合、共同搞好文物保护工作。

The functional departments concerned should further clearly define their respective responsibilities, coordinate with one another and jointly do a good job of the protection of cultural relics under the unified leadership of the government.

要发动、组织人民群众参与文物保护工作,根据实际需要建立群众性的文物保护组织,明确责任和权利;尽快改变许多文物实际处于无人保护的状况。

The masses should be motivated and organized to participate in the work of the protection of cultural relics and mass organizations for the protection of cultural relics set up in accordance with actual requirements and responsibilities and rights should be clearly defined so as to effect a change in the situation under which many cultural relics have been in an actual state of no protection.

二、正确处理文物保护与经济建设以及人民群众切身利益的关系,切实做好文物的抢救与保护工作。

II.Correct Handling of Relations between the Protection of Cultural Relics and Economic Construction as well as the Practical Interests of the Masses and Earnestly Doing a Good Job in the Rescue and Protection of Cultural Relics

地方各级人民政府和有关部门要本着既有利于文物保护,又有利于经济建设和提高人民群众生活水平的原则,妥善处理文物保护与经济建设以及人民群众切身利益的一些局部性矛盾,把古文化遗址特别是大型遗址的保护纳入当地城乡建设和土地利用规划;

Local People’s Governments at all levels and the departments concerned should, in accordance with the principle of being conducive to both the protection of cultural relics, economic construction and the improvement in the living standards of the people, satisfactorily handle a number of local contradictions between the protection of cultural relics and economic construction as well as the practical interests of the masses and integrate the protection of ancient cultural sites especially the large sites into local urban and rural construction plans and land utilization plans;

充分考虑遗址所在地群众的切身利益,采取调整产业结构、改变土地民途等措施,努力扶持既有利于遗址保护又能提高当地群众生活水平的产业,从根本上改变古文化遗址保护的被动局面;

full account should be taken of the practical interests of the masses of the localities wherein the sites are located, measures are taken to adjust the industrial structures and change the uses of the land and efforts are exerted to support the industries which are both instrumental to the protection of the sites and to the improvement in the living standards of the local masses so as to fundamentally change the passive situation in the protection of ancient cultural sites;

尽量减轻由于保护遗址给当地群众生产、生活造成的负担,必要时采取适当方式给予补偿。

burden caused by the protection of ancient sites to the production and life of the local masses should be reduced to the extent possible and compensation should be made in suitable ways when necessary.

考古发掘坚持以配合基本建设为主,特别要配合做好大型基本建设项目的考古勘探、调查、发掘工作。

Archaeological excavations should adhere to the principle of putting coordination with capital construction first and in particular coordinate with large-size capital construction projects in doing a good job in archaeological explorations, investigations and excavations.

为科学研究而进行的考古发掘,要充分考虑保护工作的需要,加强统一管理,严格审批制度。

Full consideration has to be given to the requirements for protection in archaeological excavations for purposes of scientific research, unified control should be stepped up with strict rules for examination and approval.

目前,由于文物保护方面的科学技术、手段等条件尚不具备,对大型帝王陵寝暂不进行主动发掘。

At present, no active excavations of large-size emperors’ tombs shall be carried out as there are lack of the required conditions for the protection of cultural relics in science, technology and other means.

今后,凡在文物保护单位和已普查登记的文物古迹点保护范围及建设控制地带内,基本建设项目的立项要事前征求文物行政管理部门的意见,由文物行政管理部门参与建设项目选址等有关文物保护设计方案的审批;

In the future, record filing of capital construction projects within the areas of protection units of cultural relics and ancient sites of cultural relics already registered after general survey for protection and in controlled construction belts has to seek the views of the departments of administration of cultural relics which shall take part in the examination and approval of the proposals of design for the protection of cultural relics such as site selection of the construction projects;

文物保护和考古调查、勘探、发掘经费,要列入建设工程投资预算。

expenditures for the protection of cultural relics, archaeological investigations, explorations and excavations should be included in the investment budget of construction projects.

