知识与资讯
翻译学习
 
双语美文:火星也曾有过温暖
发布时间:2012-3-23 13:38:00||  点击:2135次||  文章分类:翻译学习||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)


 BOB DOUGHTY: This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS, in VOA Special English. I'm Bob Doughty.

BOB DOUGHTY:欢迎收听美国之音慢速英语科技新闻节目。 我是主播鲍勃·多提。

BARBARA KLEIN: And I'm Barbara Klein. Today, we tell about temperature changes on the planet Mars. We also tell about a new law to protect sharks, and how melting ice is a threat to walruses. And we tell about sounds made by fish best known for their killer bite.

BARBARA KLEIN:我是主播芭芭拉·克莱因。 在今天的节目中,我们要来谈谈火星的温度变化。 然后会讲到一项保护鲨鱼的新法规,以及冰川融化对海象的影响。 最后我们要讲讲那些富有攻击力的食人鱼所发出的声音。

BOB DOUGHTY: Scientists at the California Institute of Technology have reported evidence that Mars was warmer and wetter long ago than it is today. The Caltech scientists say they have directly established the temperature of Mars four billion years ago. At least, they established the surface temperature on part of the planet at that time. The researchers say it is the first such evidence to be discovered and presented.

BOB DOUGHTY:加州理工学院的科学家们报道了一些证据,表明火星在很久以前比现在温暖湿润。 加州理工学院的科学家们称他们已经确定了四十亿年前火星的温度。 至少是确定了那时火星表面部分区域的温度。 该机构的研究人员称他们是史上最先发现和公布这些证据的人。

The Caltech scientists say carbonate minerals formed on Mars at about eighteen degrees Celsius. They reached the finding after studying a meteorite that had its beginnings near the Martian surface.

加州理工学院的科学家们说,火星上的碳酸盐矿物质是在18摄氏度左右形成的。 他们是通过研究在火星表面形成的一块陨石而得出的这个结论。

Today, the average temperature on Mars is sixty-three degrees below zero Celsius.

现如今,火星上的平均温度是零下63摄氏度。

BARBARA KLEIN: The finding was reported on the website of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Caltech Assistant Professor Woody Fischer helped to prepare the report. He says eighteen degrees Celsius is not especially cold or hot. He says this makes the finding extremely interesting. Knowing the temperature can give scientists an idea of the climate on Mars long ago. It can also help them decide whether the planet had liquid water.

BARBARA KLEIN:这一研究发现在美国国家科学院院刊的网站上得以公布。 加州理工学院的助理教授Woody Fischer参与了这篇研究报告的准备工作。 他说,18摄氏度是一个既不特别冷也不特别热的温度。 他认为这个温度使得这一发现变得非常有趣。 这个温度的发现使得科学家们对火星很久以前的气候有了一个大概的认识。 而且,这可以帮助他们研究火星上到底有没有液态的水。

Spacecraft orbiting Mars have shown what appear to be rivers, lakebeds and mineral deposits. These images suggest that, at one time, water did flow there. Mars Rover vehicles and other spacecraft have confirmed the information.

环绕火星运转的宇宙飞船发回一些图像显示火星上似乎有河流,湖床和矿藏。 这些图像表明了,曾几何时火星上也有水流。 火星探测器和其他的一些航天器证实了这一观点。

BOB DOUGHTY: Caltech Geology Professor John Eiler was another writer of the report. He says knowing the temperature of Mars from long ago provides valuable information. It shows that early in the planet's history, at least part of Mars could support a climate like that of Earth.

BOB DOUGHTY:加州理工学院的一位地质学教授John Eiler也是这个研究报告的作者之一。 火星很久以前的温度情况是一个非常有价值的信息。 它给我们揭示了这个行星早期的历史,至少证明了火星也曾经有过和地球相似的气候。

The meteorite the scientists examined is one of the oldest known rocks in the world. It is called the Allan Hills meteorite. Its name came from the place in Antarctica where it was found in nineteen eighty-four. The meteorite is believed to have blown loose from the Mars' surface when another space rock struck its "home."

