A group of type design developed in England in the eighteenth century which marked the transition from the traditional old face letter to the modern face letter.
See Look-up table.
(1) A compiler,interpreter or assembler conversion program that translates a high-level language or low-level language into machine language.
Standard code sets used in computers to represent alphabets and numbers.Examples include ASC and EBCDIC.
Copy which is viewed by transmitted light,e,g.a transparency.As distict from"reflection copy"which is viewed by reflected light.
See Abrasion resistance.
Box arrangement with special light source to enable the viewing of colour transparencies under cosistent conditions.Also calledLight box.
Inks such as process inks which permit other colours to show through when overprinted and so produce subsequent mixed colour.
To change places with another letter,word,lie or illustration.
(1)The ability of a printed ink to accept a succeeding or overprinted ink,making it possible to superimpose one colour over another to create proper colour balance.Trapping is very important in wet-on-wet printing.Ink tack should be adjusted so that the colours first printed must be tack than the subsequent inks,in this manner,the first ink helps pull the subsequent one off the plate or blanket.Normally,trapping should be 85% or higher.
(2)A slight overlapping where two colours meet,necessary to avoid a white line between the two colour areas.See Overdrawn.
Offset plate for very ling run work where three layers of metal are used in manufacturing the plate.The layers are stainless steel or aluminium are plated respectively.
(1)To cut off and square the edes of paper before printing. (2)To cut and aquare a printed product during finishing.For single leaf work,all the four edges will be trimmed.On bound work,trimming is only required on head,foredge and tail.Normal trim allowance is about 3 mm(1/8 inch).but for bled work,about 6 mm (1/4 inch) is required.
(2)在完成加工时，把印成品裁切正方。单张的印件，要裁切四边；订本则只需裁切天头，切口和地脚。一般的裁切量约3毫米(1/8 寸) ；出血印件则约为6毫米(1/4 寸)。
Also called"cut marks","tick mark",SeeCut marks.
The size of a printed piece after trimming.Also referred to asFinished size.
Board made up of three layers of thinner paper or of one cheap central tayer lined on both sides with better paper.
In the CIE colour systims,the amiunt of red green and blue light required to make up a given colour.These values are obtained by measuring a colour sample through red green and blue filters.With these values,the physical characteristics of the colour,"Y,x,y","Lab",or "LUV",can be calculated and indicated by numbers.
True small caps
Small capitals designed as such,rather than created as a smaller size of main-text capitals.The strokes of true small capitals are of better proportion.
A scalable fount,Each fount comtains its own algorithm for generating the final bit maps.True type founts work will with both non-PostScipt and PostScript output devices.However,on a PostScript printer,the fount must first be converted to a PostScript outline,the quality of output depends on the quality of output depends on the quality of the conversion.
可以放大，缩小的一 副字体。 每副字体有它本身的演算法来传发完成的数元图记。真实字体在后记码和非后记码两种输出装 置都运作良好然而， 在后记码的印字机上，真实字体先要转为后记码的轮廓，输出的品质便转为后记码 的轮廓，输出的品质便依赖转换时的品质。
Surface sizing of paper by passing the sheet through a bath or"tub"of size.
(1)A table or illustration turned sideways on a page so as to fit better.Such tables or illustrations should always be turned so that the foot of them is on the right-hand side of the page when the book is in normal,upright,position.
(2)In newspaper or magazine,the unfinished part of an article carried over on to another page after many pages of interception.Synonymous with Run over.
The material used on the case of a book is turned in round the edges so as not to leave the boards'edges exposed rather than cut flush.
A style of the drawn-on cover in which the foredge of the front and back covers is allowed to extend for 45mm or more to make a flap.See Drawn-on cover.
黏脊书皮的一种款式,封面及封 底的外白边向外伸展4.5毫米或更多, 折为勒口.参阅黏脊书皮。
Turner bar (Turning ba )
Metal bar on a web offset press which redirects the web through a right-angle.See Angle bar.
A complete system of hardware and software designed for a specific use and delivered to the customer in a ready-to-run condition.The system supplier will provide training to such an extent that there are someone proficient enough to take over.
Words transferred from the end of one line to the beginning of the next.
The liquid emulsion ink that is is painted or drawn on the lithographic stone in direct lithography to form theimage.Tusche can be used to effect corrections on offset plates if the run is short.
