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中华人民共和国水法
发布时间:2011-8-30 22:11:00||  点击:1892次||  文章分类:翻译案例||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)


中华人民共和国水法

Water Law of the People's Republic of China

第一章 总  则

CHAPTER I GENERAL PROVISIONS

  第一条 为合理开发利用和保护水资源,防治水害,充分发挥水资源的综合效益,适应国民经济发展和人民生活的需要,制定本法。

Article 1. This Law is formulated for the rational development and utilization of water resources and the protection of such resources, for the prevention and control of water disasters, and for the full derivation of comprehensive benefits from water resources in order to meet the needs in national economic development and in the livelihood of the people.

  第二条 本法所称水资源,是指地表水和地下水。在中华人民共和国领域内开发、利用、保护、管理水资源,防治水害,必须遵守本法。

Article 2. The " water resources " referred to in this Law includes surface water and groundwater. This Law must be observed in the development, utilization, protection and management of water resources and in the prevention and control of water disasters within the territory of the People's Republic of China.

  海水的开发、利用、保护和管理,另行规定。

Provisions for the development, utilization, protection and management of sea water shall be stipulated separately.

  第三条 水资源属于国家所有,即全民所有。

Article 3. Water resources shall be owned by the state, that is, by the whole people.

  农业集体经济组织所有的水塘、水库中的水,属于集体所有。

The waters of ponds and reservoirs belonging to agricultural collective economic organizations shall be owned by the collectives.

  国家保护依法开发利用水资源的单位和个人的合法权益。

The state shall protect the lawful rights and interests of units and individuals engaged in the development and utilization of water resources in accordance with law.

  第四条 国家鼓励和支持开发利用水资源和防治水害的各项事业。

Article 4. The state shall encourage and support various undertakings for the development and utilization of water resources and for the prevention and control of water disasters.

  开发利用水资源和防治水害,应当全面规划、统筹兼顾、综合利用、讲求效益,发挥水资源的多种功能。

The development and utilization of water resources and the prevention and control of water disasters shall be carried out by comprehensive planning with all factors taken into consideration, and with emphasis on multipurpose use and on achieving maximum benefits so as to give full play to the multiple functions of water resources.

  第五条 国家保护水资源,采取有效措施,保护自然植被,种树种草,涵养水源,防治水土流失,改善生态环境。

Article 5. The state shall protect water resources and adopt effective measures to preserve natural flora, plant trees and grow grass, conserve water sources, prevent and control soil erosion and improve the ecological environment.

  第六条 各单位应当加强水污染防治工作,保护和改善水质。

Article 6. All units shall strengthen the prevention and control of water pollution so as to protect and improve water quality.

各级人民政府应当依照水污染防治法的规定,加强对水污染防治的监督管理。

People's governments at various levels shall, in accordance with the provisions of the Law on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution, strengthen supervision over, and management of, the prevention and control of water pollution.

  第七条 国家实行计划用水,厉行节约用水。

Article 7. The state shall carry out planning and require strict economy in the use of water.

  各级人民政府应当加强对节约用水的管理。各单位应当采用节约用水的先进技术,降低水的消耗量,提高水的重复利用率。

People's governments at various levels shall strengthen the management of the economical use of water. All units shall adopt advanced technology for the economical use of water, reduce water consumption and raise the frequency of the reuse of water.

  第八条 在开发、利用、保护、管理水资源,防治水害,节约用水和进行有关的科学技术研究等方面成绩显著的单位和个人,由各级人民政府给予奖励。

Article 8. Units and individuals that have made outstanding achievements in the development, utilization, protection and management of water resources, in the prevention and control of water disasters, in the economical use of water and in related scientific and technological research shall be awarded by the people's governments at the corresponding level.

  第九条 国家对水资源实行统一管理与分级,分部门管理相结合的制度。

Article 9. The state shall, with respect to water resources, adopt a system which combines unified administration with administration at various levels and by various departments.

  国务院水行政主管部门负责全国水资源的统一管理工作。

The department of water administration under the State Council shall be in charge of the unified administration of water resources throughout the country.

  国务院其他有关部门按照国务院规定的职责分工,协同国务院水行政主管部门,负责有关的水资源管理工作。

Other relevant departments under the State Council shall, in accordance with the duties assigned to them by the State Council, be in charge of the administration of water resources related to them in coordination with the department of water administration under the State Council.

  县级以上地方人民政府水行政主管部门和其他有关部门,按照同级人民政府规定的职责分工,负责有关的水资源管理工作。

The departments of water administration and other relevant departments of the local people's governments at or above the county level shall be in charge of the administration of water resources related to them in accordance with the duties assigned to them by the people's governments at the corresponding level.