因土地使用权出让和开发进行的地下文物的勘探发掘,所需经费由投资者承担,其区域内遗存的文物归国家所有。

The required expenses for the explorations and excavations of underground cultural relics due to transfer of land use rights and land development shall be borne by the investors, and the cultural relics remaining in the areas shall be owned by the State.

对已公布为全国重点文物保护单位和省级文物保护单位的大型古文化遗址、古墓葬群、古石窟寺、古建筑群、近现代纪念建筑等,可根据需要分别制定保护管理的专项法规或规章。

Special-purpose rules and regulations for protection and control can be formulated separately in the light of requirements with respect to such gazetted major national protected units of cultural relics and provincial-level protected units of cultural relics as large-size ancient cultural sites, clusters of ancient tombs and burial places, ancient grottoes and monasteries, clusters of ancient architecture and contemporary and modern memorial structures.

必须加强对濒临毁灭的重要文物古迹和馆藏珍贵文物的抢救维修与保护。

Measures must be taken to step up rescue, maintenance and protection of important ancient sites of cultural relics and rare and precious collections of cultural relics in museums and art galleries on the verge of destruction.

要统筹规划、集中资金、保证重点、讲究效益,切实抓好“九五”计划期间的文物维修工作。

The maintenance and repair work of cultural relics must be done well in real earnest during the "Ninth Five-year Plan” period with overall planning, concentration of funds, guarantee for major sites and efficiency.

应把控制和减轻自然力对文物的损害作为重要课题,确定一批重点项目,组织联合攻关,充分运用现代科学技术和挖掘传统技术保护文物。

The control and lessening of damage to cultural relics by natural forces should be taken up as an important subject, a number of key projects should be chosen for joint tackling, and modern science and technology shall be fully utilized and traditional techniques tapped into for the protection of cultural relics.

保护好历史文化名城是所在地人民政府及文物、城建规划等有关部门的共同责任。

Good protection of noted historical and cultural cities are the joint responsibilities of local People’s Governments and the departments of cultural relics and urban construction planning.

在历史文化名城城市建设中,特别是在城市的更新改造和房地产开发中,城建规划部门要充分发挥作用,加强城市规划管理,抢救和保护一批具有传统风貌的历史街区,同时加强对文物古迹特别是名城标志性建筑及周围环境的保护。

The departments of urban construction planning should fully play their part, strengthen urban planning management, rescue and protect a number of historical neighborhoods with traditional styles and step up the protection of ancient sites of cultural relics especially the landmark constructions and their surrounding areas in well-known cities in the urban construction of noted historical and cultural cities especially in the renewal and transformation and real estate development of the cities.

关于历史上曾经是宗教活动场所的古建筑重新恢复宗教活动问题,必须按党中央、国务院的有关文件规定执行。

With respect to the question of resumption of religious activities in ancient architectures which were once sites of religious activities in history, provisions laid down in the relevant documents of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council must be observed.

现由文化、文物及其他非宗教部门管理的寺观教堂等古建筑,不得设置功德箱、收取布施及从事宗教活动,更不得从事迷信活动。

Such ancient architectures as temples, monasteries and churches presently managed by the departments of culture and cultural relics and other non-religious departments must not install boxes for charitable and pious deeds, collect alms and engage in religious activities, let alone superstitious activities.

三、充分发挥文物作用,为社会主义精神文明建设服务

III.Bringing into Full Play the Role of Cultural Relics in the Service of Building of Socialist Spiritual Civilization

要在有效保护、加强管理的前提下,充分发挥文物的社会教育作用、历史借鉴作用和科学研究作用。

The role of cultural relics in social education, historical reference and scientific research must be brought into full play under the prerequisite of effective protection and stepped-up management.

文物的利用必须服从和服务于社会主义精神文明建设的需要,坚持把社会效益放在首位,努力实现社会效益和经济效益的统一。

Exploitation of cultural relics must be subordinated to and serve the requirements of the building of socialist spiritual civilization, persist in putting social benefits first and strive for the realization of unification of social benefits and economic benefits.