A size of paper obtained by sub-dividing a broad sheet into twelve parts.Used to describe book size
A size paper obtained by sub-dividing a broadsheet into twenty-four parts.Used to descibe book size.For A size paper ,it equivalents to 2/3A4,which is a common book size.
Paper or board,made from two separate webs which are bought together while wet with their undersides, or wire sides at the centre,at the press section of the twin-wire paper machine.
Paper or board,made from two separate webs which are bought together while wet with their undersides, or wire sides at the centre,at the press section of the twin-wire paper machine.
Two-unit machine which can print two colours on one side of a sheed in singlw pass.
Two -letter index
An index consisting of 12 divisions,each of two letters but omitting x and z from the alphabet.
A device in a sheet fed press for stoping the machine if more than one sheet is fed.
Adhesive binding in which the first application is of PVA adhesive,the second of hot-melt adhesive.See One-shot binding.
(1)Printing two copies of the same thing at one imprssion by using duplicate plates or a step-and-repeat machine.This is often more economic than printing the single image on smaller sheets of paper because duplicate plates or step-and-repeat cost less than double press time.Printing can be done three-up,four-up,etc,as well. (2)Two books,usually joined together at the head;folded,gathered and sewn as one,then cut apart during trimming.
(1)用复制版或用连 机造成印版施印,使一次压印,得两份相同印件.用这个方法较用单版,细纸度施印为廉宜,因为造复制版或连 的成本较双倍印刷时间少.此外,亦可用三版,或四版等一同施印。
Using cord to secure type storage.
A small,square or rectangular piece of lead alloy or wood,having on its top surface a raised and reversed letter or other character.
Area occupied by text and illustration on a page,including running head and folio.See Text area.
A range of various designs that are all based on one typeface style of the alphabet.This usually starts with roman(upright)face,develope into italic,bold,cindensed,extended,and variances in weight from extra light to extra bold.Some families have more members than others.See Family of type.
A tool used for copy fitting,measuring type size,and the number of lines set in a given depth.Type gauges are calibrated in points and pieas.See Line gauge.
The height of type or engravings when mounted on wood or metal in order to make an impression.This height is 23.317mm (0.918 inch).
活字的高度或电版装嵌 于木或金属版垫后，可以压印的高度。这个高度是23.317毫米(0.918 寸)。
The alloy for cast type,comprising lead,tin and antimony.
The range of type sizes on one typeface design.For metal,it ranges from 6 pt,up to 72pt.For computer typesetting system,the size may range from 4,pt,to more than 576 pt,depending on the program.
The size of type denoted by points.Before the adoption of the point system,typw sizes were known by destinguishing names,such as"agate" for 5/12pt," long primer" for 10 pt,"pica"for 12 pt"great primer"for 18 pt,etc.
印刷字体的大小，用点作单位。点数制在十八世纪开始使用。 在此之前，字大小分别用名字识别。例如：‘雅基’是5 1/2点；‘长派码’是10点；‘培卡’是12点；‘大派码’是18点等。
Referred to a particular fomily member of a typeface,such as italic,or bold,etc.SeeType family.
A specifically designated style.There are thousands of typeface designs,some styles are more than 400 years old,and some styles differ only very slightly from one another.For ease of identification.English typefaces can be divided into three main groups,viz:"types with serif", "types without serif(sans serif)" and "decorative".Chinese typefaces can be divided into two main groups viz:"text type" and "display type."
具有个别特徵的字形。现时 有成千上万的字体。一些是400多年前的设计； 亦有一些字体，其中只有轻微差别。方便辩认，字体可分为三大类，即是：‘有衬线’，‘无衬线’和‘装饰体’。
(1) A person who sets typw.Also calledCompositor.
(2)A device that actually creats the type from keyboarded instructions.
The assembling by hand,linecasting machine,typewriter,phototypesetter or computer,of typegraphic materials suitable for printing or for incorporating into a printing plate.
See Strike-on composition.
Designer of printed materials which are text dominated. In some cases, a typegrapher would be responsible for the entire concept and execution of a piece of printed matter relating design to its functional purpose.Such a person is now more often called "graphic designer"because illustrations,graphics and colours are often included in a printed piece.As technology develops, such a person would be would be called "visual communication designer".
设计以文字为主的人员。 在一些情况下，印刷设计员负责整体概念， 把设计配合实用，直至印刷品完成。因为现在的印刷品，都加入插图，美术和颜色，所以这个人员，亦被称为'平面设计员'。 随着科技发展，这个人员，将被称为'视觉传达设计员'。
The basic typesetting specification required before a piece of text can be set.These include"typeface"."type size"."measure"and "leading".