第二章 开发利用

CHAPTER II DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION

  第十条 开发利用水资源必须进行综合科学考察和调查评价。

Article 10. In order to develop and utilize water resources, a comprehensive scientific survey and an investigation and assessment must be undertaken.

全国水资源的综合科学考察和调查评价,由国务院水行政主管部门会同有关部门统一进行。

The comprehensive scientific survey and the investigation and assessment of water resources throughout the country shall be carried out by the department of water administration under the State Council jointly with other departments concerned.

  第十一条 开发利用水资源和防治水害,应当按流域或者区域进行统一规划。规划分为综合规划和专业规划。

Article 11. The development and utilization of water resources as well as the prevention and control of water disasters shall be planned in a unified way on the basis of river basins or regions. The plans are divided into comprehensive plans and special plans.

  国家确定的重要江河的流域综合规划,由国务院水行政主管部门会同有关部门和有关省、 自治区、直辖市人民政府编制,报国务院批准。

Comprehensive plans for major river basins designated by the state shall be formulated by the department of water administration under the State Council jointly with the relevant departments and with the people's governments of the relevant provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities directly under the Central Government, and shall be submitted to the State Council for approval.

其他江河的流域或者 区域的综合规划,由县级以上地方人民政府水行政主管部门会同有关地区编制,报同级人民政府批准,并报上一级水行政主管部门备案。

Comprehensive plans for other river basins or regions shall be formulated by the departments of water administration of local people's governments at or above the county level jointly with the relevant departments and local authorities, and shall be submitted to the people's governments at the corresponding level for approval and to the departments of water administration at the next higher level for the record.

综合规划应当与国土规划相 协调,兼顾各地区、各行业的需要。

Comprehensive plans shall be coordinated with the National Land Plan and take into consideration the needs in various regions and trades.

  防洪, 治涝、灌溉、航运、城市和工业供水、水力发电、竹木流放、渔业、水质保护、水文测验、地下水普查勘探和动态监测等专业规划,由县级以上人民政府有关主管部门编制,报同级人民政府批准。

Special plans for the prevention of floods, the control of water-logging, irrigation, navigation, urban and industrial water supply, hydro-electric power generation, bamboo or log rafting, fishery, water quality protection, hydrologic surveys, the general prospecting and dynamic monitoring of groundwater, etc., shall be formulated respectively by the competent departments of the people's governments at or above the county level and shall be submitted to the people's governments at the corresponding level for approval.

  经批准的规划是开发利用水资源和防治水害活动的基本依据。规划的修改,必须经原批准机关核准。

The approved plans shall serve as the bases for the development and utilization of water resources as well as the prevention and control of water disasters. Any amendment to an approved plan must be examined and approved by the organ that originally approved the plan.

  第十二条 任何单位和个人引水、蓄水、排水,不得损害公共利益和他人的合法权益。

Article 12. No unit or individual shall, while channeling, storing or discharging water, infringe upon public interests or the lawful rights and interests of other people.

  第十三条 开发利用水资源,应当服从防洪的总体安排,实行兴利与除害相结合的原则,兼顾上下游、左右岸和地区之间的利益,充分发挥水资源的综合效益。

Article 13. The development and utilization of water resources shall conform to the overall arrangement for the prevention of floods, follow the principle of promoting benefits while eliminating disasters, and take into consideration the interests of upstream and downstream areas, of the left and right banks and of all regions concerned, so as to give full play to the comprehensive benefits of water resources.

  第十四条 开发利用水资源,应当首先满足城乡居民生活用水,统筹兼顾农业、工业用水和航运需要。

Article 14. The development and utilization of water resources shall first satisfy the need of the urban and rural inhabitants in their domestic use of water and give overall consideration to the agricultural and industrial need for water as well as to the need of navigation.

在水源不足地区,应当限制城市规模和耗水量大的工业、农业的发展。

In areas where the water sources are insufficient, the scale of the urban area and the development of industrial and agricultural undertakings which use a large amount of water shall be restricted.

  第十五条 各地区应当根据水土资源条件,发展灌溉、排水和水土保持事业,促进农业稳产、高产。

Article 15. All areas shall, according to their respective water and soil resources, develop irrigation, drainage and water and soil conservation to bring in stable and high agricultural yields.

  在水源不足地区,应当采取节约用水的灌溉方式。

In areas where the water sources are insufficient, any irrigation method which makes for an economical use of water shall be adopted.

