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商业银行法
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中华人民共和国商业银行法

Law of the People's Republic of China on Commercial Banks

(1995年5月10日第八届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十三次会议通过1995年5月10日中华人民共和国主席令第四十七号公布  自1995年7月1日起施行)

(Adopted at the 13th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress on May 10, 1995, Promulgated by Decree No. 47 of the President of the People's Republic of China on May 10, 1995)

目  录

Contents

第一章  总  则

ChapterI - General Provisions

第二章  商业银行的设立和组织机构

ChapterII - Establishment and Organization of Commercial Banks

第三章  对存款人的保护

ChapterIII - Protections for the Depositors

第四章  贷款和其他业务的基本规则

ChapterIV - Basic Rules Governing Loans and Other Businesses

第五章  财务会计

ChapterV - Finance and Accounting

第六章  监督管理

ChapterVI - Supervision and Management

第七章  接管和终止

ChapterVII - Take-Over and Termination

第八章  法律责任

ChapterVIII - Legal Liabilities

第九章  附  则

ChapterIX - Supplementary Provisions 

第一章  总  则

Chapter I General Provisions

第一条  为了保护商业银行、存款人和其他客户的合法权益,规范商业银行的行为,提高信贷资产质量,加强监督管理,保障商业银行的稳健运行,维护金融秩序,促进社会主义市场经济的发展,制定本法。

Article 1 This law is formulated to protect the legal rights and interests of the commercial banks, depositors and other clients, standardize the behaviors of the commercial banks, improve the quality of loan assets, strengthen the supervision and management and thus ensure the sound and stable operations of the commercial banks, safeguard financial order and promote the growth of socialist market economy.

第二条  本法所称的商业银行是指依照本法和《中华人民共和国公司法》设立的吸收公众存款、发放贷款、办理结算等业务的企业法人。

Article 2 Commercial banks referred to in this law are those enterprise legal persons which are established to absorb public deposits, issue loans, arrange settlement of accounts and engage in other businesses in accordance with this law and the "Company Law of the People's Republic of China".

第三条  商业银行可以经营下列部分或者全部业务:

Article 3 Commercial banks may have the following businesses in part or in whole:

(一)吸收公众存款;

(1) Absorb public deposits;

(二)发放短期、中期和长期贷款;

(2) Issue short-term, medium-term and long-term loans;

(三)办理国内外结算;

(3) Arrange settlement of both domestic and overseas accounts;

(四)办理票据贴现;

(4) Handle the discount of negotiable instruments;

(五)发行金融债券;

(5) Issue financial bonds;

(六)代理发行、代理兑付、承销政府债券;

(6) Issue, cash and sell government bonds as agents;

(七)买卖政府债券;

(7) Buy and sell government bonds as agents;

(八)从事同业拆借;

(8) Do inter-bank lending and borrowing;

(九)买卖、代理买卖外汇;

(9) Buy and sell per se or as agents foreign exchanges;

(十)提供信用证服务及担保;

(10) Provide letter of credit (L/C) service and guarantee;

(十一)代理收付款项及代理保险业务;

(11) Handle receipts and payments and insurance businesses as agents;

(十二)提供保管箱服务;

(12) Provide safe boxes; and

(十三)经中国人民银行批准的其他业务。

(13) Undertake other businesses approved by the People's Bank of China.

经营范围由商业银行章程规定,报中国人民银行批准。

Business scopes of the banks are to be defined in the articles of association of the banks and reported to the People's Bank of China for approval.

第四条  商业银行以效益性、安全性、流动性为经营原则,实行自主经营,自担风险,自负盈亏,自我约束。

Article 4 Commercial banks should work under the principles of efficiency, safety and fluid with full autonomy and full responsibility for their own risks, profits and losses and self-restraint.

商业银行依法开展业务,不受任何单位和个人的干涉。

Commercial banks do business in accordance with laws free from any interference by units and individuals.

商业银行以其全部法人财产独立承担民事责任。

Commercial banks undertake civil legal liabilities independently with their all properties as legal persons.

第五条  商业银行与客户的业务往来,应当遵循平等、自愿、公平和诚实信用的原则。

Article 5 Commercial banks follow the principles of equality, voluntariness, fair, faithfulness and credibility in their services to clients.

第六条  商业银行应当保障存款人的合法权益不受任何单位和个人的侵犯。

Article 6 Commercial banks should protect the legal rights and interests of their depositors against encroachment by any unit and individual.

第七条  商业银行开展信贷业务,应当严格审查借款人的资信,实行担保,保障按期收回贷款。

Article 7 In issuing loans, commercial banks should made reliable checks on the creditibility of the borrowers, and provide the loans on guarantee to ensure timely recovery of the loans.

商业银行依法向借款人收回到期贷款的本金和利息,受法律保护。

Commercial banks are protected by law in duly recovery of principal and interest of the loans they extended.

第八条  商业银行开展业务,应当遵守法律、行政法规的有关规定,不得损害国家利益、社会公共利益。

Article 8 Commercial banks should abide by relevant stipulations of laws and administrative regulations in their businesses and must not do any harm to the interests of the State and the society.

第九条  商业银行开展业务,应当遵守公平竞争的原则,不得从事不正当竞争。

Article 9 Commercial banks should follow the principle of fair competition in their business and should not be engaged in unfair competition.

第十条  商业银行依法接受中国人民银行的监督管理。

Article 10 Commercial banks accept the supervision and administration of the People's Bank of China in accordance with laws.

第二章  商业银行的设立和组织机构

Chapter II Establishment and Organization of Commercial Banks

第十一条  设立商业银行,应当经中国人民银行审查批准。

Article 11 The establishment of commercial banks should go through the process of examination and approval by the People's Bank of China.

未经中国人民银行批准,任何单位和个人不得从事吸收公众存款等商业银行业务,任何单位不得在名称中使用“银行”字样。

Without the approval of the People's Bank of China, no unit or individual is allowed to do the business of a commercial bank such as absorbing the public deposit or call itself a bank.

