发布时间：2012-3-22 14:01:00|| 点击：2239次|| 文章分类：翻译学习|| 发布人：翻译家(Fanyijia.com)
III. Major Tasks for 2012
1. Promoting steady and robust economic development
Expanding domestic demand, particularly consumer demand, which is essential to ensuring China's long-term, steady, and robust economic development, is the focus of our economic work this year.
We will work hard to expand consumer demand. We will move faster to set up a permanent mechanism for boosting consumption. We will vigorously adjust income distribution, increase the incomes of low- and middle-income groups, and enhance people's ability to consume. We will improve policies that encourage consumption. We will vigorously develop elderly care, domestic, property management, medical and healthcare services. We will encourage consumer spending on cultural activities, tourism, and fitness; and implement the system of paid vacations. We will actively develop new forms of consumption such as online shopping; support and guide the consumption of green goods such as environmentally friendly building materials, water-saving sanitation products, and energy-efficient vehicles; and expand consumer credit. We will improve the urban-rural logistics system and infrastructural facilities, such as roads and parking lots, strengthen supervision over product quality and safety, improve the consumption environment, and safeguard consumers' legitimate rights and interests.
We will continue to improve the investment structure. We will maintain the steady growth of investment and use investment to promote consumption and vice versa. We will fully implement the Guidelines of the State Council on Encouraging and Guiding the Sound Development of Nongovernmental Investment and adopt specific operating rules for their implementation. We will strengthen the role of government investment in guiding adjustment of the economic structure, ensure funding for key projects that are under construction or expansion, and begin construction on major national projects in an orderly manner. We will tighten standards on market access and the screening and approval process relating to land, credit, energy conservation, environmental protection, safety, and quality; and strengthen supervision and inspections of major projects, particularly those undertaken by governments and state-owned firms, to improve the quality of and returns on such investments.
2. Keeping overall prices basically stable
This is a key task affecting the people's interests and China's overall economic and social development. We will control prices and prevent inflation from rebounding by effectively carrying out macroeconomic policies, managing the supply of money and credit, and striving for basic equilibrium in aggregate supply and demand.
We will increase production and ensure supply. We will continue to make curbing excessive rises in food prices a priority of stabilizing prices. We will effectively carry out the practice of holding provincial governors responsible for the "rice bag" (grain supply) and city mayors for the "vegetable basket" (non-grain food supply) and ensure the supply of major farm products. Large and medium-sized cities should have sufficient farmland for growing vegetables, maintain and raise the proportion of seasonal vegetables sold there that are grown locally, and develop vegetable production bases in collaboration with neighboring areas and areas with suitable conditions. We will strengthen coordination of the production, transportation, and sale of important commodities; improve systems of government reserves and commercial reserves; do a good job purchasing, storing and marketing major agricultural products; and regulate the market better.
We will improve distribution and reduce distribution costs. We will ensure that the green channel policy for transporting vegetables and other fresh farm products is fully implemented. We will carry out policies to support wholesale agricultural product markets, market fairs, and community-based, low-priced vegetable stores. We will encourage urban chain supermarkets, universities, large enterprises, and communities to establish direct supply contacts with farm product distributors, specialized farmer cooperatives, and large family farms. We will also reduce distribution links and increase retail outlets so that they can play a leading role in distribution. We will deepen reform of the distribution system. We will expand trials of a tax on the income of logistics enterprises after deductions, and improve tax policies on the use of land occupied by facilities for storing major commodities. We will adjust and improve VAT policies for the wholesale and retail of some agricultural products, and promote standardized and information-based distribution. We will adopt a full range of measures to make distribution more efficient and cost-effective so as to benefit both producers and consumers.
We will tighten oversight and ensure market order. We will give high priority to strengthening oversight and inspection of food and drug prices as well as fees and charges for medical, communications, and educational services; put an end to unauthorized collection of charges and fines in the transportation sector; stop large commercial retailers from illegally collecting fees; and crack down on illegal practices such as releasing false information, hoarding and profiteering, manipulating prices, and speculation. We will lead public opinion and correctly guide public expectations of price movements.
3. Promoting steady growth of agriculture and sustained increases in rural incomes
We need to pay even greater attention to modernizing agriculture in the course of industrialization and urbanization. We must continue to make solving problems related to agriculture, rural areas, and farmers a top priority in all of our work; increase policy support to strengthen agriculture, benefit farmers, and enrich rural areas; and consolidate and build upon achievements in the development of agriculture and rural areas.
