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Maritime Traffic Safety Law of the People's Republic of China

  第一条 为加强海上交通管理,保障船舶、设施和人命财产的安全,维护国家权益,特制定本法。

Article 1. This Law is formulated in order to strengthen the control of maritime traffic; ensure the safety of vessels, installations, human life and property; and safeguard the rights and interests of the state.

  第二条 本法适用于在中华人民共和国沿海水域航行、停泊和作业的一切船舶、设施和人员以及船舶、设施的所有人、经营人。

Article 2. This Law shall apply to all vessels, installations and personnel and to the owners and managers of such vessels and installations that navigate, berth or operate in the coastal waters of the People's Republic of China.

  第三条 中华人民共和国港务监督机构,是对沿海水域的交通安全实施统一监督管理的主管机关。

Article 3. The harbour superintendency agencies of the People's Republic of China shall be the competent authorities responsible for the unified supervision and administration of traffic safety in the coastal waters.

第二章 船舶检验和登记


  第四条 船舶和船上有关航行安全的重要设备必须具有船舶检验部门签发的有效技术证书。

Article 4. Vessels and their major equipment relating to navigation safety must have valid technical certificates issued by vessel inspection departments.

  第五条 船舶必须持有船舶国籍证书,或船舶登记证书 ,或船舶执照。

Article 5. A vessel must have a certificate showing its nationality, a vessel registry certificate or a vessel licence.

第三章 船舶、设施上的人员


  第六条 船舶应当按照标准定额配备足以保证船舶安全的合格船员。

Article 6. Vessels shall be manned with qualified crew members according to a standard quota to ensure the vessels' safety.

  第七条 船长、轮机长、驾驶员、轮机员、无线电报务员话务员以及水上飞机、潜水器的相应人员,必须持有合格的职务证书。

Article 7. The captain, chief engineer, pilot, engineers, radio and telephone operators and similar personnel on board seaplanes or submersibles must hold valid job certificates.


All other crew members must undergo specialized technical training required for their work.

  第八条 设施应当按照国家规定,配备掌握避碰、信号、通信、消防、救生等专业技能的人员。

Article 8. In accordance with state provisions, all installations shall be provided with personnel who have mastered the techniques of collision avoidance, signalling, communications, fire control, life-saving and other operations.

  第九条 船舶、设施上的人员必须遵守有关海上交通安全的规章制度和操作规程,保障船舶、设施航行、停泊和作业的安全。

Article 9. All personnel on vessels and installations must observe relevant rules and regulations concerning maritime traffic safety, follow the operating rules and ensure the safety of the vessels and installations in navigation, berthing and operations.

第四章 航行、停泊和作业


  第十条 船舶、设施航行、停泊和作业,必须遵守中华人民共和国的有关法律、行政法规和规章。

Article 10. While navigating, berthing or carrying out operations, vessels and installations must abide by the relevant laws, administrative statutes and rules and regulations of the People's Republic of China.

  第十一条 外国籍非军用船舶,未经主管机关批准,不得进入中华人民共和国的内水和港口。但是,因人员病急、机件故障、遇难、避风等意外情况,未及获得批准,可以在进入的同时向主管机关紧急报告,并听从指挥。

Article 11. Non-military vessels of foreign nationality may not enter the internal waters and harbours of the People's Republic of China without the approval of its competent authorities. However, under unexpected circumstances such as critical illness of personnel, engine breakdown or the vessels being in distress or seeking shelter from weather when they do not have the time to obtain approval, they may, while entering China's internal waters or harbours, make an emergency report to the competent authority and shall obey its directions.


Military vessels of foreign nationality may not enter the territorial waters of the People's Republic of China without the approval of the Government of the People's Republic of China.

  第十二条 国际航行船舶进出中华人民共和国港口,必须接受主管机关的检查。本国籍国内航行船舶进出港口,必须办理进出港签证。

Article 12. Vessels sailing on international routes that enter and leave the harbours of the People's Republic of China must accept inspection by the competent authorities. Vessels of Chinese nationality sailing on domestic routes that enter and leave such harbours must obtain port entry and departure visas.