The meaning of this term are changing following the changing of technoloty.In the days when letterpress dominates.Now it means the study of type and its use.Also the style,arrangement or appearance of typeset matter as well as graphic materials.It thus involves the design of books,magazines, newspapers,booklets,leaflets,posters,
advertisements,tickets,etc,in fact,any thing that is printed and communicates to other people by means of words.
这个术语的意义跟科技变更而 有不同解释.当活版印刷是主流的时候,它是活字 印刷术的意思.现在,它的意思是研究字体和它的应用.亦是研究字体和美术材料的款式,编排或外观.因此,它包括 书籍,杂志,报纸,小册子,传单,海报,广告,入场券等等的设计;事实上,使用文字,经印刷而向其他从士传达信息的 任何印刷品的设计,都包括在内。
Commonly used abbreviation for upper and lowercase.Used to specify text that is to be set in capitals and small letters as written.
Ultra high frequency (UHF)
Electromagnetic waves having wavelength between 10 cm and 1 m and frequency between 300 and 300 MHz.
Electromagnetic radiation of wavelength between 10 to 380 nm.These rays cannot be seen,but they act on photographic film and they cause ionization.
A keyboard term,meaning to revert to lower case.See Shift.
A style of type characterized by somewhat rounded capital letters found in Greek and Latin manuscripts from the 4th to 8th centuries.
The basic paper,produced on the paper-making machine with no coating operations.
Books untrimmed,but not necessarily unopened.
In process colour printing the technique of reducing colour in areas of overlap.Results in better trapping and lower ink cost.
In printing presses the difference between the radius of the cylinder body,it is the allowance for plate or blanket plus a margin for packing adjustment.
Action of acid as it cuts sideways instead of only downward in etching photo-engravings.
The packing placed under a letterpress block so as to bring its height up to impression level.See Interlay.Overlay.
(1)A term used in the United States to mean "caption",See Caption.
(2)A rule which appears below a word or phrase to give emphasis.Also called Underscore.
Synonymous with "underline".See Underline.
The side of the web of paper which contacted the machine wire on the paper-making mahine.Also called Wire side.See Top side.
(1)The counting basis for the set width of each character in a fount.A unit is the smallest subdiviion into which the em character of a fount is divided.Actual size varies with the manufacturers'system.For example: the Monotype System is based on 18 or 96 units to the em.See Set width. (2)One set of printing cylinders with an inking system.In case of offset,with a damping system as well.A four colour press will have four units.each printing one colour.
The number of units assigned to be the set width of a character.
In typeface design,the assignment of set width to the characters in a fount according to aesthetic and legibility.The assigned units are the baiss for the counting mechanism of the justification program.
A multi-user,multi-tasking operating system that runs on a wide variety of computer systems from micro to mainframe
A style of text setting,where lines of type are aligned vertically on one side.and ragged on the other,word spacing are usually kept to a constant value.Unjustified setting may be set flush left or flush right.
Also called Adhesive binding.Perfect binding.Theradless binding.See Adhesive binding.
Feature offered on most seanners enabling deliberatedly lower definition in pre-defined local areas to increase smoothness and gradation of tone.
Dimeneions of a sheet or printed piece before trimming.
Several at once,two-up means two copies the same out of one sheet.It can be 3-up,4-up,etc.See Two-up.
To change data in a file or database.Update and edit are often used synonymously,however,edit implies changing existing data,while update also implies adding and deleting records.
To transmit data from a personal computer or work-station to a central computer or file server.Upload implies transmitting a block of data rather than an interactives session.
The capital letters of a typeface.So named because at the time of hand composition,capital letters were kept in a case which were placed in a upper position in the frame.See Lower case.
Synonymous with "portrait".See Portrait.
That part of computer memory allocated to user data,the remainder being reserved for buffersand operating systems.
User defined format(UDF)
An instruction assigned to an input key to perform a particular command or string of commands over and above any normal funtion.Keys programmable by the user in this way are known as "user defined kwys"or "user programmable deys".
User defined key
A key programmed by the user as a macro.See User defined format.Macro.
A program that supports the operation of the computer.Utility programs,or simply utilities,provide file management capabilities as well as deagnostic and measurement routines that check teh health and performance of the computer.
A method of accelerating the dying of ink or varnish by means of ultra-violet radiations.For this type of curing,which uses the principe of photo-polymerization,special formulated UV ink or varnish must be used.