第十二条  设立商业银行,应当具备下列条件:

Article 12 The establishment of a commercial bank should have the following conditions:

(一)有符合本法和《中华人民共和国公司法》规定的章程;

(1) A set of articles of association which accord with this law and the "Company Law of the People's Republic of China";

(二)有符合本法规定的注册资本最低限额;

(2) The lowest amount of the registered capital as stipulated by this law;

(三)有具备任职专业知识和业务工作经验的董事长(行长)、总经理和其他高级管理人员;

(3) Chairman (president), general manager and other senior management personnel of the bank are available with professional knowledge and work experience;

(四)有健全的组织机构和管理制度;

(4) A complete organizational setup and management system;

(五)有符合要求的营业场所、安全防范措施和与业务有关的其他设施。

(5) A business site as required accompanied with suitable safety and other relevant facilities.

中国人民银行审查设立申请时,应当考虑经济发展的需要和银行业竞争的状况。

In approving the application for establishing a commercial bank, the People's Bank of China should take into consideration the need of economic development and the competition in banking industry.

第十三条  设立商业银行的注册资本最低限额为十亿元人民币。

Article 13 The minimum registered capital for setting up a commercial bank is RMB 1 billion yuan.

城市合作商业银行的注册资本最低限额为一亿元人民币,农村合作商业银行的注册资本最低限额为五千万元人民币。

The minimum registered capital for setting up an urban cooperative commercial bank is RMB 100 million yuan, and the minimum registered capital for setting up a rural cooperative commercial bank is RMB 50 million yuan.

注册资本应当是实缴资本。

The registered capital should be the actually paid capital.

中国人民银行根据经济发展可以调整注册资本最低限额,但不得少于前款规定的限额。

The People's Bank of China may readjust the amount of minimum registered capital in accordance with the economic development, but the amount must not be lower than that stipulated in the preceding clause.

第十四条  设立商业银行,申请人应当向中国人民银行提交下列文件、资料:

Article 14 In application for setting up a commercial bank, the following documents and data should be presented to the People's Bank of China:

(一)申请书,申请书应当载明拟设立的商业银行的名称、所在地、注册资本、业务范围等;

(1) An application completed with the name, site, amount of registered capital, and business scope of the commercial bank to be set up;

(二)可行性研究报告;

(2) A feasibility study report; and

(三)中国人民银行规定提交的其他文件、资料。

(3) Other documents and data as stipulated by the People's Bank of China.

第十五条  设立商业银行的申请经审查符合本法第十四条规定的,申请人应当填写正式申请表,并提交下列文件、资料:

Article 15 Should an application for setting up a commercial bank have been found in a accordance with the stipulations of Article 14 through examination, the applicant should fill out an application form and present the following documents and data:

(一)章程草案;

(1) Draft articles of association;

(二)拟任职的高级管理人员的资格证明;

(2) Credentials of the proposed senior management personnel;

(三)法定验资机构出具的验资证明;

(3) Certificate of capital issued by a legal capital inspection organ;

(四)股东名册及其出资额、股份;

(4) List of names of shareholders and the amount of capital and number of stocks they each shared;

(五)持有注册资本百分之十以上的股东的资信证明和有关资料;

(5) Credibility certificates and relevant data of the shareholders who hold more than 10% of the registered capital;

(六)经营方针和计划;

(6) Business policy and plan;

(七)营业场所、安全防范措施和与业务有关的其他设施的资料;

(7) Data about the business site, safety and other relevant business facilities; and

(八)中国人民银行规定的其他文件、资料。

(8) Other documents and data as stipulated by the People's Bank of China.

第十六条  经批准设立的商业银行,由中国人民银行颁发经营许可证,并凭该许可证向工商行政管理部门办理登记,领取营业执照。

Article 16 The People's Bank of China will issue a license to the commercial bank which has been approved to be set up and the bank concerned should register with the State Administration for Industry and Commerce and get the business license.

第十七条  商业银行的组织形式、组织机构适用《中华人民共和国公司法》的规定。

Article 17 The stipulations of the "Company Law of the People's Republic of China" apply to the organizational forms and setups of the commercial banks.

本法施行前设立的商业银行,其组织形式、组织机构不完全符合《中华人民共和国公司法》规定的,可以继续沿用原有的规定,适用前款规定的日期由国务院规定。

If a commercial bank, which was set up before the promulgation of this law has its organization form and setup not entirely in accordance with the stipulations of the "Company Law of the People's Republic of China", it may continue to operate under the original form and setup, and when the stipulations of the preceding clause should be strictly applied is up to the decision of the State Council.

第十八条  国有独资商业银行设立监事会。监事会由中国人民银行、政府有关部门的代表、有关专家和本行工作人员的代表组成。监事会的产生办法由国务院规定。

Article 18 A solely State owned commercial bank should set up a board of supervisors formed by representatives of the People's Bank of China and relevant government departments and specialists and representatives of the Bank's employees. The method of forming the board of supervisors is to be set by the State Council.

监事会对国有独资商业银行的信贷资产质量、资产负债比例、国有资产保值增值等情况以及高级管理人员违反法律、行政法规或者章程的行为和损害银行利益的行为进行监督。

The board supervises over the quality of loan assets, proportion between assets and liability, present and added values of the State assets, and the bank's senior management personnel's violations of laws and administrative regulations and their damages to the interests of the bank.

第十九条  商业银行根据业务需要可以在中华人民共和国境内外设立分支机构。

Article 19 Commercial banks may set up branches both inside and outside of the People's Republic of China in accordance with the need of their business.

设立分支机构必须经中国人民银行审查批准。

The establishment of branches must be made under the examination and approval of the People's Bank of China.

在中华人民共和国境内的分支机构,不按行政区划设立。

Branches of the commercial banks inside the People's Republic of China have no need to be set up in every administrative district.

商业银行在中华人民共和国境内设立分支机构,应当按照规定拨付与其经营规模相适应的营运资金额。

The commercial banks should, according to relevant stipulations, allocate a suitable amount of operation funds to their branches which are set up inside the People's Republic of China. 

拨付各分支机构营运资金额的总和,不得超过总行资本金总额的百分之六十。

The aggregate sum of operation funds allocated to the branches must not exceed 60% of the total capital of the headquarters of a commercial bank.

第二十条  设立商业银行分支机构,申请人应当向中国人民银行提交下列文件、资料:

Article 20 For setting up a branch of the commercial bank, the following documents and data should be presented to the People's Bank of China.