要为公益性文物、博物馆事业单位创造有利于把社会效益放在首位的环境和条件,在资金上给予必要保证,在文化经济政策上给予支持。

Environment and conditions instrumental to putting social benefits first should be created for non-profit institutions and units of cultural relics and museums, necessary guarantee is given in funds and support provided in cultural and economic policies.

地方各级人民政府特别是文物比较集中地方的人民政府,在把文物作为地方优势加以利用的同时,要防止因单纯追求经济利益而损害文物的做法。

Local People’s Governments at all levels and in particular those People’s Governments of the localities where there are concentration of cultural relics must guard against the practices of seeking pure economic interests to the damage of cultural relics while exploiting the cultural relics as a local advantage.

重大的文物利用项目要事前进行充分的科学论证,严格履行审批手续,避免对文物的破坏性利用。

Major projects of exploitation of cultural relics must go through adequate scientific authentication in advance and strict formalities of examination and approval to avoid destructive exploitation of cultural relics.

各级各类文物、博物馆单位组织的陈列展览和导游讲解活动,要坚持弘扬爱国主义、社会主义和革命传统,发挥自身优势,有计划、有重点地推出优秀文物陈列展览及文物图书和文物影视音像制品。

While organizing display, exhibitions and guided tour briefings, units of cultural relics and museums of all types and at all levels must persist in carrying forward the patriotic, socialist and revolutionary traditions, making full use of one’s own advantages, and introducing displays and exhibitions of fine cultural relics, books on cultural relics and audiovisual products on cultural relics in a planned way and with focuses.

要进一步加强近现代文物特别是革命文物的保护和利用,努力做好革命文物的普查、征集、保护、研究和展示工作。

Protection and utilization of contemporary and modern cultural relics and especially revolutionary cultural relics should be further stepped up and efforts are made to do a good job in the general survey, collection, protection, research and display of revolutionary cultural relics.

要确定一批有重大影响的革命博物馆、纪念馆(地),由各级人民政府给予必要的经费支持,逐步建成基础设施完备的爱国主义教育基地。

A number of museums and memorial halls (sites) of revolution with great influence should be determined and necessary support in funds granted by the People’s Governments at all levels to build them step by step into bases of patriotic education with complete infrastructure.

国家和各省、自治区、直辖市文物行政管理部门应分别确定并建设好一批重点博物馆。

The departments of administration of cultural relics of the State and all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government should respectively determine and build a number of major museums.

对文物系统之外的部门、企事业单位或个人兴办的博物馆,文物行政管理部门要制定相应的规章制度,给予必要的指导和监督。

For museums run by departments, enterprises, institutions or individuals outside the system of cultural relics, the departments of cultural relics should formulate corresponding rules and regulations and provide necessary guidance and supervision.

文物收藏单位要加强文物特别是珍贵文物的征集,进一步充实馆藏,搞好收藏单位之间的藏品调剂和交换。

Collection units of cultural relics should step up the collection of cultural relics especially rare and precious cultural relics, further enrich the collections and conduct adjustments and exchanges among the collection units.

对不具备安全条件的收藏单位所收藏的珍贵文物,上级文物行政管理部门有权将其调运到指定单位保管。

The higher departments of administration of cultural relics have the power to ship the rare and precious cultural relics collected by the collection units with no safety conditions to designated units for safekeeping.

考古发掘单位的发掘项目结束后,要在3年内完成资料整理和考古发掘报告编写一工作。

Information processing and compilation of report on archaeological excavations should be completed within three years upon completion of the excavation projects of the archaeological excavation units.

发掘出土的文物,除少量经国家或省、自治区、直辖市文物行政管理部门批准可作为标本留存外,要及时移交指定的博物馆。

The excavated cultural relics, with the exception of a few items which can be kept as specimens with the approval of the departments of administration of cultural relics of the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government, must be handed over to designated museums on time.

各省、自治区、直辖市文物行政管理部门要尽快编制所辖地区国有馆藏文物目录。

The departments of administration of cultural relics of the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government should compile catalogs of state-owned collections of regions under their respective jurisdictions as quickly as possible.