Inks which are chemically reactive to ulteraviolet light.When these specially-formulated,acrylic-based inks are exposed to ultra-violet light,their chemical configuration literally changes through ionization which causes polymerizstion,from wet to dry instantly.
Varnishes which dried immediately by exposure to ultra-violet light.A UV varnish unit sometimes installed in-line with a printing machine to perform overall or spot varnishing.
Contact printing frame for films or plates using vacuum pump to excludes the air to ensure that the emulsion contact is perfect.
An electronic device that controls the flow of electrons in a vacuum and is used as a swith amplifier or display screen.Used as on/off switch they allowed the first computers to perform digital computations.Today it is primarily used as the CRT in monitors and TV.
The process of cross-checking,particularly with relation to data which is to be entered into a computer for further procesing.For example: the total hours in a week should not be greater than 168.See Verification.
One of the three elenents of colour.It is the lightness or darkness of a colour.In printing value of a printed colour can be checked by using a densitometer.If the density of ink is kept consistent,so will be the value of the colour.Synonymous with Luminosity.Tone..
A type of dyeline proof commonly used in American.Also called Brownline.Brownprint.
In programming,a symbol that represents a numerical value or string of text used in the grogram.The value or content of that symbol may vary each time the program is repeated.
Space which do not have a fixed value,placed between words so as to justify a line as opposed to Fixed space.
Thin,transparent coating applied to printed work for gloss or protection..
Hand-made paters formed on a wire in a vat..
A quantity that has magnitude and direction such as velocity,electric current,etc.In computer graphies,a line designated by its end points(x,y or x, y,z coordinates). When a circle is drawn,it is made up of many small vectors.
具有在小和方向的量.例如:速度,电流等.在电脑图形方面,线条是用两个尾点表示(x,y 或 x,y,z是坐标).当绘画一个图形时,它是由很多的向量组成.
Data held in vector(outline) form.
The liquid componed of ink. It is the combination of lacquer,oil and alcohol which serves to carry the pigment and bonds it to the substrate.
Prepared inner side of calf-skin,used for binding finding fine books.
A finish applied to paper to imitate vellum.SeeParchment.
Another term for"screened photographic print".See Screened print
Data validation achieved by keying the information twice and then performing a character-by-character check.
An operating system utility that confirms that data written to disc has been correctly recoreded.
Identification of a particular "edition" of software.
Left-hand page with even number.See Even pages
Spacing a column or page of type to fit a predetermined depth.Automatic process on some typesetting systems.
The ability to move text displayed on a screen up or down a line at a time to reveal other parts of the text.
A twin-wire paper machine in which the normal horizontal wire of a fourdrinier paper machine is replaced by a pair of vertical wires. The headbox is at the top and the sheet is formed between the two wires as they move downwards.
Very large scale integration(VLSI)
Refers to the very large number of transistors and other electronic components that are built onto a single chip.VLSI is in the range of approximately 100,000 to 1,000,000 components per chip.
One of the distributing rollers in an inking system.Also calledDistributor,Reciprocating roller .See Distributing rollers.
A camera that takes continuous pictures and generates a signal for display or recording.It captures images by breaking down the image into a series of lines. Eachline is scanned one at a time, and the continuously varying intensities of red, green and blue light across the line are filtered out and blue light across the line are filtered out and converted into a variable signal.
A variety of optical disc on which information is stored in analogue form.Video discs used for movies use a constant linear velocity(CLV) format that records the signal on a continuous,spiralling track, as does a phonograph record. Video discs used for interactive purposes use a constant angular velocity(CAV) format like that of a magnetic disc,in which the tracks are concentric circles, each one containing one frame of video.
A text or graphics display device which may be a cathode-ray tube,or LED.
Video graphics array(VGA)
High-resolution graphics adapter standard from IBM.it offers 256 colours on colour monitors or 64 shades of grey on monochrome monitors.
The RAM chips used to make up video memory.These are built into high-end video adapter boards.
Effect applied to half-tone in which the background fading out graduslly and blends almost imperceptibly into the white of the paper.
Fibre used for the first time to make paper (i.e.not re-cycled).
Virtual device interface (VDI)
An ANSI graphies standard defining an interface between device-independent and device-dependent graphics code.
A disc that is simulated in memory.SeeRAM disc.
In graphics ,the complete graphic image stored in memory,not just the part of it that is displayed at the current time.