(一)申请书,申请书应当载明拟设立的分支机构的名称、营运资金额、业务范围、总行及分支机构所在地等;

(1) An application clearly indicating the name, the amount of operational capital, the business scope and the site of the branch to be set up;

(二)申请人最近二年的财务会计报告;

(2) Financial and accounting statements of the applicant in the recent two years;

(三)拟任职的高级管理人员的资格证明;

(3) The credentials of the proposed senior management personnel;

(四)经营方针和计划;

(4) Operational policies and plans;

(五)营业场所、安全防范措施和与业务有关的其他设施的资料;

(5) The business site, safety and other relevant business facilities of the branch; and

(六)中国人民银行规定的其他文件、资料。

(6) Other documents and data as stipulated by the People's Bank of China.

第二十一条  经批准设立的商业银行分支机构,由中国人民银行颁发经营许可证,并凭该许可证向工商行政管理部门办理登记,领取营业执照。

Article 21 Upon its approval of setting up, a branch of a commercial bank should get a license from the People's Bank of China and register itself with the license with the department of industry and commerce to get the business license.

第二十二条  商业银行对其分支机构实行全行统一核算,统一调度资金,分级管理的财务制度。

Article 22 A commercial bank should exercise a financial system of unified accounting and fund control and level-to-level management in relevant to its branches.

商业银行分支机构不具有法人资格,在总行授权范围内依法开展业务,其民事责任由总行承担。 

A branch of a commercial bank does not have the qualifications of a legal person and thus shall operate within the business scope entrusted by the headquarters of the commercial bank in accordance with law. Its civil liabilities are to be undertaken by the headquarters.

第二十三条  经批准设立的商业银行及其分支机构,由中国人民银行予以公告。

Article 23 The approved establishment of the commercial banks and their branches will be announced by the People's Bank of China.

商业银行及其分支机构自取得营业执照之日起无正当理由超过六个月未开业的,或者开业后自行停业连续六个月以上的,由中国人民银行吊销其经营许可证,并予以公告。

The People's Bank of China will revoke the operation licenses of a commercial bank or its branches and make an announcement of this if they fail to start their business in more than six months as from the date of getting the business licenses without justified reasons, or they stop their business for more than six consecutive months after they start their business.

第二十四条  商业银行有下列变更事项之一的,应当经中国人民银行批准:

Article 24 A commercial bank should have the approval of the People's Bank of China for one of the following changes:

(一)变更名称;

(1) The change of its name;

(二)变更注册资本;

(2) The change of its registered capital;

(三)变更总行或者分支行所在地;

(3) The change of the site of the headquarters or branches;

(四)调整业务范围;

(4) The readjustment of its business scope;

(五)变更持有资本总额或者股份总额百分之十以上的股东;

(5) The change of a shareholder who holds more than 10% of the total capital or the total amount of stocks;

(六)修改章程;

(6) The revision of articles of association; and

(七)中国人民银行规定的其他变更事项。

(7) Other changes as stipulated by the People's Bank of China.

更换董事长(行长)、总经理时,应当报经中国人民银行审查其任职条件。

The change of chairman (president) and general manager should be reported to the People's Bank of China for an examination of their credentials.

第二十五条  商业银行的分立、合并,适用《中华人民共和国公司法》的规定。

Article 25 The separate and merge of commercial banks should follow the stipulations of the " Company Law of the People's Republic of China".

商业银行的分立、合并,应当经中国人民银行审查批准。

The separate and merge of commercial banks should be made under the examination and approval of the People's Bank of China.

第二十六条  商业银行应当依照法律、行政法规的规定使用经营许可证。禁止伪造、变造、转让、出租、出借经营许可证。

Article 26 A commercial bank should use its operation license in accordance with the stipulations of laws and administrative regulations and is forbidden to falsify, fabricate, transfer, lease or lend the license.

第二十七条  有下列情形之一的,不得担任商业银行的高级管理人员:

Article 27 People involved in one of the following cases cannot be senior management personnel:

(一)因犯有贪污、贿赂、侵占财产、挪用财产罪或者破坏社会经济秩序罪,被判处刑罚,或者因犯罪被剥夺政治权利的;

(1) People who have been declared guilty or fined for corruption, bribery, encroachment upon and embezzling property or undermining social economic order, or those who have been deprived of political rights because of committing crimes;

(二)担任因经营不善破产清算的公司、企业的董事或者厂长、经理,并对该公司、企业的破产负有个人责任的;

(2) People who have been chairman of directors or factory director or manager of a company or enterprise which has gone bankrupt because of poor management and are held responsible for the bankruptcy themselves;

(三)担任因违法被吊销营业执照的公司、企业的法定代表人,并负有个人责任的;

(3) People who have been legal representatives of companies or enterprises whose business licenses had been revoked because of violations of laws and are held responsible for this themselves; and

(四)个人所负数额较大的债务到期未清偿的。

(4) People who owe comparatively large amount of debt which is overdue.

第二十八条  任何单位和个人购买商业银行股份总额百分之十以上的,应当事先经中国人民银行批准。

Article 28 Purchase of more than 10% of the total shares of a commercial bank by any unit or individual should be made upon the approval of the People's Bank of China in advance.

第三章  对存款人的保护

Chapter III Protections for the Depositors

第二十九条  商业银行办理个人储蓄存款业务,应当遵循存款自愿、取款自由、存款有息、为存款人保密的原则。

Article 29 A commercial bank should follow the principles of voluntary deposit and free withdrawal, paying interest to depositors and keeping secret for depositors in handling individual deposits.

对个人储蓄存款,商业银行有权拒绝任何单位或者个人查询、冻结、扣划,但法律另有规定的除外。

The commercial bank has the right to refuse any unit or individual to inquire about, freeze and deduct from individual deposits except the cases as stipulated by laws.

第三十条  对单位存款,商业银行有权拒绝任何单位或者个人查询,但法律、行政法规另有规定的除外;有权拒绝任何单位或者个人冻结、扣划,但法律另有规定的除外。

Article 30 A commercial bank has the right to refuse any unit or individual to inquire about the deposits of any other unit except the cases as stipulated by laws and administrative regulations; the commercial bank has the right to refuse any unit or individual to freeze and deduct the deposits of any other unit except the cases as stipulated by laws.