  第十三条 外国籍船舶进出中华人民共和国港口或者在港内航行、移泊以及靠离港外系泊点、装卸站等,必须由主管机关指派引航员引航。

Article 13. Vessels of foreign nationality entering and leaving a harbour of the People's Republic of China, navigating or shifting berths in the harbour area, or approaching or leaving mooring points or loading spots outside the harbour must be navigated by a pilot designated by the competent authority.

  第十四条 船舶进出港口或者通过交通管制区、通航密集区和航行条件受到限制的区域时,必须遵守中华人民共和国政府或主管机关公布的特别规定。

Article 14. When entering or leaving harbours or passing through controlled traffic areas, crowded navigable areas or areas where navigational conditions are restricted, vessels must observe the special regulations promulgated by the Government of the People's Republic of China or by the competent authority.

  第十五条 除经主管机关特别许可外,禁止船舶进入或穿越禁航区。

Article 15. Vessels shall be prohibited from entering or passing through restricted navigation zones unless specially permitted by the competent authority.

  第十六条 大型设施和移动式平台的海上拖带,必须经船舶检验部门进行拖航检验,并报主管机关核准。

Article 16. Towing operations on the open sea involving large-sized installations and mobile platforms must undergo towing inspection conducted by vessel inspection departments and be reported to the competent authority for examination and approval.

  第十七条 主管机关发现船舶的实际状况同证书所载不相符合时,有权责成其申请重新检验或者通知其所有人、经营人采取有效的安全措施。

Article 17. If the competent authority finds the actual condition of a vessel to be not in conformity with what is stated in the vessel's certificates, it shall have the right to require the vessel to apply for a new inspection or notify its owner or manager to adopt effective safety measures.

  第十八条 主管机关认为船舶对港口安全具有威胁时,有权禁止其进港或令其离港。

Article 18. If the competent authority believes that a vessel presents a menace to the safety of a harbour, it shall have the right to forbid the vessel from entering the harbour or to order it to leave the harbour.

  第十九条 船舶、设施有下列情况之一的,主管机关有权禁止其离港,或令其停航、改航、停止作业:

Article 19. The competent authority shall have the right to forbid a vessel or an installation from leaving the harbour or order it to suspend its voyage, change its route or cease its operations under any one of the following circumstances:


(1) if it violates any law, administrative statute or other rule or regulation of the People's Republic of China;


(2) if it is in a condition unsuitable for navigation or towing;


(3) if it is involved in a traffic accident and has not completed the necessary formalities;


(4) if it has not paid the fees that are due or furnished appropriate security to the competent authority or the department concerned; or


(5) if the competent authority considers that there are other circumstances that will jeopardize or might jeopardize maritime traffic safety.

第五章 安全保障


  第二十条 在沿海水域进行水上水下施工以及划定相应的安全作业区,必须报经主管机关核准公告。无关的船舶不得进入安全作业区。 施工单位不得擅自扩大安全作业区的范围。

Article 20. Construction operations to be carried out on the surface or underwater in coastal waters and the demarcation of corresponding safe operation zones must be reported to the competent authority for examination and approval and must be publicly announced. Vessels not involved in the construction project may not enter the safe operation zones. The construction unit may not enlarge such zones without authorization.


When shore lines are to be used in harbour areas or when construction work, including overhead operations, is to be carried out on the sea surface or underwater in such areas, the plan and a drawing thereof must be submitted to the competent authority for examination and approval.

  第二十一条 在沿海水域划定禁航区,必须经国务院或主管机关批准。但是,为军事需要划定禁航区,可以由国家军事主管部门批准。

Article 21. The designation of restricted navigation zones in coastal waters must be approved by the State Council or the competent authority. However, the designation of restricted navigation zones for military purposes shall be approved by the competent department of the state in charge of military affairs.


The restricted navigation zones shall be announced by the competent authority.

  第二十二条 未经主管机关批准,不得在港区、锚地、航道、通航密集区以及主管机关公布的航路内设置、构筑设施或者进行其他有碍航行安全的活动。

Article 22. Without the approval of the competent authority, no installations may be established or constructed, nor may any activities that hinder navigational safety be carried out in harbour areas, anchorages, navigation lanes, or crowded navigable areas, as well as in navigation routes announced by the competent authority.

  对在上述区域内擅自设置, 构筑的设施, 主管机关有权责令其所有人限期搬迁或拆除。

With respect to any installations which have been established or constructed in the above-mentioned areas without authorization, the competent authority shall have the right to order their owners to remove or dismantle the installations within a given period.