  在容易发生盐碱化和渍害的地区,应当采取措施,控制和降低地下水的水位。

In areas which are prone to salinization-alkalization and water-logging, measures shall be taken to control and lower the groundwater level.

  第十六条 国家鼓励开发利用水能资源。在水能丰富的河流,应当有计划在进行多目标梯级开发。

Article 16. The state shall encourage the development and utilization of hydraulic power potentials. On rivers rich with hydraulic power potentials, multipurpose cascade development shall be effected in a planned way.

  建设水力发电站,应当保护生态环境,兼顾防洪、供水、灌溉、航运、竹木流放和渔业等方面的需要。

In the development of hydropower stations, the ecological environment shall be protected, and the needs for flood control, water supply, irrigation, navigation, bamboo and log rafting, fishery, etc. shall be taken into account.

  第十七条 国家保护和鼓励开发水运资源。在通航或者竹木流放的河流上修建永久性拦河闸坝,建设单位必须同时修建过船、过木设施,或者经国务院授权的部门批准采取其他补救措施,并妥善安排施工和蓄水期间的航运和竹木流放,所需费用由建设单位负担。

Article 17. The state shall protect and encourage the development of water transport resources. When permanent dams and sluice-gates are built on rivers which are navigable or suitable for bamboo and log rafting, the construction unit must at the same time build facilities for the passage of ships and for bamboo and log rafting or, after approval by a department authorized by the State Council, take other remedial measures. The construction unit must also make adequate arrangements for navigation and bamboo and log rafting during the construction period and the initial water-filling period, and bear the expenses incurred thereby.

  在不通航的河流或者人工水道上修建闸坝后可以通航的,闸坝建设单位应当同时修建过船设施或者预留过船设施位置,所需费用除国家另有规定外,由交通部门负担。

Where a non-navigable river or man-made waterway becomes navigable after a dam or sluice-gate is built, the construction unit shall at the same time build facilities for the passage of ships or reserve sites for such facilities. The expenses needed for such facilities shall, except as otherwise provided for by the state, be borne by the transport department concerned.

  现有的碍航闸坝,由县级以上人民政府责成原建设单位在规定的期限内采取补救措施。

Where any existing dam or sluice gate hinders navigation, the people's government at or above the county level shall order the original construction unit to take remedial measures within a prescribed time limit.

  第十八条 在鱼、虾、蟹洄游通道修建拦河闸坝,对渔业资源有严重影响的,建设单位应当修建过鱼设施或者采取其他补救措施。

Article 18. Where the building of a dam or sluice gate on the migration route of fish, shrimp or crabs has a serious impact on fishery resources, the construction unit shall build facilities for their passage or adopt other remedial measures.

  第十九条 修建闸坝、桥梁、码头和其他拦河、跨河、临河建筑物,铺设跨河管道、电缆,必须符合国家规定的防洪标准、通航标准和其他有关的技术要求。

Article 19. The building of any dam and sluice gate, bridge, wharf or any structure which blocks, crosses or borders a river channel, and the laying of a pipeline or a cable which crosses a river, must be in conformity with the standards for the prevention of floods and navigation and other related technical requirements set by the state.

  因修建前款所列工程设施而扩建、改建、拆除或者损坏原有工程设施的,由后建工程的建设单位负担扩建、改建的费用和补偿损失的费用,但原有工程设施是违 章的除外。

Where the building of any of the structures or facilities referred to in the preceding paragraph requires the extension, modification, removal or destruction of the original structures or facilities, the unit constructing the new project shall bear the expenses for extension or modification and the expenses for the compensation of losses, unless the original structures or facilities were built in violation of the relevant regulations.

  第二十条 兴建水工程或者其他建设项目,对原有灌溉用水、供水水源或者航道水量有不利影响的,建设单位应当采取补救或者予以补偿。

Article 20. Where the building of any water project or any other construction project has an adverse effect on the current use of water for irrigation, the existing source of water supply or the present flow of the navigation channel, the unit constructing the project shall adopt remedial measures or otherwise make compensation.

  第二十一条 兴建跨流域引水工程,必须进行全面规划和科学论证,统筹兼顾引出和引入流域的用水需求,防止对生态环境的不利影响。

Article 21. Where an interbasin diversion project is to be built, an overall plan and a scientific justification must be provided, and consideration given to the demand for water in the basin which supplies the water and in the basin which receives it, while adverse effects on the ecological environment shall be avoided.