在此基础上,国家文物行政管理部门要编制全国国有馆藏文物总目录。

On this basis, the department of administration of cultural relics of the State should compile general catalogs of the state-owned collections of cultural relics nationwide.

要充分利用我国的文物优势,开展同境外有关方面的交流与合作,广泛争取国际组织、友好国家政府及团体、海外华人、港澳台同胞对我文物保护事业的资助和支持。

Full use should be made of China’s advantages in cultural relics to conduct exchanges and cooperation with the parties concerned abroad and win extensive donations and support from international organizations, governments and societies of friendly countries, overseas Chinese and compatriots of Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan for the protection of cultural relics in this country.

开展对外文物合作与交流活动,必须维护国家权益、保证文物安全、严格审批程序,要统筹规划、统一管理,所得资金要用于发展我国文物事业。

The rights and interests of the country must be safeguarded, safety of the cultural relics ensured, procedures for examination and approval strictly followed in carrying out cooperative and exchange activities in cultural relics with foreign countries under overall planning and unified control, and the funds raised should be used for the development of the cause of cultural relics in China.

四、加强和改善文物市场的管理

IV. Enhancement and Improvement of Cultural Relics Market Control

进入市场流通的文物是一种特殊商品,有关部门要密切配合,进一步加强和改善文物市场管理,加强调控和监督,保障文物市场的健康发展。

Cultural relics in market circulation are special commodities.The departments concerned should coordinate with one another in further enhancing and improving cultural relics market control, stepping up regulation, control and supervision and ensuring the healthy development of the cultural relics market.

从事文物收购、销售业务的经营单位,必须按照国家有关规定严格履行审批手续并在核准的范围内经营;

Operational units engaging in procurement and distribution of cultural units must go through formalities of strict examination and approval in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State and engage in operations within the approved scope.

未经批准的任何单位和个人都不得经营文物。

No unit or individual shall engage in business operations in cultural relics without approval.

工商行政管理部门要会同文物、公安部门坚决取缔非法经营文物的活动。

The departments of industry and commerce administration should, in conjunction with the departments of administration of cultural relics and public security, firmly ban illegal operational activities in cultural relics.

对经批准的旧货市场,工商、文物和内贸行政管理部门要联合实行监管;

The departments of administration of industry and commerce, cultural relics and domestic trade should exercise joint supervision and control over the approved second-hand goods markets.

各地海关要加强对文物出入境的监管工作,防止珍贵文物流失。

Customs of all localities should step up supervision and control over exit and entry cultural relics and guard against losses of rare and precious cultural relics.

要依法规范文物拍卖市场。

Cultural relics auction markets must be standardized in accordance with law.

国家和省、自治区、直辖市文物行政管理部门及其文物鉴定机构,要加强对文物拍卖标的的鉴定和许可审批工作。

The departments of administration of cultural relics of the State, provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government and the cultural relics appraisal organs under them should strengthen the work of examination and approval of appraisals and permits for cultural relics auction subject matters.

法律法规禁止买卖的文物不得作为拍卖标的进入拍卖市场。

Cultural relics the buying and selling of which are prohibited by laws and regulations must not enter the auction markets as auction subject matters.

流传在社会的具有特别重要历史、科学、艺术价值的文物(包括文物的特殊品种)应在一定范围内定向拍卖。

Cultural relics circulating in society and having extraordinarily important historical, scientific and artistic values (including special varieties of cultural relics) should be directionally auctioned within a certain scope.

国家对公民出售个人所有的传世珍贵文物有优先购买权。

The State has priority purchasing right over rare and precious cultural relics handed down from generations and owned by individuals which are put on sale by citizens.

五、强化执法力度,严厉打击文物犯罪活动

V. Intensification of Efforts in Law Enforcement and Stern Crackdown on Criminal Activities Related to Cultural Relics

要在广泛、深入、持久地宣传有关文物保护的法律法规的同时,强化执法力度,着力抓好对法人违法案件的处理,追究当事人和责任人的行政或法律责任。

Efforts should be intensified in law enforcement while conducting extensive, in-depth and lasting publicity of laws and regulations related to the protection of cultural relics and exertions made to the proper handling of corporate law-breaking cases, and investigation of administrative and legal liabilities of the parties and responsible persons.