第三十一条  商业银行应当按照中国人民银行规定的存款利率的上下限,确定存款利率,并予以公告。

Article 31 A commercial bank should decide its own interest rates and announce them in accordance with the upper and lower limits for deposit interest set by the People's Bank of China.

第三十二条  商业银行应当按照中国人民银行的规定,向中国人民银行交存存款准备金,留足备付金。

Article 32 A commercial bank should pay a certain amount of deposit reserve funds to the People's Bank of China and keep adequate payment funds in accordance with the latter's stipulations.

第三十三条  商业银行应当保证存款本金和利息的支付,不得拖延、拒绝支付存款本金和利息。

Article 33 A commercial bank should guarantee the payment of the principal and interest of the deposits and must not delay and refuse to pay the principal and interest of the deposits.

第四章  贷款和其他业务的基本规则

Chapter IV Basic Rules Governing Loans and Other Businesses

第三十四条  商业银行根据国民经济和社会发展的需要,在国家产业政策指导下开展贷款业务。

Article 34 A commercial bank should issue loans in accordance with the need of the national economy and social development and under the guidance of the State industrial policies.

第三十五条  商业银行贷款,应当对借款人的借款用途、偿还能力、还款方式等情况进行严格审查。

Article 35 In issuing loans, a commercial bank should closely check the use of the loan by the borrower, the repayment ability of the borrowers and the mode of repayment of the loans.

商业银行贷款,应当实行审贷分离、分级审批的制度。

For extending a loan, a commercial bank should clearly separate the process of checking and actual lending and the lending should go through checking and approval by various levels.

第三十六条  商业银行贷款,借款人应当提供担保。

Article 36 A borrower should provide guarantee for commercial bank loans.

商业银行应当对保证人的偿还能力,抵押物、质物的权属和价值以及实现抵押权、质权的可行性进行严格审查。

A commercial bank should strictly check the repayment ability of the guarantors, the ownership and value of the mortgage and working assets and the possibility of claims to them.

经商业银行审查、评估,确认借款人资信良好,确能偿还贷款的,可以不提供担保。

A borrower which has been proved having sure creditility for repayment through checks and assessments by the commercial bank may not provide guarantee for the commercial bank.

第三十七条  商业银行贷款,应当与借款人订立书面合同。合同应当约定贷款种类、借款用途、金额、利率、还款期限、还款方式、违约责任和双方认为需要约定的其他事项。

Article 37 Upon a loan, the commercial bank and borrower concerned should strike a written contract to clearly define the category, purpose, amount interest rate, repayment period and mode of repayment of the loan, liabilities in case of violating the contract and other stipulations which both sides deem in necessary.

第三十八条  商业银行应当按照中国人民银行规定的贷款利率的上下限,确定贷款利率。

Article 38 A commercial bank should decide the interest rates of loans in accordance with the upper and lower limits of loan interest set by the People's Bank of China.

第三十九条  商业银行贷款,应当遵守下列资产负债比例管理的规定:

Article 39 A commercial bank should abide by the following stipulations in ratio between assets and liabilities:

(一)资本充足率不得低于百分之八;

(1) Capital sufficiency rate must not be less than 8%;

(二)贷款余额与存款余额的比例不得超过百分之七十五;

(2) The ratio between the balance of loans and the balance of deposits must not exceed 75%;

(三)流动性资产余额与流动性负债余额的比例不得低于百分之二十五;

(3) The ratio between the balance of circulating assets and the balance of circulating liabilities must not be lower than 25%;

(四)对同一借款人的贷款余额与商业银行资本余额的比例不得超过百分之十;

(4) The ratio between the balance of loan of one borrower and the balance of capital of the commercial bank must not exceed 10%; and

(五)中国人民银行对资产负债比例管理的其他规定。

(5) Other stipulations of the People's Bank of China governing such ratios.

本法施行前设立的商业银行,在本法施行后,其资产负债比例不符合前款规定的,应当在一定的期限内符合前款规定。

If a commercial bank which was set up before the promulgation of this law has a ratio between assets and liabilities not in accordance with the stipulations of the preceding clause it should readjust the ratio to suit the stipulations in a certain period of time.

具体办法由国务院规定。

The specific methods for such an adjustment are to be decided by the State Council.

第四十条  商业银行不得向关系人发放信用贷款;向关系人发放担保贷款的条件不得优于其他借款人同类贷款的条件。

Article 40 Commercial banks are not allowed to issue credit loans to people who have connections with the bank and the conditions for issuing guaranteed loans to people who have connections with the bank must not be more favorable than those for such loans to other borrowers.

前款所称关系人是指:

The people who have connections with the bank as referred to in the preceding clause are:

(一)商业银行的董事、监事、管理人员、信贷业务人员及其近亲属;

(1) The directors, supervisors, management personnel, credit loan business dealers of the commercial bank and their close relatives; and

(二)前项所列人员投资或者担任高级管理职务的公司、企业和其他经济组织。

(2) Companies, enterprises and other economic organizations which have the people mentioned in the preceding clause as investors or senior management personnel

第四十一条  任何单位和个人不得强令商业银行发放贷款或者提供担保。

Article 41 No unit or individual is allowed to force the commercial banks to issue loans or provide guarantees.

商业银行有权拒绝任何单位和个人强令要求其发放贷款或者提供担保。

In other words the commercial banks have the rights to refuse any unit or body to force it to do so.

经国务院批准的特定贷款项目,国有独资商业银行应当发放贷款。

The solely State owned commercial banks should issue loans to special projects which have been approved by the State Council.

因贷款造成的损失,由国务院采取相应补救措施。具体办法由国务院规定。

The State Council will adopt corresponding measures to make up for the losses of the banks because of issuing the loans. To adopt what measures is up to the decision of the State Council.

第四十二条  借款人应当按期归还贷款的本金和利息。

Article 42 Borrowers of loans should repay the principal and interest of the loans on time.

借款人到期不归还担保贷款的,商业银行依法享有要求保证人归还贷款本金和利息或者就该担保物优先受偿的权利。

If a borrower cannot repay the guaranteed loan on time, the commercial bank which issues the loan has the right to ask the guarantor to repay the principal and interest of the loan or enjoy the priority of repayment by security in accordance with law.