  第二十二条 兴建水工程,必须遵守国家规定的基本建设程序和其他有关规定。凡涉及其他地区和行业利益的,建设单位必须事先向有关地区和部门征求意见,并按照规定报上级人民政府或者有关主管部门审批。

Article 22. The building of any water project must conform with the capital construction procedures and the other relevant provisions stipulated by the state. Where a project involves the interests of other regions and trades, the construction unit must first solicit opinions from the regions and departments concerned and, in accordance with the relevant provisions, report the project to the people's government at the higher level or the competent department concerned for approval.

  第二十三条 国家兴建水工程需要移民的,由地方人民政府负责妥善安排移民的生活和生产。安置移民所需的经费列入工程建设投资计划,并应当在建设阶段按 计划完成移民安置工作。

Article 23. Where a water project to be built by the state requires the resettlement of inhabitants, the local people's government shall be responsible for making proper arrangements for the livelihood and production of the inhabitants to be resettled. The funds needed for the resettlement of inhabitants shall be included in the investment plan for the project, and the resettlement shall be completed within the construction stage on schedule.

第三章 水、水域和水工程的保护

CHAPTER III PROTECTION OF WATER, WATER AREAS AND WATER PROJECTS

  第二十四条 在江河、湖泊、水库、渠道内,不得弃置、堆放阻碍行洪、航运的物体,不得种植阻碍行洪的林木和高杆作物。

Article 24. In any river, lake, reservoir or canal, no person may abandon or pile objects which block navigation or the passage of flood water, or plant trees or grow crops of a long-stalk variety which block the passage of flood water.

  在航道内不得弃置沉船,不得设置碍航渔具,不得种植水生植物。

In any navigable channel, no person may abandon any sunken boat, lay any fishing gear which blocks navigation, or grow aquatic plants.

  未经有关主管部门批准,不得在河床、河滩内修建建筑物。

No person may erect any building in a riverbed or in flood land without the approval of the competent department concerned.

  在行洪、排涝河道和航道范围内开采砂石、砂金,必须报经河道主管部门批准,按照批准的范围和作业方式开采;涉及航道的,由河道主管部门会同航道主管部门批准。

Anyone who wishes to mine for sand and gravel or placer gold within the extent of a river course through which flood water passes or into which water from water-logged areas is drained, or within the extent of a navigable river, must apply to the department of river administration for approval, and must conduct his mining within the approved confines and in conformity with the approved operation procedures. Where the mining relates to a navigable river, it shall be subject to approval by the department of river administration and the department of navigation.

  第二十五条 开采地下水必须在水资源调查评价的基础上,实行统一规划,加强监督管理。在地下水已经超采的地区,应当严格控制开采,并采取措施,保护地下水资源,防止地面沉降。

Article 25. The drawing of groundwater must be carried out by a unified plan based on the findings of a survey and assessment of water resources, and the supervision and management of the drawing must be strengthened. In areas where too much groundwater has been drawn, a strict control shall be imposed on the drawing and effective measures taken to protect the groundwater resources and to prevent the subsidence of the ground.

  第二十六条 开采矿藏或者兴建地下工程,因疏干排水导致地下水水位下降、枯竭或者地面塌陷,对其他单位或者个人的生活和生产造成损失的,采矿单位或者 建设单位应当采取补救措施,赔偿损失。

Article 26. Where mining or the construction of underground projects, because of water drainage, results in a lowering of the groundwater level, the depletion of groundwater or the subsidence of the ground and causes losses to the livelihood and production of units or individuals, the mining unit or the construction unit shall take remedial measures and compensate for the losses.

  第二十七条 禁止围湖造田。禁止围垦河流,确需围垦的,必须经过科学论证,并经省级以上人民政府批准。

Article 27. Reclaiming parts of a lake for use as farmland shall be prohibied. Reclaiming parts of a river for use as farmland shall also be prohibited. Where reclamation is necessary, a scientific justification must be provided and approval obtained from a people's government at or above the provincial level.

  第二十八条 国家保护水工程及堤防、 护岸等有关设施, 保护防汛设施、水文监测设施、水文地质监测设施和导航、助航设施,任何单位和个人不得侵占、毁坏。

Article 28. The state shall protect water projects and related facilities such as dikes and bank revetments, and shall protect flood prevention facilities, hydrologic monitoring facilities, hydrogeologic monitoring facilities, and navigation facilities and aids. No unit or individual may seize or destroy these facilities.

  第二十九条 国家所有的水工程,应当按照经批准的设计,由县级以上人民政府依照国家规定,划定管理和保护范围。

Article 29. Any state-owned water project shall have a zone for its management and protection, to be delimited by a people's government at or above the county level in accordance with the approved design and state provisions.