  第二十三条 禁止损坏助航标志和导航设施。损坏助航标志或导航设施的,应当立即向主管机关报告,并承担赔偿责任。

Article 23. It shall be forbidden to damage navigation aids or navigational facilities. Whoever has damaged navigation aids or navigational facilities shall immediately report the damage to the competent authority and be liable for compensation.

  第二十四条 船舶、设施发现下列情况,应当迅速报告主管机关:

Article 24. Vessels and installations shall promptly make a report to the competent authority if they discover any of the following situations:


(1) if navigation aids or navigational facilities malfunction or become abnormal;


(2) if an obstacle or drifting object jeopardizing the safety of navigation is discovered; or


(3) if there are other abnormal situations jeopardizing the safety of navigation.

  第二十五条 航标周围不得建造或设置影响其工作效能的障碍物。航标和航道附近有碍航行安全的灯光,应当妥善遮蔽。

Article 25. No obstacle affecting the efficacy of navigation aids may be erected or installed in areas surrounding the aids. Any lights in the vicinity of the navigation aids or navigational lanes that jeopardize navigation safety shall be properly screened.

  第二十六条 设施的搬迁、拆除,沉船沉物的打捞清除,水下工程的善后处理,都不得遗留有碍航行和作业安全的隐患。在未妥善处理前,其所有人或经营人必须负责设置规定的标志,并将碍航物的名称、形状、尺寸、位置和深度准确地报告主管机关。

Article 26. When removing or dismantling installations, salvaging or removing sunken ships or objects, and handling the finishing operations of underwater projects, no hidden dangers shall be left to menace navigational or operational safety. Before the aforesaid operations have been properly completed, their owners or managers must be responsible for erecting markers as required and making an accurate report to the competent authority on the type, shape, size and location of the obstacle and the depth of water over it.

  第二十七条 港口码头、港外系泊点,装卸站和船闸,应当加强安全管理,保持良好状态。

Article 27. Safety administration must be strengthened with respect to harbour wharves, mooring points and loading spots outside of harbour areas as well as ship locks, so that they are always kept in good condition.

  第二十八条 主管机关根据海上交通安全的需要,确定、调整交通管制区和港口锚地。港外锚地的划定,由主管机关报上级机关批准后公告。

Article 28. To meet the requirements of maritime traffic safety, the competent authority shall fix and adjust traffic control areas and harbour anchorages. The designation of anchorages outside of harbour areas shall be announced by the competent authority after the report relative thereto has been submitted to and approved by the higher authority.

  第二十九条 主管机关按照国家规定,负责统一发布航行警告和航行通告。

Article 29. The competent authority shall, in accordance with relevant provisions of the state, be responsible for issuing navigational warnings and navigational notices.

  第三十条 为保障航行、停泊和作业的安全,有关部门应当保持通信联络畅通,保持助航标志、导航设施明显有效,及时提供海洋气象预报和必要的航海图书资料。

Article 30. In order to ensure the safety of navigation, berthing and operations, the departments concerned shall maintain unimpeded communications facilities, ensure distinct and effective navigation aids and navigational facilities and, in a timely manner, provide offshore meteorological forecasts and necessary books and reference materials concerning maritime navigation.

  第三十一条 船舶、设施发生事故,对交通安全造成或者可能造成危害时,主管机关有权采取必要的强制性处置措施。

Article 31. When vessels and installations are involved in accidents that jeopardize or may jeopardize traffic safety, the competent authority shall have the right to take necessary, compulsory measures to deal with the matter.

第六章 危险货物运输


  第三十二条 船舶、 设施储存、 装卸、运输危险货物,必须具备安全可靠的设备和条件,遵守国家关于危险货物管理和运输的规定。

Article 32. When vessels or installations store, load, unload or transport dangerous goods, they must maintain safe and reliable equipment and conditions and observe the state provisions governing the control and transport of dangerous goods.

  第三十三条 船舶装运危险货物,必须向主管机关办理申报手续,经批准后,方可进出港口或装卸。

Article 33. When vessels load and transport dangerous goods, they must go through the procedures for declaration to the competent authority, and they may not enter or leave the harbour or load or unload until approval has been obtained.

