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《中华人民共和国合同法》若干问题的解释
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最高人民法院关于适用《中华人民共和国合同法》若干问题的解释(一)

The Supreme People's Court's Interpretations of Certain Issues Concerning the Application of The Contract Law of the People's Republic of China (Part One) Translated by John Jiang & Henry Liu

法释〔一九九九〕十九号一九九九年十二月一日

[Judicial Interpretations (1999) No. 19]

最高人民法院审判委员会第一千零九十次会议通过

Adopted at the 1090th Session of the Adjudication Committee of the Supreme People's Court on December 1, 1999

为了正确审理合同纠纷案件,根据《中华人民共和国合同法》(以下简称合同法)的规定,对人民法院适用合同法的有关问题作出如下解释:

Pursuant to The Contract Law of the People's Republic of China (hereinafter the "Contract Law"), and with a view to facilitating the proper adjudication of contractual disputes, we hereby promulgate the following interpretations of certain issues concerning the application of the Contract Law by People's Courts:

一、法律适用范围

I. Scope of Application of the Law

第一条合同法实施以后成立的合同发生纠纷起诉到人民法院的,适用合同法的规定;合同法实施以前成立的合同发生纠纷起诉到人民法院的,除本解释另有规定的以外,适用当时的法律规定,当时没有法律规定的,可以适用合同法的有关规定。

Clause 1 Where a suit is brought to a People's Court in respect of a dispute arising out of a contract formed after the operative date of the Contract Law, the provisions of the Contract Law shall apply; where a suit is brought to a People's Court in respect of a dispute concerning a contract formed before the operative date of the Contract Law, except otherwise provided herein, the provisions of the law in effect at the time shall apply, provided that if the law in effect at the time did not provide for such matter, the relevant provision of the Contract Law may apply.

第二条合同成立于合同法实施之前,但合同约定的履行期限跨越合同法实施之日或者履行期限在合同法实施之后,因履行合同发生的纠纷,适用合同法第四章的有关规定。

Clause 2 Where a contract was formed before the operative date of the Contract Law, but the prescribed time limit for performance extends beyond, or commences after, the operative date of the Contract Law, if a dispute arises out of its performance, the relevant provisions of Chapter Four of the Contract Law shall apply.

第三条人民法院确认合同效力时,对合同法实施以前成立的合同,适用当时的法律合同无效而适用合同法合同有效的,则适用合同法。

Clause 3 In determining the validity of a contract formed before the operative date of the Contract Law, if application of the law in effect at the time leads to its invalidation, but application of the Contract Law leads to affirmation of its validity, the People's Court shall apply the Contract Law.

第四条合同法实施以后,人民法院确认合同无效,应当以全国人大及其常委会制定的法律和国务院制定的行政法规为依据,不得以地方性法规、行政规章为依据。

Clause 4 After the Contract Law became operative, a People's Court may only invalidate a contract in accordance with laws adopted by the National People's Congress or its Standing Committee, or administrative regulations adopted by the State Council, and may not invalidate a contract in accordance with any local statutes or administrative rules.

第五条人民法院对合同法实施以前已经作出终审裁决的案件进行再审,不适用合同法。

Clause 5 Where a People's Court re-adjudicates a case on which a final judgment has been rendered, the Contract Law does not apply.

二、诉讼时效

II. Time Limit for Action

第六条技术合同争议当事人的权利受到侵害的事实发生在合同法实施之前,自当事人知道或者应当知道其权利受到侵害之日起至合同法实施之日超过一年的,人民法院不予保护;尚未超过一年的,其提起诉讼的时效期间为两年。

Clause 6 In a dispute arising out of a technology contract, where infringement of the right of a party occurred before the operative date of the Contract Law, if there was a lapse of more than one year between the date on which the party knew or should have known that its right was infringed and the operative date of the Contract Law, the People's Court will no longer enforce such right; where the lapse was less than one year, the time limit during which the party may bring a suit shall be two years.

第七条技术进出口合同争议当事人的权利受到侵害的事实发生在合同法实施之前,自当事人知道或者应当知道其权利受到侵害之日起至合同法施行之日超过两年的,人民法院不予保护;尚未超过两年的,其提起诉讼的时效期间为四年。

Clause 7 In a dispute arising out of a technology import/export contract, where infringement of the right of a party occurred before the operative date of the Contract Law, if there was a lapse of more than two years between the date on which the party knew or should have known that its right was infringed and the operative date of the Contract Law, the People's Court will no longer enforce such right; where the lapse was less than two years, the time limit during which the party may bring a suit shall be four years.