  集体所有的水工程应当依照省、自治区、直辖市人民政府的规定,划定保护范围。

Any collectively-owned water project shall have a zone for its protection, to be delimited in accordance with stipulations made by the people's government of the relevant province, autonomous region or municipality directly under the Central Government.

  在水工程保护范围内,禁止进行爆破、打井、采石、取土等危害水工程安全的活动。

Within the protection zone for a water project, any act of blasting, sinking a well, quarrying rock, and collecting earth, which endangers the safety of the water project, shall be prohibited.

第四章 用水管理

CHAPTER IV MANAGEMENT OF THE USE OF WATER

  第三十条 全国和跨省、自治区、直辖市的区域的水长期供求计划,由国务院水行政主管部门会同有关部门制定,报国务院计划主管部门审批。

Article 30. The long-term plan for the demand for and supply of water of the entire country and those of regions covering different provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government shall be formulated by the department of water administration jointly with the other relevant departments under the State Council and submitted to the planning department under the State Council for approval.

地方的水长期供求计划,由县级以上地方人民政府水行政主管部门会同有关部门,依据上一级人民政府主管部门制定的水长期供求计划和本地区的实际情况制定,报同级人民政府计划主管部门审批。

 A local long-term plan for the demand for and supply of water shall, on the basis of the long-term plan for the demand for and supply of water made by the department of water administration of the people's government at the next higher level and the actual local conditions, be formulated by the department of water administration jointly with the other relevant departments of a local people's government at or above the county level, and shall be submitted to the planning department of the people's government at the corresponding level for approval.

  第三十一条 调蓄径流和分配水量,应当兼顾上下游和左右岸用水、 航运、竹木流放、渔业和保护生态环境的需要。

Article 31. The regulation and storage of the run-off and the allocation of water shall take into account the demand for water in upstream and downstream areas and on both banks of a river and also the need for navigation, bamboo and log rafting and fishery and for the protection of the ecological environment.

  跨行政区域的水量分配方案,由上一级人民政府水行政主管部门征求有关地方人民政府的意见后制定,报同级人民政府批准后执行。

A plan for the allocation of water covering different administrative divisions shall be formulated by the department of water administration of the people's government at the next higher level after soliciting the opinions of the local people's governments concerned, and shall be executed after approval by the people's government at the corresponding level.

  第三十二条 国家对直接从地下或者江河、湖泊取水的,实行取水许可制度。为家庭生活、畜禽饮用取水和其他少量取水的,不需要申请取水许可,

Article 32. The state shall put into practice a license system for drawing water directly from subterranean streams, rivers or lakes. However, it shall not be necessary to apply for a license if water is drawn for household use or for livestock and poultry to drink, or if a small amount of water is drawn for other purposes.

  实行取水许可制度的步骤、范围和办法,由国务院规定。

The steps, the scope and the measures for implementing a system of water-drawing licenses shall be stipulated by the State Council.

  第三十三条 新建、扩建、改建的建设项目,需要申请取水许可的,建设单位在报送设计任务书时,应当附有审批取水申请的机关的书面意见。

Article 33. Where it is necessary to apply for a water-drawing license for a new construction project, an extension project or a reconstruction project, the construction unit shall, while submitting the design for the project, enclose written comments from the organ in charge of examining applications for the drawing of water.

  第三十四条 使用供水工程供应的水,应当按照规定向供水单位缴纳水费。

Article 34. Anyone who uses water provided by a water-supply project shall pay a water fee to the supplying unit in accordance with the relevant provisions.

  对城市中直接从地下取水的单位,征收水资源费;其他直接从地下或者江河、湖泊取水的,可以由省、自治区、直辖市人民政府决定征收水资源费。

Any unit which directly draws groundwater in an urban area shall be charged a water resources fee. The collection of such fees from other units or individuals drawing water directly from subterranean streams, rivers or lakes shall be decided by the people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities directly under the Central Government.

  水费和水资源费的征收办法,由国务院规定。

Measures for the collection of water fees and water resources fees shall be stipulated by the State Council.

  第三十五条 地区之间发生的水事纠纷,应当本着互谅互让、 团结协作的精神协商处理;协商不成的,由上一级人民政府处理。

Article 35. Any dispute concerning water between different districts shall be handled through consultation in the spirit of mutual understanding and mutual accommodation as well as the spirit of solidarity and cooperation. Where consultations are unsuccessful, the dispute shall be handled by the people's government at the next higher level.