科学家们所研究的那块陨石是世界上已知的最古老的岩石之一。 它被称为“艾伦·希尔斯”陨石。 1984年,科学家在南极洲的艾伦丘陵中发现了它,因此就以此地将它命名。 这块陨石被认为是火星表面的岩石,在受到其他的太空行星撞击后飞向了地球。

BARBARA KLEIN: Earlier this year, we reported on sharks. Wildlife activists worry that some kinds of sharks are in danger of disappearing. We also told how demand for shark fin soup has led to the killing of millions of sharks. The animals are harvested for meat, liver oil and, especially, for their fins.

BARBARA KLEIN:今年初,我们对鲨鱼进行了一些报道。 野生生物保护专家担心某些种类的鲨鱼正面临着灭绝的危险。 我们还报道了市场上对鱼翅汤的需求是如何导致成千上万的鲨鱼被杀害的。 这些鲨鱼之所以被捕杀,是因为人类想食用它们的肉,鱼肝油,尤其是鳍片。

Last month, the governor of California, Jerry Brown, signed a bill that bans the sale or possession of shark fins in the state. The California Senate approved the bill in September, by a vote of twenty-five to nine.

上个月,加利福尼亚州的州长Jerry Brown签署了一项法案,声明禁止在加州出售或拥有鱼翅。 今年9月,加州参议院以25比9的投票结果通过了这项议案。

In a statement, Governor Brown said the practice of cutting the fins off of living sharks and throwing them back in the water is not only cruel but harms the health of our oceans.

州长Brown在一个声明中说,把活生生的鲨鱼抓来割掉它们的鱼鳍然后又丢回大海这种行为是残忍的,而且会危害到海洋的卫生状况。

BOB DOUGHTY: Wildlife activists say seventy-three million sharks are killed each year, mainly for their fins. Sarah Sikich, of the group Heal the Bay, praised the decision to ban the sale or possession of shark fins in California. She says much of the demand for shark fins comes from the state.

BOB DOUGHTY:野生生物保护专家指出,每年都有七千三百万只鲨鱼被人类捕杀,而这些人基本上都是为了获取它们的鱼鳍。 Sarah Sikich是“拯救海湾”这个团体的成员,她对禁止在加州出售或拥有鱼翅这一法案赞不绝口。 她说,加州是鱼翅需求量最大的一个地方。

SARAH SIKICH: "California is a leading importer of shark fin to the U.S. It's estimated that eighty-five percent of the shark fin that enters the U.S. comes through California. Because the fin is driving the market value of the shark, it's most important to target that aspect."

SARAH SIKICH:“加利福尼亚州是美国进口鱼翅最主要的一个地方。 据估计,美国百分之八十五的鱼翅都是经过加州输入国内的。 它们最看重的就是鱼翅推动了鲨鱼的市场价值。”

California has the largest Chinese-American population in the United States – an estimated one point one million people. Some Chinese-American politicians supported the shark fin ban. But opponents have described the measure as an attack on Chinese culture. State senator Ted Lieu voted against the ban.

在美国,加州是华裔美国人最多的一个地方,据估计其人口数达到了一百一十万。 一些华裔政客也支持针对鱼翅的这项禁令。 但是,有些反对者认为这项措施是对中国文化的攻击。 加州参议员刘云平投票反对这一禁令。

TED LIEU: "You can slaughter this highly vulnerable shark for fish and chips but a Chinese restaurant couldn't take a shark fin from one of the hundreds of shark species (that) are nowhere near endangered and to me that is completely discriminatory and very unfair." (:18)

TED LIEU:“你们美国人可以任意宰杀这些非常脆弱的鲨鱼来吃鱼肉和炸薯条,而我们中国人的餐馆却不能从好几百种根本不存在濒危问题的鲨鱼其中一种身上获取鱼翅,我认为这完全是带有歧视性的,不公平的。”

The California shark fin ban will become law on January first. Existing supplies of shark fins may be sold in the state until July first, twenty-thirteen.

加州的鱼翅禁令将从1月1号起正式成为法律规定。 而这个州内现有存的鱼翅货物可以在2013年7月1号之前继续销售。

BARBARA KLEIN: Thousands of big brown bodies with bright teeth spread across the Alaskan coastline this past summer. Some reports say there were as many as twenty thousand of them. No, we are not talking about holiday travelers enjoying a visit to Alaska. These were walruses! And they were looking for a place to rest, as well as something to eat.