A technique that simulates more memory than actually exists and allows the computer to run several programs concurrently regardless of their size.
An agent of disease.In computer,it is the program code introduced into an operating system for malicious purposes.At a determined point ,when a write command is encountered,for example,the virus will crase all files from a disc.SeeWorm.
The resistance to flow of a liquid and is defined as the rate of flow per unit force applied.The unit is "poise".Viscosity is one of the important properties of printing ink.
The part of electromagnetic radiation which stimulates our eyes and thus enable us to see. Tt lies between the region of 380to 720 nm.Also call Visible spectrum.See Electromagnetic radiation.
Synonymous with "visible light".See Visible light.
A general term used by designers to mean layout or rough of artwork.
Visual display terminal/unit(VDT/VDU)
Cathode ray tube screen and keyboard for input and correction of copy to a computer or photosetter.VDT screens come in a number of sizes and resolutions. A popular format for text display is 80 characters across by 25 lines down,with a screen resolution of 640 pixels x200 pixels(a character matrix of 8 dots by 8dots at something like 72 dpi).Screens of A4or A3 size are preferable for interactive page make up.
The conversion of spoken words into computer text.Speech is first digitized and then matched against a dictionary of coded waveforms.The matches are converted into text as if the words were typed on the keyboard.SeeSpeech recognition.
See Speech synthesis.
Memory that does not hold its contents without power.A computer's main memory,made up of dynamic RAM or static RAM chips,loses its content immediately upon loss of power.
The readiness if a liquid to evaporate. Liquids such as petrol, benzene,etc. are of high volatility
(1)Bound book. (2)A measure of the thickness of papers in relation to their substance. Expressed as a volume number(e.g.vol.18) equal to the thickness in millimetres of 100 sheets of paper in 100 gsm.SeeBulking number.
(1) 卷,(2) 厚度量
A volumetric paper is one which is made to a guaranteed bulk. Typically an "antique wove".
A colour on the red or yellow side.Also called Advancing colour.
A drswing made by a brush in washes with a single pigment of black or dark colour soluble in water,to be reproduced by the half-tone process.
The cleaning of the inking and printing units of a press prior to a change of ink or shut-down of the machine.
The unintended dissolving by water of pigment in ink during offset printing causing the nonimage areas to carry pigments which are more or less uniformly distributed in the damping solution.These pigments transfer to the blanket and print on paper producing a defect.SeeTinting.
Waste incurred during the printing or binding processes.Also calledSpoilage.
Board or paper furnish consisting of waste paper,such as packaging,cardboard,newsprint,magazine papers,etc.
High finish to paper achieved by damping the web as it passes through the calender stack.
The metal trough on an offset press which holds the damping solution.
Water immersion size test
Test using water immersion to establish the effectiveness of sizing in a paper as a water repellent.
Water vapour transmission rate
An indication which detertmines the waterproof qualities of packaging paper.It is the amount of water vapour,by weight,under a specific air condition,that penetrates one square metre of the sample being tested within 24 hours,expressed in g/sq.m.24 hr.
Inks in which the pigments are soluble in water.Used in screen process printing,printing from rubber plates,and in gravure.
Unsized and moisture-absorbent paper such as blotting paper or filter paper.
Offset printing using waterless plate,thus the damping system may be eliminated.
Specially prepared deep etch plates for offset printing.The surface layer of these type of plates is covered with anh oil resist synthetic resin which is removed in those image areas.Using special type of ink which only adhered to the image areas,the plate does not require damping.
A design pressed into the wet paper during paper-making by the dandy roll to indicate quality and provide a means to guard against counterfeit in case of security printing.The watermark is visible when a sheet of paper is help up to the light.
Papers which are waterproof and are used for protective wrappings;such as:parechment,oiled and waxed papers,tarred and paraffin-treated papers special kraft papers treated with bitumen,tar or asphalt.
Referring to a stack of paper in which the edges of the sheets are wavy.Caused by the stack having a lower moisture level than the surrounding atmosphere.The edges in contact with the air take up moisture and stretch.The uneven expansion between the edges and the centre,produce wavy edges.SeeTight edges.
A process to produce a wax mould for use in making duplicate plates by electrotyping.Also,a process to prepare a plate for etching.A copper plate.covered with a thin coating of wax,on which lines are cut through the wax exposing the bright surface of the copper for further processing.
A pick resistance test for paper using graded wax sticks.There are many tests,typical of which is the "Dennison wax test".Papers for web presses require higher wax pick standards than do those for sheet-fed presses.See Dennison wax test.