We will steadily develop agricultural production and increase farmers' incomes by various means. We will continue to carry out activities to steadily increase grain production, keep the area of land sown to grain crops stable, and increase per-unit yields. We will guide farmers to adjust their mix of crops or livestock, and produce more farm products that are high in quality or short in supply. We will support the production of vegetables, meat, eggs, milk, and aquatic products. We will continue to increase agricultural subsidies, raise their standard, expand their coverage, improve mechanisms for issuing them, and direct new subsidy increases mainly to large family farms, specialized farmer cooperatives, and producer-oriented service organizations. We will continue to raise the minimum purchase price for grain, and we will raise the average floor prices for wheat and rice by 7.4 yuan and 16 yuan per 50 kilograms, respectively. We will improve the mechanism for subsidizing major growing areas and increase rewards and subsidies to major counties that produce important agricultural products such as grain, oilseed, and hogs. We will implement the 2011-2020 rural poverty alleviation and development program and, in accordance with the new national standards for poverty alleviation, do a good job of all poverty alleviation and development work, and step up our work in contiguous areas with particular difficulties to ensure that people in poverty share more fruits of reform and development.
We will speed up progress in agricultural science and technology. The fundamental way to develop agriculture is through science and technology. We will vigorously promote innovations in agro-science and increase support for R&D on and the application of key technologies for cultivating superior varieties and breeds, preventing and controlling animal and plant epidemics, and ensuring the quality and safety of agricultural products. We will accelerate reform and development of the service system for spreading agricultural technology in villages, and improve public service agricultural agencies in townships, towns, and regions. We will improve the system for subsidizing agricultural technologies and encourage farmers to use advanced and appropriate agricultural technologies. We will develop modern agriculture demonstration sites, encourage farmers to grow high-yield crops, promote the standardization of farming techniques, and accelerate agricultural mechanization.
We will strengthen agricultural and rural infrastructure. The central government plans to allocate 1.2287 trillion yuan for agriculture, rural areas and farmers, 186.8 billion yuan more than last year. With these funds we will build and upgrade water-saving facilities in irrigated areas and build more small water conservancy projects, and vigorously develop water-efficient agriculture. We will intensify efforts to develop, improve, and reclaim rural land and develop on a large scale basic farmland that meets high drought and flood resistance standards. We will take speedy steps to harness small and medium-sized rivers, reinforce small aging reservoirs, and take comprehensive measures to prevent and mitigate geological disasters caused by mountain torrents. We will continue to improve working and living conditions in rural areas by strengthening infrastructure such as water, power, and methane supply facilities, roads, and cultural and sports venues, and by cleaning up the environment and renovating dilapidated houses more quickly.
We will deepen rural reform. We will uphold the basic rural operation system. We will work diligently to determine, register, and certify land ownership. Farmers' rights to the land they contract to work on, to the land on which their houses sit, and to proceeds from collective undertakings are property rights conferred by law, and these rights must not to be violated by anyone. We will provide better supervision and services for the transfer of contracted land-use rights, and develop farming operations on an appropriately large scale. We will place farmland under strict protection, and formulate and promulgate regulations concerning compensation for the expropriation of rural collective land. We will support large-scale farming by specialized farmer cooperatives and leading enterprises, encourage various sectors of society to provide services for agriculture, develop agricultural insurance, and increase commercialization and specialization in agriculture. We will deepen comprehensive rural reform. We will also reform systems for managing state-owned farms and forest farms and continue to deepen reform of tenure in collective forests.
4. Accelerating the transformation of the pattern of economic development
The key to solving the problems of imbalanced, uncoordinated, and unsustainable development is to accelerate the transformation of the pattern of economic development and carry out strategic adjustment of the economic restructure. This is both a long-term task and our most pressing task at present.
We will improve and upgrade the industrial structure. We will promote the sound development of strategic emerging industries. We will accelerate the establishment of mechanisms that promote the use of new energy sources; strengthen overall planning, auxiliary projects and policy guidance; and expand domestic demand. We will prevent blind expansion in our capacity to manufacture solar energy and wind power equipment. We will develop next-generation information technology, strengthen network infrastructure, and make substantive progress in integrating the telecommunications network, the radio and television broadcasting network, and the Internet. We will energetically develop the high-end equipment manufacturing, energy conservation, environmental protection, biopharmaceuticals, new-energy vehicles, and new materials industries. We will increase funding for technological upgrading projects, and press ahead with the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries. We will control increases in production capacity, improve existing production facilities, encourage enterprise mergers and reorganizations, and increase industrial concentration and economies of scale, with the focus on the automobile, steel, shipbuilding, and cement industries. We will implement and improve policies to promote the growth of small and micro businesses, further reduce burdens on enterprises, and promote the vibrant growth of small and micro high-tech enterprises. We will implement fiscal, taxation, and financial policies that facilitate the development of the service sector and encourage nongovernmental investment in this sector, in order to promote faster development of the sector, increase its share in the economy, and facilitate its upgrading.