第七章 海难救助


  第三十四条 船舶、设施或飞机遇难时,除发出呼救信号外,还应当以最迅速的方式将出事时间、地点、受损情况、救助要求以及发生事故的原因,向主管机关报告。

Article 34. When vessels, installations or aircraft are in distress, they shall, in addition to issuing distress signals calling for help, use the quickest method possible to report to the competent authority the time and place of the accident, the extent of damage, the assistance required and the cause of the accident.

  第三十五条 遇难船舶、设施或飞机及其所有人、经营人应当采取一切有效措施组织自救。

Article 35. Vessels, installations or aircraft in distress and their owners or managers shall take all effective measures to organize their own rescue efforts.

  第三十六条 事故现场附近的船舶,设施,收到求救信号或发现有人遭遇生命危险时,在不严重危及自身安全的情况下,应当尽力救助遇难人员,并迅速向主管机关报告现场情况和本船舶、设施的名称、呼号和位置。

Article 36. When vessels or installations in the vicinity of the scene of an accident receive a distress signal or discover that people's lives are endangered, they shall do their best to rescue the people in distress insofar as their own safety is not seriously endangered, and promptly report to the competent authority the situation at the scene, their own names, call numbers and positions.

  第三十七条 发生碰撞事故的船舶、设施,应当互通名称、国籍和登记港,并尽一切可能救助遇难人员。在不严重危及自身安全的情况下,当事船舶不得擅自离开事故现场。

Article 37. Vessels or installations involved in a collision shall exchange their names, nationalities and ports of registry and do their best to rescue personnel in distress. The vessels involved may not leave the scene of the accident without authorization, insofar as their own safety is not seriously endangered.

  第三十八条 主管机关接到求救报告后,应当立即组织救助。有关单位和在事故现场附近的船舶、设施,必须听从主管机关的统一指挥。

Article 38. Upon receiving a request for rescue, the competent authority shall immediately organize a rescue operation. All units concerned and vessels or installations in the vicinity of the scene must act under the orders of the competent authority.

  第三十九条 外国派遣船舶或飞机进入中华人民共和国领海或领海上空搜寻救助遇难的船舶或人员,必须经主管机关批准。

Article 39. When a foreign country intends to dispatch vessels or aircraft into the territorial waters or the airspace over the territorial waters of the People's Republic of China to search for and rescue vessels or people in distress, it must obtain the approval of the competent Chinese. authority.

第八章 打捞清除


  第四十条 对影响安全航行、航道整治以及有潜在爆炸危险的沉没物、漂浮物,其所有人、经营人应当在主管机关限定的时间内打捞清除。否则,主管机关有权采取措施强制打捞清除,其全部费用由沉没物、漂浮物的所有人、经营人承担。 *

Article 40. With respect to sunken or drifting objects that may affect the safety of navigation and the management of navigation lanes, as well as those constituting a threat of explosion, the owners or managers thereof shall salvage and remove such objects within a deadline set by the competent authority. Otherwise, the competent authority shall have the right to take measures to compel the salvage and removal of the objects, and their owners or managers shall bear all the expenses incurred thereby.


The provisions of this Article shall not prejudice the rights of the owners or managers of the sunken or drifting objects to demand compensation from third parties.

  第四十一条 未经主管机关批准,不得擅自打捞或拆除沿海水域内的沉船沉物。

Article 41. No sunken vessels or sunken objects in the coastal waters may be salvaged or dismantled without the approval of the competent authority.

第九章 交通事故的调查处理


  第四十二条 船舶、 设施发生交通事故, 应当向主管部机关递交事故报告书和有关资料,并接受调查处理。

Article 42. Any vessel or installation involved in a traffic accident shall submit a written accident report and relative materials to the competent authority and accept its investigation and handling of the accident.


While being investigated by the competent authority, the parties involved in the accident and relevant personnel must give a truthful account of circumstances at the scene of the accident and other relevant information.

  第四十三条 船舶、设施发生的交通事故,由主管机关查明原因,判明责任。

Article 43. In the event of a traffic accident that involves a vessel or installation, the competent authority shall ascertain the cause of the accident and fix the responsibility for it.