BARBARA KLEIN:今年夏天,许多长有棕色皮肤和洁白牙齿的家伙遍布在阿拉斯加海岸线。 有报告称,其数量达到了两万。 别误会,我们现在所说的这些家伙并不是指在阿拉斯加享受假日的游客, 而是海象。 它们来到这里寻找食物和栖息地。

BOB DOUGHTY: Falling ice levels in the Arctic Ocean are a threat to Pacific walruses. Earlier this year, American officials considered listing the walruses under the Endangered Species Act. The animals spend as much as two thirds of their time at sea searching for food. When not looking for food, they like to rest on large pieces of floating ice. Female walruses also take to the ice to give birth, and to care for their young.

BOB DOUGHTY:北冰洋的冰川融化对太平洋的海象来说是一个很大的威胁。 今年早期,美国官员考虑把海象列入濒危物种法案内。 这些海象们大部分的时间都在海洋里寻找食物。 没有觅食的时候,它们就喜欢在大块的浮冰上面休息。 雌性的海象通常还会在冰块上产子和照顾幼仔。

But low summer ice levels in the Arctic forced Pacific walruses from their homes in the Chukchi Sea. The animals often search for food over the continental shelf of the Chukchi Sea. Low water levels make it easy for them to search the ocean floor. The Sea also has a large amount of ice, where walruses and polar bears can rest. At least, that has been the case in the past. But recent years have seen a great decrease in ice levels.

但是北极夏季冰川的融化使得太平洋的海象们不得不迁移到了楚克奇海洋。 这些海象们通常在楚克奇海洋的大陆架上觅食。 这里的水位较低,使得它们可以很轻松地在海底觅食。 而且,这片海洋有大量的冰块可供海象和北极熊栖息。 至少过去是这样的情况。 但是最近几年楚克奇海洋的冰也减少了。

BARBARA KLEIN: Two months ago, America's National Snow and Ice Data Center released a report about Arctic sea ice. It said ice levels this past summer measured a little more than four and one third million square kilometers. This was the second lowest level since scientists began keeping records in nineteen seventy-nine.

BARBARA KLEIN:两个月前,美国国家冰雪数据中心发布了一个关于北极冰层的报告。 报告显示,今年夏天所测量的北极冰层水平的数据仅仅略高于四百三十三万平方公里。 这是科学家们自1979年以来所测量到的第二个最低的冰水平数据。

Scientists at the University of Bremen in Germany reported even less ice this summer than the NSIDC. Scientists blame rising temperatures for the drop in sea ice levels. They say ocean temperatures are rising around the world.

德国布莱梅大学的科学家们今年夏天所公布的数据比国家冰雪数据中心公布的这个还要低。 科学家们将海洋冰水平的下降归咎于不断变暖的全球气温。 他们说,全世界的海洋也在不断升温。

In recent years, the record low sea ice levels forced walruses to seek food and rest along the northwest coast of Alaska. But scientists fear there may not be enough food so close to the coast.

最近几年,海洋的冰水平越来越低,使得海象们不得不沿着阿拉斯加的西北海岸去寻找食物和栖息地。 但是,科学家们担心这片海岸附近没有足够的食物以供这些海象们生存。

BOB DOUGHTY: More than twenty thousand walruses crowded onto the coastline earlier this year. The overcrowded conditions put younger smaller walruses at risk of being crushed. More than one hundred thirty walruses died during similar conditions in two thousand nine.

BOB DOUGHTY:今年初,有两万多只海象纷纷http://www.remword.cn到这条海岸线上来。 这种过度拥挤的状况会导致一些年轻的小海象被活活挤死。 在2009年,就有一百三十多只海象因为类似的拥挤环境而死亡。

Some scientists have warned that, if temperatures continue rising, Arctic sea ice may disappear completely by twenty thirty. They say this would threaten walruses and the whole ecosystem in the Arctic Ocean.