在水事纠纷解决之前,未经各方达成协议或者上一级人民政府批准,在国家规定的交界线两侧一定的范围内,任何一方不得修建排水、阻水、引水和蓄水工程,不得单方面改变水的现状。

Pending a settlement of the dispute, no party may build any project to drain, block, divert or store water within a certain area on either side of the common boundary defined by the state, and no party may unilaterally alter the existing water regime, unless an agreement is reached between the parties concerned or an approval is granted by the people's government at the next higher level.

  第三十六条 单位之间、个人之间、单位与个人之间发生的水事纠纷,应当通过协商或者调解解决。

Article 36. Any dispute concerning water between units, between individuals or between units and individuals shall be resolved through consultation or mediation.

当事人不愿通过协商、调解解决或者协商、调解不成的,可以请求县级以上地方人民政府或者其授权的主管部门处理,也可以直接向人民法院起诉;当事人对有关人民政府或者其授权的主管部门的处理决定不服的,可以在接到通知之日起十五日内,向人民法院起诉。

 Where a party is unwilling to have the dispute resolved through consultation or mediation, or the consultation or mediation is unsuccessful, he may request the people's government at or above the county level or the competent department authorized by such a government to handle the dispute, or may directly institute legal proceedings in the people's court. Where a party is dissatisfied with the decision made by the people's government concerned or the competent department authorized by such a government, he may institute legal proceedings in the people's court within fifteen days of receiving the notification on the decision.

  在水事纠纷解决之前,当事人不得单方面改变水的现状。

Pending a settlement of the dispute, no party may unilaterally alter the existing water regime.

  第三十七条 县级以上人民政府或者其授权的主管部门在处理水事纠纷时,有权采取临时处置措施,当事人必须服从。

Article 37. When handling any dispute concerning water, the people's government at or above the county level, or the competent department authorized by such a government, shall have the power to take temporary measures with which the parties must comply.

  第三十八条 各级人民政府应当加强领导,采取措施,做好防汛抗洪工作。任何单位和个人,都有参加防汛抗洪的义务。

Article 38. The people's governments at all levels shall strengthen their leadership and take effective measures to prevent and fight floods. It is the duty of every unit and individual to participate in the prevention of and the fight against floods.

  第三十九条 县级以上人民政府防汛指挥机构统一指挥防汛抗洪工作。

Article 39. The flood prevention headquarters under the people's governments at or above the county level shall exercise unified command over the work of preventing and fighting floods.

  在汛情紧急的情况下,防汛指挥机构有权在其管辖范围内调用所需的物资、设备和人员,事后应当及时归还或者给予适当补偿。

In cases of a flood emergency, the flood prevention headquarters shall have the power to requisition materials and equipment and employ personnel within their jurisdiction, which shall be returned or adequately compensated for without delay after the flood subsides.

  第四十条 县级以上人民政府应当根据流域规划和确保重点兼顾一般的原则,制定防御洪水方案,确定防洪标准和措施。全国主要江河的防御洪水方案,由中央防汛指挥机构制定,报国务院批准。

Article 40. The people's governments at or above the county level shall, on the basis of river basin plans and in accordance with the principle of ensuring defence at the major points and giving consideration to ordinary ones, formulate schemes for the prevention of floods, in which the standards and measures for the prevention of floods shall be specified. The schemes for the prevention of floods along major rivers throughout the country shall be formulated by the Central Flood Prevention Headquarters and submitted to the State Council for approval.

  防御洪水方案经批准或者制定后,有关地方人民政府必须执行。

After a scheme for the prevention of floods is approved or formulated, the people's governments concerned must execute it.

  第四十一条 在防洪河道和滞洪区、蓄洪区内,土地利用和各项建设必须符合防洪的要求。

Article 41. Along floodways and in flood detention basins and flood storage basins, the utilization of land and the various construction projects must meet the requirements for the prevention of floods.

  第四十二条 按照天然流势或者防洪、排涝工程的设计标准或者经批准的运行方案下泄的洪水、涝水,下游地区不得设障阻水或者缩小河道的过水能力;上游地区不得擅自增大下泄流量。

Article 42. People in a downstream area may not hinder by blocking the flow of the flood water or excess water discharged according to the natural flow trend or the design standards of flood prevention or flood drainage projects, or an approved flood fighting plan, or reduce the carrying capacity of the river, while people in an upstream area may not increase without authorization the flow discharged downstream.