公安、内贸、工商、海关、文物等有关部门要加强协作,形成合力,严厉打击盗掘、盗窃和走私文物等犯罪活动。

The departments of public security, domestic trade, industry and commerce, customs and cultural relics should step up coordination to form a cohesive force and launch a stern crackdown on criminal activities involving pirate excavations, robberies, pilferage and smuggling of cultural relics.

公安机关应在重点文物收藏单位和文物犯罪多发地区加强防范,必要时可设立专门的公安派出机构。

Public security organs should step up precautions in key collection units of cultural relics and areas of frequent occurrences of cultural relics-related crimes and set up special-purpose public security outposts when necessary.

文物部门要建立健全文物保护责任制,配合公安机关打击文物犯罪活动,支持和鼓励文物管理人员与违法犯罪行为进行斗争。

The departments of cultural relics should establish sound responsibility system for the protection of cultural relics, cooperate with public security organs in crackdown on cultural relics-related criminal activities, and support and encourage caretakers of cultural relics in the fight against illegal criminal acts.

六、加强队伍建设,提高文物管理工作的水平

VI. Strengthening of the Buildup of the Ranks and Upgrading of the Management Level of Cultural Relics

做好文物工作,必须建设一支政治强、业务精、作风正的文物工作队伍。

To do the cultural relics-related work well, a workforce of cultural relics which is politically strong, professionally proficient and correct in style must be built up.

”各有关部门和单位要高度重视队伍的思想建设,教育和要求广大干部坚持正确的政治方向,认真学习马列主义、毛泽东思想特别是邓小平建设有中国特色社会主义理论,树立全心全意为人民服务的思想和高尚的职业道德,自觉遵纪守法。

All departments and units concerned must attach great importance to the ideological building of the workforce, educate and require numerous cadres to adhere to correct political orientation, conscientiously study Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and especially Deng Xiaoping’s theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, adopt the idea of serving the people whole-heartedly and noble professional ethics and consciously abide by discipline and law.

同时,要组织广大干部努力学习和掌握有关方针政策、法律法规和专业知识,不断提高业务工作水平。

In the meantime, numerous cadres should be organized to study hard and master relevant policies, laws and regulations and professional knowledge and constantly raise professional levels.

要进一步加强有关专业技术人才的培养,采取“馆校结合”、师承制等方式,切实解决文物保护技术、文物鉴定、文物修复、古建筑维修等人才短缺的问题。

Training of technical personnel of relevant specialties should be further stepped up by adopting the ways of "combination of the museum with the school" and master-apprentice system, and earnestly resolve the question of shortage of qualified personnel in the protection techniques of cultural relics, appraisal of cultural relics, repair and restoration of cultural relics and maintenance of ancient architecture.

加强对文物保护传统技艺的整理、挖掘,注重发挥文物和博物馆界老专家、老技工的作用。

Step up the sorting out and tapping of traditional techniques for the protection of cultural relics and lay stress on the role of veteran specialists and senior technicians in the circles of cultural relics and museums.

应有计划地增加对外技术交流,选派优秀中青年科技人员到国外学习先进的文物保护科学技术。

Technical exchanges with foreign countries should be promoted in a planned way and best young and middle-aged scientific and technical personnel should be selected to study advanced science and technology for the protection of cultural relics abroad.

同时,注重培养兼通行政管理、经营管理、现代科技等知识的复合型人才,逐步提高文物部门专业人员的比例。

In the meantime, lay stress on the training of multi-talented personnel with concurrent mastery of knowledge of administration, operational management and modern science and technology, and increase step by step the percentage of specialized personnel in departments of cultural relics.

要通过各种方式加强对现有文物行政管理人员的培训,促进管理工作的科学化、规范化。

Training of active-duty administrators of cultural relics should be stepped up in various ways to promote scientific and standardized management.




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