商业银行因行使抵押权、质权而取得的不动产或者股票,应当自取得之日起一年内予以处分。

Fixed assets or stocks obtained by a commercial bank in the course of exercising the banks ownership of mortagage must be handled within one year as of the date of obtaining them by the bank.

借款人到期不归还信用贷款的,应当按照合同约定承担责任。

A borrower should undertake liabilities in accordance with the contract if cannot repay the credit loan on time.

第四十三条  商业银行在中华人民共和国境内不得从事信托投资和股票业务,不得投资于非自用不动产。

Article 43 Commercial banks are not allowed to make trust investment, trade in shares or make investment in fixed assets of non-self use within the People's Republic of China.

商业银行在中华人民共和国境内不得向非银行金融机构和企业投资。

Commercial banks are not allowed to make investment in non-banking institutions and enterprises within the People's Republic of China.

本法施行前,商业银行已向非银行金融机构和企业投资的,由国务院另行规定实施办法。

 For investments in the kind made before the promulgation of this law the State Council will work out rules to deal with them.

第四十四条  商业银行办理票据承兑、汇兑、委托收款等结算业务,应当按照规定的期限兑现,收付入帐,不得压单、压票或者违反规定退票。

Article 44 In handling account settlement businesses such as honor, remittance and trust acceptance negotiable instruments, a commercial bank should honor and enter the receipts and payment into the account book within the set period of time and must not hold down the bill or money order or return them in violating the law.

有关兑现、收付入帐期限的规定应当公布。

The stipulations about the set period for honoring and entering the receipts and payment into the account book should be announced.

第四十五条  商业银行发行金融债券或者到境外借款,应当依照法律、行政法规的规定报经批准。

Article 45 A commercial bank should have the approval for issuing monetary bonds or for borrowing from overseas in accordance with laws and administrative regulations.

第四十六条  同业拆借,应当遵守中国人民银行规定的期限,拆借的期限最长不得超过四个月。

Article 46 Inter-bank lending should be made in accordance with the time limit as set by the People's Bank of China, and the longest time limit should not be more than four months.

禁止利用拆入资金发放固定资产贷款或者用于投资。

It is forbidden to use the borrowed inter-bank funds to issue fixed assets loans or to make investment.

拆出资金限于交足存款准备金、留足备付金和归还中国人民银行到期贷款之后的闲置资金。

Funds for inter-bank lending should be restricted to those idle funds after fully paying the deposit reserve funds, standing funds and the due loans to the People's Bank of China.

拆入资金用于弥补票据结算、联行汇差头寸的不足和解决临时性周转资金的需要。

Funds borrowed from interbank lendings should be used for making up for the settlement of the accounts, shortage of the inter-bank balance and the need of temporary working funds.

第四十七条  商业银行不得违反规定提高或者降低利率以及采用其他不正当手段,吸收存款,发放贷款。

Article 47 Commercial banks must not raise or lower interest rate as against the stipulations or absorb deposits and issue loans through unjustified means.

第四十八条  企业事业单位可以自主选择一家商业银行的营业场所开立一个办理日常转帐结算和现金收付的基本帐户,不得开立两个以上基本帐户。

Article 48 Enterprises and institutions can choose on their own will a commercial bank to open their own basic accounts for daily transferance and settlement of accounts and cash receipts and payment, but cannot open two or more basic accounts.

任何单位和个人不得将单位的资金以个人名义开立帐户存储。

No unit or individual is allowed to open a private account for the deposits of the funds of a unit.

第四十九条  商业银行的营业时间应当方便客户,并予以公告。

Article 49 The business hours of commercial banks should be convenient to clients and should be publicly announced.

商业银行应当在公告的营业时间内营业,不得擅自停止营业或者缩短营业时间。

Commercial banks should be fully open to business within the announced business hours and not to close or shorten the business hours on their own will.

第五十条  商业银行办理业务,提供服务,按照中国人民银行的规定收取手续费。

Article 50 In handling business and providing services, a commercial bank will charge service fees in accordance with the stipulations of the People's Bank of China.

第五十一条  商业银行应当按照国家有关规定保存财务会计报表、业务合同以及其他资料。

Article 51 Commercial banks should keep financial accounting reports, business contracts and other data in accordance with relevant State regulations.

第五十二条  商业银行的工作人员应当遵守法律、行政法规和其他各项业务管理的规定,不得有下列行为:

Article 52 Employees of commercial banks should abide by laws and administrative regulations and other operational rules and must not perform the followings:

(一)利用职务上的便利,索取、收受贿赂或者违反国家规定收受各种名义的回扣、手续费;

(1) Use their own position to ask for or accept bribery or accept commissons or service charges under various titles in violation of State regulations;

(二)利用职务上的便利,贪污、挪用、侵占本行或者客户的资金;

(2) Use their own position to embezzle, divert and encroach upon the funds of the banks and clients;

(三)违反规定徇私向亲属、朋友发放贷款或者提供担保;

(3) Privately issue loans to or provide guarantee for relatives and friends in violation of relative regulations;

(四)在其他经济组织兼职;

(4) Serve concurrently in other economic organizations; and

(五)违反法律、行政法规和业务管理规定的其他行为。

(5) Engage in other behaviors that violate laws, administrative regulations and rules governing business management.

第五十三条  商业银行的工作人员不得泄露其在任职期间知悉的国家秘密、商业秘密。

Article 53 Employees of commercial banks must not leak the State and commercial secrets they acquire during their term of service.

第五章  财务会计

Chapter V Finance and Accounting

第五十四条  商业银行应当依照法律和国家统一的会计制度以及中国人民银行的有关规定,建立、健全本行的财务会计制度。

Article 54 Commercial banks should establish and improve their own financial accounting system in accordance with laws, the unified accounting system formulated by the State and the relevant stipulations of the People's Bank of China.

第五十五条  商业银行应当按照国家有关规定,真实记录并全面反映其业务活动和财务状况,编制年度财务会计报告,及时向中国人民银行和财政部门报送会计报表。

Article 55 Commercial banks should, in accordance with the relevant State stipulations, truly record and totally report its business activities and financial affairs, prepare its annual financial affairs report and timely send the report to the People's Bank of China and Ministry of Finance.

商业银行不得在法定的会计帐册外另立会计帐册。

Commercial banks must not set up other accounting books other than that set up according to law.