第八条合同法第五十五条规定的“一年”、第七十五条和第一百零四条第二款规定的“五年”为不变期间,不适用诉讼时效中止、中断或者延长的规定。

Clause 8 The time period of "one year" set out in Article 55, and the time period of "five years" set out in Article 75 and Paragraph 2 of Article 104 of the Contract Law are fixed, and are not subject to the rules governing the suspension, termination or extension of time limit for action.

三、合同效力

III. Validity of Contracts

第九条依照合同法第四十四条第二款的规定,法律、行政法规规定合同应当办理批准手续,或者办理批准、登记等手续才生效,在一审法庭辩论终结前当事人仍未办理批准手续的,或者仍未办理批准、登记等手续的,人民法院应当认定该合同未生效;法律、行政法规规定合同应当办理登记手续,但未规定登记后生效的,当事人未办理登记手续不影响合同的效力,合同标的物所有权及其他物权不能转移。

Clause 9 Where as set forth in Paragraph 2 of Article 44 of the Contract Law, the relevant law or administration regulation provides that the effectiveness of a certain contract is subject to completion of the relevant approval procedure, or the relevant approval and registration procedures, if before completion of court debate by the parties in the trial of first instance, the parties still fail to carry out the relevant approval procedure, or approval and registration procedures, as the case may be, the People's Court shall rule that the contract has not yet taken effect; if the relevant law or administration regulation requires that a certain contract be registered without subjecting its effectiveness to such registration, then failure to effect registration shall not impair the effectiveness of the contract, provided that such failure constitutes an impediment to the conveyance of title to, or such other real right in, the subject matter of the contract.

合同法第七十七条第二款、第八十七条、第九十六条第二款所列合同变更、转让、解除等情形,依照前款规定处理。

In the case of amendment, assignment or termination of a contract as set forth in Paragraph 2 of Article 77, Article 87, and Paragraph 2 of Article 96 of the Contract Law, the provisions of the previous Paragraph apply.

第十条当事人超越经营范围订立合同,人民法院不因此认定合同无效。但违反国家限制经营、特许经营以及法律、行政法规禁止经营规定的除外。

Clause 10 Where the parties entered into a contract the subject matter of which was outside their scope of business, the People's Court shall not invalidate the contract on such ground, except where conclusion of the contract was in violation of state restriction concerning, or licensing requirement for, a particular business sector, or in violation of any law or administrative regulation prohibiting the parties from participation in a particular business sector.

四、代位权

IV. Subrogation

第十一条债权人依照合同法第七十三条的规定提起代位权诉讼,应当符合下列条件:

Clause 11 Where an obligee is to bring a suit of subrogation pursuant to Article 73 of the Contract Law, the following conditions shall be met:

(一)债权人对债务人的债权合法;

(1) The obligee's creditor's right against the obligor is lawful;

(二)债务人怠于行使其到期债权,对债权人造成损害;

(2) The obligor's delay in exercising the creditor's right due to it has caused harm to the obligee;

(三)债务人的债权已到期;

(3) The creditor's right of the obligor is due;

(四)债务人的债权不是专属于债务人自身的债权。

(4) The creditor's right of the obligor is not exclusively personal to it.

第十二条合同法第七十三条第一款规定的专属于债务人自身的债权,是指基于扶养关系、抚养关系、赡养关系、继承关系产生的给付请求权和劳动报酬、退休金、养老金、抚恤金、安置费、人寿保险、人身伤害赔偿请求权等权利。

Clause 12 As referred to in Paragraph 1 of Article 73, a creditor's right exclusively personal to the obligor means a claim for alimony, child support, parental support or succession, or, a claim for wage, retirement pension, old age pension, death benefits, relocation allowance or life insurance, or, a personal injury claim.

第十三条合同法第七十三条规定的“债务人怠于行使其到期债权,对债权人造成损害的”,是指债务人不履行其对债权人的到期债务,又不以诉讼方式或者仲裁方式向其债务人主张其享有的具有金钱给付内容的到期债权,致使债权人的到期债权未能实现。

Clause 13 The clause "Where the obligor delayed in exercising its creditor's right against a third person that was due, thereby harming the obligee" in Article 73 of the Contract Law refers to the following circumstance: The obligor fails to render performance which is due to the obligee, and further, it has failed to enforce a creditor's right which is due to it and which involves the payment of money against an obligor either through a suit in court or through arbitration, thereby frustrating the obligee's realization of the creditor's right due to it.

次债务人(即债务人的债务人)不认为债务人有怠于行使其到期债权情况的,应当承担举证责任。

Where the secondary obligor (i.e. the obligor of the original obligor) denies that the obligor has delayed in exercising its creditor's right due to it, the secondary obligor bears the burden of proof.