一些科学家预言,如果全球气温持续变暖,到了2030年北冰洋的冰层将全部融化。 他们说,这会严重威胁到这些海象,甚至是北冰洋的整个生态系统。

BARBARA KLEIN: Piranhas are known as dangerous, meat-eating fish. However that did not stop scientists in Belgium from working with them to learn more about the sounds these unusual fish make.

BARBARA KLEIN:众所周知,食人鱼是一种危险的食肉鱼。 但是,这并没有影响到比利时的科学家们去探索这种不寻常的鱼所发出的声音。

There are more than twenty different species of piranhas in the wild. Two or three of them are a threat to humans. Among them are the red-bellied piranhas. The scientists knew that red-bellied piranhas produce sounds. However it was not clear when or why they make these sounds. So a team of scientists studied red-bellied piranhas to learn more about how they communicate. The head of the team was Eric Parmentier from the University of Liege.

在自然环境中,总共有二十多种不同的食人鱼。 其中有两三种是对人类构成威胁的。 而红腹食人鱼就是其中之一。 科学家们知道这种红腹食人鱼会发出声音。 但是他们不知道这种鱼到底是在什么时候,或者因为什么原因会发出声音。 因此,一个科学家小组研究了红腹食人鱼之间的沟通方式。 这个研究小组的组长是来自列日大学的Eric Parmentier。

Using underwater microphones, the scientists recorded the sounds the fish made as they swam around and competed for food. They found that the well-fed fish were mostly quiet. But when the piranhas threatened each other over food, they produced a barking sound. It was the same sound they made when the scientists picked them up with their hands.

科学家们使用水下麦克风记录了红腹食人鱼在游来游去寻找食物和争夺食物的时候所发出的声音。 他们发现,营养充足的那部分鱼一般都是不发出声音的。 但是,当它们因为争夺食物而互相恐吓的时候,就会发出一种吠叫声。 当科学家们用手将它们从水中拿起来的时候,它们也会发出类似的声音。

BOB DOUGHTY: At first the scientists thought the fish made just this one sound. But they learned that the piranhas produce two or more other sounds. When the fish are fighting for food and circling an opponent, they make a short, drum-like sound. When they bite each other, their jaws make a softer, croaking sound.

BOB DOUGHTY:起初,科学家们以为食人鱼只会发出这一种声音。 但是,后来他们发现这些食人鱼还会发出其他好几种声音。 当食人鱼在争夺食物,或者与对手盘旋的时候,它们会发出一种短促的,像击鼓一样的声音。 当它们互相撕咬的时候,它们的嘴巴会发出一种轻微的,呱呱的声音。

Piranhas produce noises by vibrating, or moving their swim bladders. These gas-filled organs help them control their position. The scientists studied how the fish used muscles to vibrate their swim bladder, creating the sounds.

食人鱼通过震动或者移动它们的鱼鳔来制造声音。 这种充满了气体的器官可以帮助它们控制自己的位置。 科学家们还研究了食人鱼是怎样使用肌肉来震动它们的鱼鳔从而发出声音的。

The findings were published in the Journal of Experimental Biology. Professor Parmentier and the study's co-author, Sandie Millot of the University of Algarve in Portugal, did not complete their study without falling victim to the aggressive fish. Both scientists suffered bites while holding piranhas.

其研究结果在实验生物学期刊上公布了。 Parmentier教授和来自葡萄牙阿尔加维大学的Sandie Millot共同参与了这项报告的撰写工作,他们研究这种攻击性很强的食人鱼时,都受了伤。 这两位科学家都是在用手拿着食人鱼做实验的时候被咬伤的。

BARBARA KLEIN: This SCIENCE IN THE NEWS was written by Brianna Blake, Christopher Cruise, Jerilyn Watson and June Simms, who also was our producer. I'm Barbara Klein.

BARBARA KLEIN:本期科技新闻节目的编剧是Brianna Blake, Christopher Cruise, Jerilyn Watson和June Simms,制片人也是June Simms。 我是主播芭芭拉·克莱因。

BOB DOUGHTY: And I'm Bob Doughty. Join us again next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America.

BOB DOUGHTY:我是主播鲍勃·多提。 敬请您下周继续收听美国之音慢速英语来关注更多的科技新闻。



  更多文章