第五十六条  商业银行应当于每一会计年度终了三个月内,按照中国人民银行的规定,公布其上一年度的经营业绩和审计报告。

Article 56 Commercial banks should publish their business and auditing reports for the previous accounting fiscal year in accordance with the regulations of the People's Bank of China within the last three months of every accounting fiscal year.

第五十七条  商业银行应当按照国家有关规定,提取呆帐准备金,冲销呆帐。

Article 57 Commercial banks should draw bad debt reserve funds to reverse the bad debt in accordance with relevant State regulations.

第五十八条  商业银行的会计年度自公历1月1日起至12月31日止。

Article 58 The accounting fiscal year of a commercial bank begins on January 1 and ends on December 31 of the Gregorian calendar.

第六章  监督管理

Chapter VI Supervision and Management

第五十九条  商业银行应当按照中国人民银行的规定,制定本行的业务规则,建立、健全本行的业务管理、现金管理和安全防范制度。

Article 59 Commercial banks should, in accordance with the regulations of the People's Bank of China, formulate their own business regulations and establish and improve their operation, cash management and safety systems.

第六十条  商业银行应当建立、健全本行对存款、贷款、结算、呆帐等各项情况的稽核、检查制度。

Article 60 Commercial banks should establish and improve their own auditing and checking system on deposits, loans, account settling and bad debts.

商业银行对分支机构应当进行经常性的稽核和检查监督。

Commercial banks should keep regular auditings, checkings and supervisions on the work of their branches.

第六十一条  商业银行应当定期向中国人民银行报送资产负债表、损益表以及其他财务会计报表和资料。

Article 61 Commercial banks should regularly send statements of assets and liablities, losses and benefits and financilal accounting as well as other data to the People's Bank of China.

第六十二条  中国人民银行有权依照本法第三章、第四章、第五章的规定,随时对商业银行的存款、贷款、结算、呆帐等情况进行检查监督。

Article 62 The People's Bank of China has the right to check and supervise the deposits, loans, account settling and bad debts of the commercial banks at any time in accordance with the stipulations of Chapters III, IV and V of this law.

检查监督时,检查监督人员应当出示合法的证件。

During their work of checking and supervision the checkers and the supervisors should present their legal certificates.

商业银行应当按照中国人民银行的要求,提供财务会计资料、业务合同和有关经营管理方面的其他信息。

Commercial banks should provide financial accounting data, business contracts and other information about its business and management in accordance with the requirements of the People's Bank of China.

第六十三条  商业银行应当依法接受审计机关的审计监督。

Article 63 Commercial bank should accept the auditing and supervision of the auditing departments in accordance with laws.

 第七章  接管和终止

Chapter VII Take-Over and Termination

第六十四条  商业银行已经或者可能发生信用危机,严重影响存款人的利益时,中国人民银行可以对该银行实行接管。

Article 64 The People's Bank of China may take over a commercial bank whenever a creditility crisis which would seriously affect the interests of the depositors has happened or may happen.

接管的目的是对被接管的商业银行采取必要措施,以保护存款人的利益,恢复商业银行的正常经营能力。

The purpose of a take-over is to take necessary measures against the commercial bank which is to be taken over to protect the interests of the depositors, and restore the normal operation ability of the bank.

被接管的商业银行的债权债务关系不因接管而变化。

The right and liabilities of the taken-over bank will not change because of the take-over.

第六十五条  接管由中国人民银行决定,并组织实施。中国人民银行的接管决定应当载明下列内容:

Article 65 The People's Bank of China decides to organize and carry out the take-over. The take-over decision should have the following contents:

(一)被接管的商业银行名称;

(1) The name of the commercial bank which is to be taken over;

(二)接管理由;

(2) The reason for the take-over;

(三)接管组织;

(3) The organization to execute the take-over; and

(四)接管期限。

(4) The time limit for the take-over.

接管决定由中国人民银行予以公告。

The take-over decision will be published by the People's Bank of China.

第六十六条  接管自接管决定实施之日起开始。

Article 66 The take-over will begin at the date of execution of the take-over decision.

自接管开始之日起,由接管组织行使商业银行的经营管理权力。

The organization which executes the take-over will execute the business and management power of the commercial bank beginning from the date of taking over.

第六十七条  接管期限届满,中国人民银行可以决定延期,但接管期限最长不得超过二年。

Article 67 The People's Bank of China may decide to extend term of the take-over upon its expiration but the term of extension cannot exceed two years.

第六十八条  有下列情形之一的,接管终止:

Article 68 The take-over terminates in one of the following cases:

(一)接管决定规定的期限届满或者中国人民银行决定的接管延期届满;

(1) The term set by the take-over decision expires or the extension of the term decided by the People's Bank of China expires;

(二)接管期限届满前,该商业银行已恢复正常经营能力;

(2) The commercial bank concerned has restored its normal business ability before the term of the take-over expires; and

(三)接管期限届满前,该商业银行被合并或者被依法宣告破产。

(3) The commercial bank is emerged or declares bankrupt before the end of the term of the take-over.

第六十九条  商业银行因分立、合并或者出现公司章程规定的解散事由需要解散的,应当向中国人民银行提出申请,并附解散的理由和支付存款的本金和利息等债务清偿计划。经中国人民银行批准后解散。

Article 69 A commercial bank should apply to the People's Bank of China for a disbandment due to merger, seperation or reasons set in the Articles of association of the bank and the application should be accompanied with the reasons for the disbandment and the plan for balance settlement such as paying the principal and interest of the deposits. And then the bank shall disband upon approval of the People's Bank of China.

商业银行解散的,应当依法成立清算组,进行清算,按照清偿计划及时偿还存款本金和利息等债务。中国人民银行监督清算过程。

The commercial bank to be disbanded should set up a group for settling accounts in accordance with laws and pay its debts such as the principal and interest of deposits. The People's Bank of China shall supervise over the settling process.

第七十条  商业银行因吊销经营许可证被撤销的,中国人民银行应当依法及时组织成立清算组,进行清算,按照清偿计划及时偿还存款本金和利息等债务。

Article 70 If a commercial bank is dismantled because of a revoke of its business license, the People's Bank of China should, in accordance with law, set up a group for settling accounts in time, and pay its debts such as the principal and interest of deposits in time according to the plan for accounts settlement.