  第四十三条 在汛情紧急的情况下,各级防汛指挥机构可以在其管辖范围内,根据经批准的分洪、滞洪方案,采取分洪、滞洪措施。采取分洪、滞洪措施对毗邻地区有危害的,必须报经上一级防汛指挥机构批准,并事先通知有关地区。

Article 43. In case of a flood emergency, flood prevention headquarters at different levels may, within their jurisdiction, take measures to divert or detain the flood pursuant to the approved plans. Where these measures are detrimental to the adjoining districts, the adoption of such measures must be reported to the flood prevention headquarters at the next higher level for approval, and the districts concerned shall be notified in advance.

  国务院和省、自治区、直辖市人民政府应当分别对所管辖的滞洪区、蓄洪区内有关居民的安全、转移、生活、生产、善后恢复、损失补偿等事项,制定专门的管理办法。

The State Council and the people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government shall separately formulate special administrative measures for the safety, evacuation, livelihood, production, rehabilitation, compensation for losses, etc. for the inhabitants in the flood detention basins and the flood storage basins within their respective jurisdiction.

第六章 法律责任

CHAPTER VI LEGAL LIABILITY

  第四十四条 违反本法规定取水、截水、阻水、排水,给他人造成妨碍或者损失的,应当停止侵害,排除妨碍,赔偿损失。

Article 44. Whoever, in violation of this Law, draws, intercepts, blocks or discharges water and thereby causes obstruction or losses to others shall stop his acts of infringement, remove the obstruction and compensate for the losses.

  第四十五条 违反本法规定,有下列行为之一的,由县级以上地方人民政府水行政主管部门或者有关主管部门责令其停止违法行为,限期清除障碍或者采取其他补救措施,可以并处罚款;对有关责任人员可以由其所在单位或者上级主管机关给予行政处分:

Article 45. Whoever, in violation of this Law, commits any of the following acts shall be ordered, by the department of water administration or another competent department concerned of the relevant local people's government at or above the county level, to stop his illegal act and clear away the obstacles or take other remedial measures within the specified time limit, and may be concurrently fined; the person who is responsible may be given administrative sanctions by the unit to which he belongs or by the competent authority at a higher level:

  (一)在江河、湖泊、水库、渠道内弃置、堆放阻碍行洪、航运的物体的,种植阻碍行洪的林木和高杆作物的,在航道内弃置沉船,设置碍航渔具、种植水生植物的;

(1) abandoning or piling objects which obstruct navigation or the passage of flood, or planting trees and growing crops of a long-stalk variety which obstruct the passage of flood in any river, lake, reservoir or canal, or abandoning sunken vessels, laying fishing gear which obstructs navigation, or growing aquatic plants in any navigable river;

  (二)未经批准在河床、河滩内修建建筑物的;

(2) erecting buildings in any riverbed or flood land without approval;

  (三)未经批准或者不按照批准的范围和作业方式,在河道、航道内开采砂石、砂金的;

(3) mining for sand and gravel or placer gold in any river course or navigable river without approval or not in conformity with the approved scope and operation procedures; or

  (四)违反本法第二十七条的规定,围垦湖泊、河流的。

(4) reclaiming parts of any lake or river for use as farmland in violation of the provisions of Article 27 of this Law.

  第四十六条 违反本法规定,有下列行为之一的,由县级以上地方人民政府水行政主管部门或者有关主管部门责令其停止违法行为,采取补救措施,可以并处罚款;对有关责任人员可以由其所在单位或者上级主管机关给予行政处分;构成犯罪的,依照刑法规定追究刑事责任:

Article 46. Whoever, in violation of this Law, commits any of the following acts shall be ordered, by the department of water administration or another competent department concerned of the relevant local people's government at or above the county level, to stop his illegal act and take remedial measures and may be concurrently fined; the person who is responsible may be given administrative sanctions by the unit to which he belongs or by the competent authority at a higher level and, where a crime is constituted, he shall be prosecuted for criminal responsibility in accordance with the Criminal Law:

  (一)擅自修建水工程或者整治河道、航道的;

(1) constructing any water project or realigning any river or course of navigation without authorization; or

  (二)违反本法第四十二条的规定,擅自向下游增大排泄洪涝流量或者阻碍上游洪涝下泄的。

(2) in violation of the provisions of Article 42 of this Law, increasing the discharge of flood or drainage of excess water downstream or hindering the discharge of flood or drainage of excess water from upstream without authorization.