第十四条债权人依照合同法第七十三条的规定提起代位权诉讼的,由被告住所地人民法院管辖。

Clause 14 Where an obligee brings a suit of subrogation pursuant to Article 73 of the Contract Law, jurisdiction shall vest in the People's Court in the place where the defendant is domiciled.

第十五条债权人向人民法院起诉债务人以后,又向同一人民法院对次债务人提起代位权诉讼,符合本解释第十三条的规定和《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》第一百零八条规定的起诉条件的,应当立案受理;不符合本解释第十三条规定的,告知债权人向次债务人住所地人民法院另行起诉。

Clause 15 Where after bringing a suit against an obligor to a People's Court, an obligee brings a suit of subrogation against a secondary obligor to the same court, if such suit complies with the provisions of Article 13 hereof as well as the conditions for bringing a suit set forth in Article 108 of the Civil Procedural Law of the People's Republic of China, the court shall accept such suit; where such suit does not comply with Article 13 hereof, the court shall direct the obligee to bring a separate suit to the People's Court in the place where the secondary obligor is domiciled.

受理代位权诉讼的人民法院在债权人起诉债务人的诉讼裁决发生法律效力以前,应当依照《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》第一百三十六条第(五)项的规定中止代位权诉讼。

Before judgment on the suit brought by the obligee against the obligor takes legal effect, the People's Court adjudicating the suit of subrogation against the secondary obligor shall stay such suit in accordance with Item (5) of Article 136 of the Civil Procedural Law of the People's Republic of China.

第十六条债权人以次债务人为被告向人民法院提起代位权诉讼,未将债务人列为第三人的,人民法院可以追加债务人为第三人。

Clause 16 Where in a suit of subrogation brought to a People's Court, an obligee names only the secondary obligor as the defendant without also naming the original obligor as an interested third person, the People's Court may add the original obligor as an interested third person.

两个或者两个以上债权人以同一次债务人为被告提起代位权诉讼的,人民法院可以合并审理。

Where in suits of subrogation brought separately by two or more obligees, the same secondary obligor is named as the defendant, the People's Court may combine the suits for adjudication.

第十七条在代位权诉讼中,债权人请求人民法院对次债务人的财产采取保全措施的,应当提供相应的财产担保。

Clause 17 In a suit of subrogation, if the obligee petitions the People's Court for preservative measure against the assets of the secondary obligor, it shall provide appropriate financial assurance.

第十八条在代位权诉讼中,次债务人对债务人的抗辩,可以向债权人主张。

Clause 18 In a suit of subrogation, the secondary obligor may, in respect of the obligee, avail itself of any defense it has against the original obligor.

债务人在代位权诉讼中对债权人的债权提出异议,经审查异议成立的,人民法院应当裁定驳回债权人的起诉。

In a suit of subrogation, where the obligor raises a defense against the obligee's claim, if the People's Court affirms the defense, it shall dismiss the suit brought by the obligee.

第十九条在代位权诉讼中,债权人胜诉的,诉讼费由次债务人负担,从实现的债权中优先支付。

Clause 19 In a suit of subrogation, if the obligee prevails, the court fee shall be borne by the secondary obligor, and shall be paid in priority out of the proceeds from the enforced creditor's right.

第二十条债权人向次债务人提起的代位权诉讼经人民法院审理后认定代位权成立的,由次债务人向债权人履行清偿义务,债权人与债务人、债务人与次债务人之间相应的债权债务关系即予消灭。

Clause 20 Where an obligee brings a suit of subrogation against a secondary obligor, and the People's Court affirms the subrogation, the secondary obligor shall perform the payment obligation, whereupon the respective obligee-obligor relationships between the obligee and the obligor, and between the obligor and the secondary obligor, are discharged accordingly.

第二十一条在代位权诉讼中,债权人行使代位权的请求数额超过债务人所负债务额或者超过次债务人对债务人所负债务额的,对超出部分人民法院不予支持。

Clause 21 In a suit of subrogation, where the amount in subrogation claimed by the obligee exceeds the amount owed by the obligor or the amount owed to the obligor by the secondary obligor, the People's Court shall not enforce the claim to the extent the claimed amount exceeds the actual amount.

第二十二条债务人在代位权诉讼中,对超过债权人代位请求数额的债权部分起诉次债务人的,人民法院应当告知其向有管辖权的人民法院另行起诉。

Clause 22 In a suit of subrogation, if the obligor also brings a claim against the secondary obligor for the difference between the amount owed to it and the amount in subrogation claimed by the obligee, the People's Court shall direct the obligor to bring a separate suit to the People's Court with the proper jurisdiction.