第七十一条  商业银行不能支付到期债务,经中国人民银行同意,由人民法院依法宣告其破产。

Article 71 If the commercial bank cannot pay the due debts, it will be declared bankrupt by the people's court in accordance with law and with the agreement of the People's Bank of China.

商业银行被宣告破产的,由人民法院组织中国人民银行等有关部门和有关人员成立清算组,进行清算。

 When a commercial bank is declared bankrupt, the people's court will organize the People's Bank of China and other relevant departments to set up a group for setting accounts with the bank.

商业银行破产清算时,在支付清算费用、所欠职工工资和劳动保险费用后,应当优先支付个人储蓄存款的本金和利息。

While the bankrupt commercial bank is undergoing the process of account settlement it should first pay the principal and interest of the individual depositors after paying the fees for account settling, employees' wages and labor insurance which are in arrears.

第七十二条  商业银行因解散、被撤销和被宣告破产而终止。

Article 72 Commercial banks should terminate their operations upon a disbandment, dismantlement and bankruptcy.

第八章  法律责任

Chapter VIII Legal Liabilities

第七十三条  商业银行有下列情形之一,对存款人或者其他客户造成财产损害的,应当承担支付迟延履行的利息以及其他民事责任:

Article 73 Whenever the appearance of one of the following cases that would do harm to the property of the depositors and other clients occurs, commercial banks concerned should undertake to pay the delayed interest and other civil liabilities:

(一)无故拖延、拒绝支付存款本金和利息的;

(1) The bank delays or refuses to pay the principal and interest of the deposits without any reasons;

(二)违反票据承兑等结算业务规定,不予兑现,不予收付入帐,压单、压票或者违反规定退票的;

(2) The bank refuses to honor instruments, does not enter receipts and payments into account book, holds down bills or instruments or returns the instruments in violation of the stipulations governing account settling;

(三)非法查询、冻结、扣划个人储蓄存款或者单位存款的;

(3) The bank illegally inquires about, freezes or deducts deposits of individuals or units; and

(四)违反本法规定对存款人或者其他客户造成损害的其他行为。

(4) Other behaviors of the bank that would violate the stipulations of this law and do harm to the depositors and other clients.

第七十四条  商业银行有下列情形之一,由中国人民银行责令改正,有违法所得的,没收违法所得,并处以违法所得一倍以上五倍以下罚款,没有违法所得的,处以十万元以上五十万元以下罚款;

Article 74 The People's Bank of China shall order a commercial bank to correct one of the following cases, confiscate its illegal earnings if any and impose a fine which is anything between one to five times the illegal earnings or between RMB100, 000 yuan and 500, 000 yuan if no illegal earnings.

情节特别严重或者逾期不改正的,中国人民银行可以责令停业整顿或者吊销其经营许可证;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:

The People's Bank of China may order the bank to stop its business or revoke its business license if the case is especially serious and the bank refuses to correct within a set time; and criminal responsibilities will be affixed if the case is so serious to constitute a crime:

(一)未经批准发行金融债券或者到境外借款的;

(1) The bank issues financial bonds or borrows funds from overseas without approval;

(二)未经批准买卖政府债券或者买卖、代理买卖外汇的;

(2) The bank buys and sells government bonds or buys and sells and acts as an agent to buy and sell foreign exchanges without approval;

(三)在境内从事信托投资和股票业务或者投资于非自用不动产的;

(3) The bank is engaged in trust investment and stock business or invests in fixed assets of non-self use within the country;

(四)向境内非银行金融机构和企业投资的;

(4) The bank makes investment in non-banking financial institutions and enterprises;

(五)向关系人发放信用贷款或者发放担保贷款的条件优于其他借款人同类贷款的条件的;

(5) The bank issues credit loans or guaranteed loans with better condition than those to similar borrowers to people who have connections with the bank;

(六)提供虚假的或者隐瞒重要事实的财务会计报表的;

(6) The bank provides an accounting report that is fake or with important facts held back;

(七)拒绝中国人民银行稽核、检查监督的;

(7) The bank refuses the auditing, checking and supervising of the People's Bank of China, and

(八)出租、出借经营许可证的。

(8) The bank leases or lends out business license.

第七十五条  商业银行有本法第七十三条规定的情形之一或者有下列情形之一,由中国人民银行责令改正,有违法所得的,没收违法所得,并处以违法所得一倍以上三倍以下罚款,没有违法所得的,处以五万元以上三十万元以下罚款:

Article 75 The People's Bank of China shall order a commercial bank to correct one of the cases stated in Article 73 of this law or one of the following cases, and confiscates its illegal earnings if any and impose a fine which is one to three times the illegal earnings, or impose a fine between RMB 50, 000 yuan and 300, 000 yuan if no illegal earnings:

(一)未按照中国人民银行规定的比例交存存款准备金的;

(1) The bank does not pay the deposit reserve funds in accordance with the proportion set by the People's Bank of China;

(二)未遵守资本充足率、存贷比例、资产流动性比例、同一借款人贷款比例和中国人民银行有关资产负债比例管理的其他规定的;

(2) The bank does not operate with the set ratios in concern of capital, deposits and loans, fluid of assets, loans to the same borrower, and balance sheet as set by the People's Bank of China;

(三)未经批准设立分支机构的;

(3) The bank sets up a branch without approval;

(四)未经批准分立、合并的;

(4) The bank separates or merges without approval;

(五)同业拆借超过规定的期限或者利用拆入资金发放固定资产贷款的;

(5) The bank engages in inter-bank lending exceeding the set time limit or uses the borrowed interbank money to issue fixed assets loans; and

(六)违反规定提高或者降低利率以及采用其他不正当手段,吸收存款,发放贷款的。

(6) The bank raises or lowers interest rates in violation of stipulations or resorts to unjustified means to absorb deposits and issue loans.

第七十六条  商业银行有本法第七十三条至第七十五条规定的情形的,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,应当给予纪律处分;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

Article 76 Disciplinary actions shall be taken against the leading and other personnel of a commercial bank who have direct responsibilities for the cases in the preceding three articles; criminal responsibilities shall be affixed if the case is so serious to constitute a crime.