  第四十七条 违反本法规定,有下列行为之一的,由县级以上地方人民政府水行政主管部门或者有关主管部门责令其停止违法行为,赔偿损失,采取补救措施,可以并处罚款;应当给予治安管理处罚的,依照治安管理处罚条例的规定处罚;构成犯罪的,依照刑法规定追究刑事责任:

Article 47. Whoever, in violation of this Law, commits any of the following acts shall be ordered, by the department of water administration or another competent department concerned of the relevant local people's government at or above the county level, to stop his illegal act, compensate for the losses caused and take remedial measures, and may be concurrently fined; where a penalty for violation of public security should be given, the person shall be given a penalty in accordance with the Regulations on Administrative Penalties for Public Security; where a crime is constituted, the person shall be prosecuted for criminal responsibility in accordance with the Criminal Law:

  (一)毁坏水工程及堤防、护岸等有关设施,毁坏防汛设施、水文监测设施、水文地质监测设施和导航、助航设施的;

(1) damaging any water project or related facilities such as dikes and bank revetments, damaging any flood prevention facilities, hydrologic monitoring facilities, hydrogeologic monitoring facilities, or navigation facilities or aids; or

  (二)在水工程保护范围内进行爆破、 打井、采石、取土等危害水工程安全的活动的。

(2) carrying out, within the protection zone for a water project, any act of blasting, sinking a well, quarrying rock, or collecting earth, etc., which endangers the safety of the project.

  第四十八条 当事人对行政处罚决定不服的,可以在接到处罚通知之日起十五日内,向作出处罚决定的机关的上一级机关申请复议;对复议决定不服的,可以在接到复议决定之日起十五日内,向人民法院起诉。

Article 48. If any party is not satisfied with the decision on an administrative penalty, he may, within fifteen days of receiving the notification on the penalty, file an application for reconsideration with the department at the level next higher to the department that made the decision on the penalty. If the party is not satisfied with the decision made after such reconsideration, he may institute legal proceedings in the people's court within fifteen days of receiving the decision on the reconsideration.

当事人也可以在接到处罚通知之日起十五日内,直接向人民法院起诉。

The party may also directly institute legal proceedings in the people's court within fifteen days of receiving the notification on the penalty.

当事人逾期不申请复议或者不向人民法院起诉又不履行处罚决定的,由作出处罚决定的机关申请人民法院强制执行。

If the said party neither applies for reconsideration nor institutes legal proceedings in the people's court within the time limit nor complies with the decision on the penalty, the department that made the decision on the penalty shall apply to the people's court for compulsory execution.

  对治安管理处罚不服的,依照治安管理处罚条例的规定办理。

If any party is not satisfied with a penalty for violation of public security, the case shall be handled according to the Regulations on Administrative Penalties for Public Security.

  第四十九条 盗窃或者抢夺防汛物资、水工程器材的,贪污或者挪用国家救灾、抢险、防汛、移民安置款物的,依照刑法规定追究刑事责任。

Article 49. Whoever steals or forcibly seizes the supplies for the prevention of floods or materials and equipment for the building of water projects, or whoever embezzles or misappropriates state funds and materials for the relief of disasters, for use in flood emergencies, for the prevention of floods or for the resettlement of inhabitants, shall be prosecuted for criminal responsibility in accordance with the Criminal Law.

  第五十条 水行政主管部门或者其他主管部门以及水工程管理单位的工作人员玩忽职守、 滥用职权、徇私舞弊的, 由其所在单位或者上级主管机关给予行政处分;对公共财产、国家和人民利益造成重大损失的,依照刑法规定追究刑事责任。

Article 50. Any functionary of a department of water administration, of another competent department or of a unit managing a water project, who neglects his duty, abuses his power, engages in malpractices for personal gains or commits fraudulent acts, shall be given administrative sanctions by the unit to which he belongs or by the competent department at a higher level; whoever causes heavy losses to public property or to the interests of the state and the people shall be prosecuted for criminal responsibility in accordance with the Criminal Law.

第七章 附则

CHAPTER VII SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS

  第五十一条 中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的,与国际或者国境边界河流、湖泊有关的国际条约、协定,同中华人民共和国法律有不同规定的,适用国际条约、协定的规定。但是,中华人民共和国声明保留的条款除外。

Article 51. Where any international treaty or agreement relating to international or border rivers or lakes, concluded or acceded to by the People 's Republic of China, contains provisions differing from those in the laws of the People's Republic of China, the provisions of the international treaty or agreement shall apply, unless the provisions are ones on which the People's Republic of China has made reservations.

  第五十二条 国务院可以依据本法制定实施条例。

Article 52. The State Council may, in accordance with this Law, formulate rules for its implementation.

  省、自治区、直辖市人民代表大会常务委员会可以依据本法,制定实施办法。

The standing committees of the people's congresses of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government may, in accordance with this Law, formulate measures for its implementation.

  第五十三条 本法自1988年7月1日起施行。

Article 53. This Law shall come into force as of July 1, 1988.




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