第十章 法律责任


  第四十四条 对违反本法的,主管机关可视情节,给予下列一种或几种处罚:

Article 44. The competent authority shall, in the light of the circumstances, impose one or more of the following penalties on anyone who violates this Law:


(1) warnings;


(2) withholding or revoking work certificates; or


(3) fines.

  第四十五条 当事人对主管机关给予的罚款、吊销职务证书处罚不服的,可以在接到处罚通知之日起十五天内,向人民法院起诉;期满不起诉又不履行的,由主管机关申请人民法院强制执行。

Article 45. If a party does not accept the penalty of a fine or revocation of his work certificate imposed by the competent authority, he may bring a suit in a people's court within 15 days after receiving notification of the penalty. If he neither brings a suit nor complies with the penalty upon the expiration of that period, the competent authority shall request the people's court for compulsory enforcement.

  第四十六条 因海上交通事故引起的民事纠纷,可以由主管机关调解处理,不愿意调解或调解不成的,当事人可以向人民法院起诉;涉外案件的当事人,还可以根据书面协议提交仲裁机构仲裁。

Article 46. A civil dispute arising from a maritime traffic accident may be settled through mediation by the competent authority. If the parties are unwilling to have the cases mediated or if the mediation is unsuccessful, the parties may bring a suit in the people's court. Parties to a case involving foreign interests may also submit the case to an arbitration agency for mediation, in accordance with the written agreement concluded between them.

  第四十七条 对违反本法构成犯罪的人员,由司法机关依法追究刑事责任。

Article 47. Those whose violation of this Law constitutes a crime shall be investigated for their criminal responsibility by judicial organs in accordance with the Law.

第十一章 特别规定


  第四十八条 国家渔政渔港监督管理机构,在以渔业为主的渔港水域内,行使本法规定的主管机关的职权,负责交通安全的监督管理,并负责沿海水域渔业船舶之间的交通事故的调查处理。具体实施办法由国务院另行规定。

Article 48. Within the waters of fishing harbours, the state fisheries administration and fishing harbour superintendency agencies shall exercise the functions and powers of the competent authority as provided in this Law, being responsible for the supervision and administration of traffic safety and for the investigation and handling of traffic accidents between fishing vessels in coastal waters. Concrete measures for implementation shall be separately prescribed by the State Council.

  第四十九条 海上军事管辖区和军用船舶、设施的内部管理,为军事目的进行水上水下作业的管理,以及公安部船舶的检查登记、人员配备、进出港签证,由国家有关主管部门依据本法另行规定。

Article 49. The internal administration of offshore military jurisdictional areas and military vessels and installations; the administration of surface and underwater operations carried out for military purposes; and the inspection and registration of public security vessels, the provision of their personnel and the issuing of their port entry and departure visas shall be separately prescribed by the relevant competent departments, of the state in accordance with this Law.

第十二章 附 则


  第五十条 本法下列用语的含义是:

Article 50. For the purpose of this Law, the definitions of the following terms are:


" Coastal waters " means the harbours, inland waters, territorial waters and all other sea areas under the jurisdiction of the state, along the sea coast of the People's Republic of China.


" Vessels " means all types of displacement or non-displacement ships, rafts, seaplanes, submersibles and mobile platforms.


" Installations " means all types of surface and underwater structures or installations, whether fixed or floating, and fixed platforms.

  “作业”是指在沿海水域调查、 勘探、 开采、测量、建筑、疏浚、爆破、救助、打捞、拖带、捕捞、养殖、装卸、科学试验和其他水上水下施工。

" Operations " means investigations, exploration, exploitation, survey, construction, dredging, demolition, rescue, salvage, towing, fishing, aquatic breeding, loading and unloading, scientific experimentation and other surface and underwater operations.

  第五十一条 国务院主管部门依据本法,制定实施细则,报国务院批准施行。

Article 51. The competent department of the State Council shall, on the basis of this Law, formulate rules for its implementation which shall go into effect after being submitted to and approved by the State Council.

  第五十二条 过去颁布的海上交通安全法规与本法相抵触的,以本法为准。

Article 52. In cases of conflict between laws and regulations pertaining to maritime traffic safety hitherto promulgated and this Law, this Law shall prevail.

  第五十三条 本法自一九八四年一月一日起施行。

Article 53. This Law shall go into effect on January 1, 1984.