第七十七条  有下列情形之一,由中国人民银行责令改正,有违法所得的,没收违法所得,可以处以违法所得一倍以上三倍以下罚款,没有违法所得的,可以处以五万元以上三十万元以下罚款:

Article 77 The People's Bank of China shall order the correction of one of the following cases, and confiscate illegal earnings and impose a fine of one to three times the illegal earnings, or between RMB 50, 000 yuan and 300, 000 yuan if no illegal earning:

(一)未经批准在名称中使用“银行”字样的;

(1) The word "bank" is used in a title without approval;

(二)未经批准购买商业银行股份总额百分之十以上的;

(2) Purchase more than 10% of the total volume of the shares of a commercial bank without approval; and

(三)将单位的资金以个人名义开立帐户存储的。

(3) Opening of a private account for the funds of a unit.

第七十八条  不按照规定向中国人民银行报送有关文件、资料或者违反本法第二十四条规定对变更事项不报批的,由中国人民银行责令改正,逾期不改正的,可以处以一万元以上十万元以下罚款。

Article 78 The People's Bank of China shall order a commercial bank to correct if it does not send relevant documents and data to the People's Bank of China in accordance with relevant stipulations or violates the stipulations of Article 24 of this law and does not report the changes for approval; if it refuses to correct within a set time, the People's Bank of China will impose a fine of RMB10, 000 yuan to 100, 000 yuan against the commercial bank.

第七十九条  未经中国人民银行批准,擅自设立商业银行,或者非法吸收公众存款、变相吸收公众存款的,依法追究刑事责任;并由中国人民银行予以取缔。

Article 79 Criminal responsibilities shall be affixed on those who set up a commercial bank on their own without the approval of the People's Bank of China or illegally absorb public deposits or absorb public deposits in a disguised way; and the above actions shall be banned by the People's Bank of China.

伪造、变造、转让商业银行经营许可证的,依法追究刑事责任。

Criminal responsibilities shall be affixed on those who fabricate, change and transfer the business license of a commercial bank.

第八十条  借款人采取欺诈手段骗取贷款,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

Article 80 If a borrower obtains loans by cheating and the case is so serious as to constitute a crime, criminal responsibilities shall be affixed.

第八十一条  商业银行工作人员利用职务上的便利,索取、收受贿赂或者违反国家规定收受各种名义的回扣、手续费的,依法追究刑事责任。

Article 81 Criminal responsibilities shall be affixed on employees of commercial banks who, taking advantage of their own position, ask for and accept bribery or violate State regulations to accept various forms of discount and service charges.

有前款行为,发放贷款或者提供担保造成损失的,应当承担全部或者部分赔偿责任。

If loans or guarantees provided as mentioned in the preceding clause have caused damages those who are responsible shall undertake the whole or part of the responsibilities of repayment.

第八十二条  商业银行工作人员利用职务上的便利,贪污、挪用、侵占本行或者客户资金,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任;未构成犯罪的,应当给予纪律处分。

Article 82 Criminal responsibilities shall be affixed on employees of the commercial banks who, by taking advantage of their own position, embezzle, divert or encroach upon the funds of the bank or the clients and the cases are so serious as to constitute a crime; and disciplinary action shall be taken against those whose case does not constitute a crime.

第八十三条  商业银行工作人员违反本法规定玩忽职守造成损失的,应当给予纪律处分;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

Article 83 Disciplinary action shall be taken against employees of a commercial bank who violate this law and are derelict of their duty, causing damages; criminal responsibilities shall be affixed if the case is so serious as to constitute a crime.

违反规定徇私向亲属、朋友发放贷款或者提供担保造成损失的,应当承担全部或者部分赔偿责任。

Those who cause damage because of issuing loans to or providing guarantee for relatives and friends should undertake the whole or part of the responsibilities of repayment.

第八十四条  商业银行工作人员泄露在任职期间知悉的国家秘密、商业秘密的,应当给予纪律处分;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

Article 84 Disciplinary action shall be taken against employees of a commercial bank who leak the State and commercial secrets they have accessed to during their service; criminal responsibilities shall be affixed if the case is so serious as to constitute a crime.

第八十五条  单位或者个人强令商业银行发放贷款或者提供担保的,应当对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员或者个人给予纪律处分;造成损失的,应当承担全部或者部分赔偿责任。

Article 85 Disciplinary action shall be taken against those who are directly in charge or responsible for forcing commercial banks to issue loans or provide guarantee; those who cause damages for the actions should undertake the whole or part of the responsibilities of repayment.

商业银行的工作人员对单位或者个人强令其发放贷款或者提供担保未予拒绝的,应当给予纪律处分;造成损失的,应当承担相应的赔偿责任。

Disciplinary action shall be taken against employees of a commercial bank who do not refuse to provide forced loans or guarantees; those who cause damages for the action should undertake relevant responsibilities of repayment.

第八十六条  商业银行及其工作人员对中国人民银行的处罚决定不服的,可以依照《中华人民共和国行政诉讼法》的规定向人民法院提起诉讼。

Article 86 Upon refusal to the decisions of punishments by the People's Bank of China, commercial banks and their employees may take the procedures to the people's court in accordance with the " Administrative Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China".

第九章  附  则

Chapter IX Supplementary Provisions

第八十七条  本法施行前,按照国务院的规定经批准设立的商业银行不再办理审批手续。

Article 87 Commercial banks which were set up with approval in accordance with the regulations of the State Council need not go through the formalities of check and approval before this law is promulgated.

第八十八条  外资商业银行、中外合资商业银行、外国商业银行分行适用本法规定,法律、行政法规另有规定的,适用其规定。

Article 88 This law applies to the foreign-funded commercial banks, Sino-foreign joint venture commercial banks and the branches of foreign commercial banks in china, and if there are special laws and administrative regualations governing them, they should follow such special laws and regulations.

第八十九条  城市信用合作社、农村信用合作社办理存款、贷款和结算等业务,适用本法有关规定。

Article 89 The relevant regulations of this law apply to both urban and rural credit cooperative in their businesses such as handling deposits, issuing loans and settling accounts.

第九十条  邮政企业办理邮政储蓄、汇款业务,适用本法有关规定。

Article 90 The relevant regulations of this law , apply to the postal enterprises in their postal deposits and remittance services.

第九十一条  本法自1995年7月1日起施行。

Article 91 This law goes into force as of July 1, 1995.




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