We will conserve energy, reduce emissions, and protect the ecological environment. The key to conserving energy and reducing emissions is to save energy, improve energy efficiency, and reduce pollution. We will promptly formulate and promulgate a work plan for appropriately controlling total energy consumption, and move quickly to base the energy pricing system on the market. We will use economic, legal, and the necessary administrative means to conserve energy and reduce emissions in key areas such as manufacturing, transportation, construction, public institutions, and people's homes, and in 1,000 key energy-intensive enterprises; and close down more outdated production facilities. We will tighten supervision of energy use, develop smart power grids and ensure the proper distribution of energy supplies, and implement effective administrative practices such as efficient electricity generation and distribution, energy performance contracting, and government procurement of energy-efficient goods and services. We will optimize the energy structure, promote clean and efficient use of traditional energy, safely and effectively develop nuclear power, actively develop hydroelectric power, tackle key problems more quickly in the exploration and development of shale gas, and increase the share of new energy and renewable energy in total energy consumption. We will step up the construction of energy transportation routes. We will thoroughly implement the basic state policy of conserving resources and protecting the environment. We will carry out certification of energy-efficient products and oversight and inspection of energy efficiency labeling; encourage economical use of energy, water, land, and materials as well as comprehensive use of resources; and vigorously develop a circular economy.
We will strengthen environmental protection; strive to solve major environmental problems that directly affect people's lives, such as heavy metals, drinking water sources, air, soil, and marine pollution; reduce pollution from non-point agricultural sources; and put hazardous chemicals under strict oversight and supervision. We will start monitoring fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River delta, the Pearl River delta and other key areas as well as in municipalities directly under the central government and provincial capital cities, and extend the practice to all cities at and above the prefectural level by 2015.
We will improve the ecology, establish a sound system of compensation for ecological damage, strengthen ecological protection and restoration, and consolidate achievements in protecting virgin forests, turning vulnerable farmland into forests and grasslands, and stopping grazing to let grasslands recover. We will strengthen grassland ecological conservation; vigorously carry out afforestation; make progress in dealing with desertification and stony deserts and in improving terraced farmland; and strictly protect river sources, wetlands, lakes, and other priority functional ecological zones. We will strengthen capacity building to adapt to climate change, and especially to respond to extreme climate events, and improve our ability to prevent and mitigate natural disasters. We will uphold the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and the principle of fairness, and play a constructive role in promoting international talks on climate change. We will show the world with our actions that China will never seek economic growth at the expense of its ecological environment and public health. We are definitely capable of taking a path of civilized development which ensures that production increases, people's living standards rise, and we live in a good ecological environment.
促进区域经济协调发展。实施区域发展总体战略和主体功能区规划，充分发挥各地特色和优势，进一步提高区域发展的协调性和基本公共服务均等化水平。认真落实西部大开发新10年的政策措施，加大实施中部地区崛起战略的力度，加快推进东北地区等老工业基地振兴，积极支持东部地区转型发展、在更高层次上参与国际竞争与合作。要加大对革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区和贫困地区的扶持力度。更好地发挥经济特区、上海浦东新区、天津滨海新区在改革开放中先行先试的重要作用。We will enhance balanced economic development among regions. We will implement the master strategy for regional development and the plan for developing functional zones, give full play to the distinctive strengths of each region, better coordinate development among regions, and make delivery of basic public services more equitable. We will conscientiously implement the policies and measures for the large-scale development of the western region in the new decade, work even harder to implement the strategy for the rise of the central region, more quickly revitalize the old industrial bases in northeast China, and actively support the eastern region in transforming its economy and participating in international competition and cooperation at a higher level. We will increase support to old revolutionary base areas, ethnic minority areas, border areas, and poverty-stricken areas. We will encourage special economic zones, the Pudong New Area in Shanghai, and the Binhai New Area in Tianjin to better play their role of leading the way and exploring new paths in reform and opening up.
We will formulate and implement a strategy for marine development, and promote the development of the marine economy. We will strengthen and improve inter-regional cooperation mechanisms, remove market barriers, facilitate the flow of factors of production, guide the orderly transfer of industries, and promote mutually reinforcing and coordinated economic development among regions.
We will actively yet prudently promote urbanization. We will promote the coordinated development of large, medium-sized, and small cities as well as small towns in light of local conditions and in accordance with the laws governing urban development. On the basis of the carrying capacity of China's resources, environment and population, we will improve the distribution of the productive forces across the country, develop cities and towns rationally, and ensure that the geographical distribution of the population is suited to land availability, resources distribution, and development potential. We will strengthen the economic foundation and create job opportunities in all cities, improve their infrastructure and living environment, strengthen urban management and services, and raise the quality and level of urbanization. We will give higher priority to registering rural migrant workers with stable jobs and permanent homes in cities or towns as permanent urban residents in an orderly manner. We will relax eligibility for registering as urban households in small and medium-sized cities, guide the rational flow of the population, and enable more surplus rural workers to find nonagricultural employment in nearby towns and cities. We should care more deeply for rural migrant workers and provide more services to them; resolve difficulties they have in securing employment services, obtaining social security benefits, getting their children enrolled in preschools and schools, and renting or purchasing homes; and gradually extend to them basic public services that are available to urban residents. We will take care of children, women and old people who are left behind by rural migrant workers who work in cities. We will enable rural residents to enjoy a happy life whether they go to the city or stay in the countryside.