债务人的起诉符合法定条件的,人民法院应当受理;受理债务人起诉的人民法院在代位权诉讼裁决发生法律效力以前,应当依法中止。

Where such suit brought separately by the obligor meets the legally prescribed conditions, the People's Court shall accept such suit; the People's Court accepting the suit brought by the obligor shall stay such suit in accordance with the law pending the legal effectiveness of the judgment on the suit of subrogation.

五、撤销权

V. Cancellation Right

第二十三条债权人依照合同法第七十四条的规定提起撤销权诉讼的,由被告住所地人民法院管辖。

Clause 23 Where an obligee brings a suit to enforce its cancellation right pursuant to Article 74 of the Contract Law, jurisdiction shall vest in the People's Court in the place where the defendant is domiciled.

第二十四条债权人依照合同法第七十四条的规定提起撤销权诉讼时只以债务人为被告,未将受益人或者受让人列为第三人的,人民法院可以追加该受益人或者受让人为第三人。

Clause 24 If in a suit to enforce its cancellation right pursuant to Article 74 of the Contract Law, the obligee only names the obligor as the defendant without also naming the beneficiary or the assignee as an interested third person, the People's Court may add such beneficiary or assignee as an interested third person.

第二十五条债权人依照合同法第七十四条的规定提起撤销权诉讼,请求人民法院撤销债务人放弃债权或转让财产的行为,人民法院应当就债权人主张的部分进行审理,依法撤销的,该行为自始无效。

Clause 25 Where an obligee brings a suit to enforce its cancellation right pursuant to Article 74 of the Contract Law and petitions the People's Court for cancellation of the obligor's act of waiving its creditor's right or transferring its property, the People's Court shall adjudicate the case to the extent of the amount claimed by the obligee, and if the obligor's act is canceled in accordance with the law, such act is invalid ab initio.

两个或者两个以上债权人以同一债务人为被告,就同一标的提起撤销权诉讼的,人民法院可以合并审理。

Where suits on the same subject matter are filed separately by two or more obligees to enforce their respective cancellation rights, and the same obligor is named as the defendant, the People's Court may combine the suits for adjudication.

第二十六条债权人行使撤销权所支付的律师代理费、差旅费等必要费用,由债务人负担;第三人有过错的,应当适当分担。

Clause 26 The necessary expenses incurred by the obligee in enforcing its cancellation right, such as attorney's fee and travel expenses, shall be borne by the obligor; where the interested third person was also at fault, it shall share such expenses as appropriate.

六、合同转让中的第三人

VI. Interested Third Person in Case of Assignment of Contracts

第二十七条债权人转让合同权利后,债务人与受让人之间因履行合同发生纠纷诉至人民法院,债务人对债权人的权利提出抗辩的,可以将债权人列为第三人。

Clause 27 If subsequent to the obligee's assignment of its contractual right, a suit is brought to a People's Court in respect of a dispute between the obligor and the assignee which arose from the performance of the contract, and the obligor raises a defense against the contractual right of the obligee, it may name the obligee as an interested third person.

第二十八条经债权人同意,债务人转移合同义务后,受让人与债权人之间因履行合同发生纠纷诉至人民法院,受让人就债务人对债权人的权利提出抗辩的,可以将债务人列为第三人。

Clause 28 If with the consent of the obligee, the obligor has delegated its contractual obligation, and subsequently a suit is brought to a People's Court in respect of a dispute between the obligee and the delegatee which arose from the performance of the contract, and the delegatee, in defense against the obligee, avails itself of the obligor's right against the obligee, it may name the obligor as an interested third person.

第二十九条合同当事人一方经对方同意将其在合同中的权利义务一并转让给受让人,对方与受让人因履行合同发生纠纷诉至人民法院,对方就合同权利义务提出抗辩的,可以将出让方列为第三人。

Clause 29 If with the consent of the other party, a party concurrently assigned its contractual rights and delegated its contractual obligations to an assignee, and subsequently a suit is brought to a People's Court in respect of a dispute between the other party and the assignee which arose from the performance of the contract, and the other party raises a defense in respect of the rights and obligations under the contract, it may name the obligor as an interested third person.

七、请求权竞合

VII. Merger of Claims

第三十条债权人依照合同法第一百二十二条的规定向人民法院起诉时作出选择后,在一审开庭以前又变更诉讼请求的,人民法院应当准许。对方当事人提出管辖权异议,经审查异议成立的,人民法院应当驳回起诉。

Clause 30 Where at the time the obligee brought a suit to a People's Court, it made an election of claim in accordance with Article 122 of the Contract Law, and subsequently it changes its election, if the change is made before the commencement of hearing in the trial of first instance, the People's Court shall allow such change. In the event the other party objects to the jurisdiction of the court and such objection is sustained, the People's Court shall dismiss such suit.




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