5. Thoroughly implementing the strategies of developing China through science and education and strengthening the country through human resource development
To make China prosperous and strong and achieve the revival of the Chinese nation, we need to vigorously develop science, technology, and education and create a high-quality talent pool.
坚持优先发展教育。中央财政已按全国财政性教育经费支出占国内生产总值的4%编制预算，地方财政要相应安排，确保实现这一目标。教育经费要突出保障重点，加强薄弱环节，提高使用效益。深入推进教育体制改革，加强教师队伍建设，大力实施素质教育，逐步解决考试招生、教育教学等方面的突出问题。推进学校民主管理，逐步形成制度。促进义务教育均衡发展，资源配置要向中西部、农村、边远、民族地区和城市薄弱学校倾斜。继续花大气力推动解决择校、入园等人民群众关心的热点难点问题。农村中小学布局要因地制宜，处理好提高教育质量和方便孩子们就近上学的关系。办好农村寄宿学校，实施好农村义务教育学生营养改善计划。加强校车和校园安全管理，确保孩子们的人身安全。加强学前教育、继续教育和特殊教育，建设现代职业教育体系。办好民族教育。高等教育要与经济社会发展和国家战略需要紧密结合，提高教育质量和创新能力。完善国家助学制度，逐步将中等职业教育免学费政策覆盖到所有农村学生，扩大普通高中家庭经济困难学生资助范围。We will continue to give high priority to developing education. The central government has already prepared its budget to meet the requirement that government spending on education accounts for 4% of China's GDP, and local governments should act accordingly to ensure that this target is reached. Funds for education must be used to meet the funding requirements in key areas and strengthen weak links so that they yield better results. We will deepen reform of the educational system, strengthen the corps of teachers, energetically implement well-rounded education, and gradually resolve major problems in examination and enrollment, and in education and teaching. We will carry forward and gradually institutionalize democratic school management. We will promote the balanced development of compulsory education and give preference to schools in the central and western regions, rural areas, remote areas, and ethnic minority areas, and to weak urban schools when allocating resources. We will continue to make great efforts to ease contentious issues of great concern to the people, including paying to enroll one's children in better schools and the shortage of preschools. We will arrange the location of rural primary and secondary schools in light of local conditions, and ensure there is a proper balance between improving the quality of education and placing schools closer to children. We will run rural boarding schools well, and implement the plan for improving nutrition for rural students receiving compulsory education. We will enhance school bus and campus safety to ensure children's safety. We will strengthen preschool, continuing and special education, develop a modern vocational education system, and do a good job educating ethnic minority students. Higher education should better meet the needs of economic and social development and China's strategic requirements, and improve its quality and capacity for making innovations. We will improve the state financial aid system for students by gradually making all rural students exempt from paying tuition for secondary vocational education, and by granting financial aid to more students from poor families who attend regular senior secondary schools.
We will vigorously develop privately run schools and encourage and guide nongovernmental investment in all types of schools at all levels. The people place their hopes on education, and education is crucial for China's future, so we must achieve even better results in this work.
We will vigorously boost innovation in science and technology. We will strengthen the national innovation system. We will deepen reform of the management system for science and technology, spur enterprises to become the main source of technological innovation, and more closely integrate science and technology with the economy. We will support enterprises in developing R&D centers and undertaking major national and regional science and technology projects. We will guide research institutes and researchers in universities in providing services to enterprises' technological innovation centers so that enterprises, universities, and research institutes can work more closely together to increase the industrial application of scientific and technological advances. We will boost basic research and research in cutting-edge technologies, and improve our capacity to make original innovations. We will improve the evaluation and incentive system for scientific and technological advances. We will advocate academic integrity, encourage independent thinking, ensure academic freedom, and foster a scientific spirit. We will unwaveringly implement the national strategy on intellectual property rights.
We will comprehensively strengthen human resource work. We will deepen reform of the personnel management system; energetically train high-level innovative and entrepreneurial personnel, talented young people, and personnel who are urgently needed and in short supply; and attract talented personnel from overseas. We will improve the mechanism for training, employing, evaluating, and giving incentives to talented personnel, and create a favorable social environment for them to come to the fore in large numbers and tap their full potential.