Paper which has either been dipped into a wax bath and inmmediately chilled,or passed through rollers which drive the wax into the paper.
A continuous rol of paper formed on a papermaking machine.Also called Reel.
Web press using the offset lithography process
A high-speed press that prints from a continuous roll or web of paper.
Stress applied to a web in a machine for control purposes.
Feeding paper to a press from a reel or web of paper.
(1)The degree of blacknes of a typeface.The relative weights are: extra-light, light, medium, semi-bold, bold, extra-bold and ultra-bold.
(2)The weight of 500 sheets of paper of standard size for a particular grade.If an M follows the dimensions the weight is for a thousand sheets.SeBasis weight.Basic size.
Pulp in its liquid form or during formation on the wire.
Tensile strength of saturated paper or board.Measured in N/m.Wet strength is important to certain types of paper and board.For example:towel paper,map paper,banknote paper,etc.requires a high wet strength.
Any form of decals which must be soaked in water so that the images be released from the base paper which can then be peeted off.
The Fourdrinier wire section and the pressing section of a paper-making machine.
Printing multi-colour on a single colour press,the condition that each down ink must be allowed to dry before overprinting with a succeeding coloured ink.
The condition of printing on a multi-colour press that the succeeding coloured inks being overprinted before the previous ink has dried.
The degree to which a liquid will spread upon a surface and measured by its "contact angle".The smaller the contact angle,the better its wettability.See Contact angle.
An additive,such as alcohol,which decreases the surface tension of water.
Sewing technique used-to-join sheets at the edges.See Over sewing.
Machine which applies photosensitive coating to printing plates.
White line engraving
A relief print made from a block in which the non-printing engraved lines form the subject,producing a design in white lines and areas on a black ground
Also called"backwater".See Backwater.
See Full bound.
Wide area network(WAN)
A network of micros spread over a larger area than a LAN,and linked typically by telecommunication.
Lens with wide covering power.It has a focal length which is less than the diagonal of the film format with which it is being used.
Short last line of a paragraph at the top of a page or column.Considered undesirable.Seealso Mstrong>Orphan.
Fixed hard disc with extensive backing store capacity.See Hard disc.
(1)Clear panel left in a negative for half-tones to be stripped in.
(2)Portion of a VDU screen dedicated to a particular file'document.Several windows can be open on-screen at one time,allowing the user to jump from one to another rapidly.Ideal operating conditions for on-screen cut and paste.
A style of envelopes in which a clear panel has left in the front so as to show the name and address typed on the letter to be posted.
The result of out-of-square guillotining of a book:when the book is opened the edges look like a pair of butterfly wings rather than being parallel along the tops and bottoms.
Offset plate to which the image forming lightsensitive coating is applied by hand.
The moving fine metal mesh belt on which liquid stock is formed into a web of paper by draining away the water.
That side of the paper that has rested on the wire during paper-making.Also called Wrong side.Underside.
A loose term for binding by wire stitching.It may be "saddle wire stitching" or "side wire stitching".
The impression of the machine wire imparted to the underside of the web of paper on a papermaking machine.
A method of loose-leaf binding in which a continuous double loop of wire runs through punched slots along the binding side of a booklet.
With the grain
A term used to describe the directional character of paper,often applied to the folding of a sheet of paper parallel to the grain.Paper folds more easily with the grain.See Across the grain.
Wood block printing
This term can be used as a synonym for printing using a woodcut,but more specifically refers to the technique of making colour prints using a separate wood block for each colour in the design.
Similar to :woodent",but the craving are on the end grain of the plank.See Woodcut.
Pulp made from weed.
Type made from wood,and set by hand usually for display sizes over 72 point.
The term woodcut is often used loosely for any carving made on a wooden block.Strictly speaking,however,the term applies only to cuts made on planks of wood which are lingitudinal cut and have a parallel grain,See Wood engraving.
Any paper made from chemical wood pulp and containing no mechanical wood pulp.Commonly called"Dowling paper"(from Dowling Paper Manufacturing Co.Ltd.,U.K.) in the Far East,However,it is generally accepted that woodfree paper may include up to 10% mechanical or other fibre and still fall within the definition of "woodfree".
Pulp which is processed chemically and which contains no mechanical groundwood.
Synonymous with "mechanical paper".See Mechanical paper.
Splitting of a word at a line ending.See Hyphenation.
The act of composing,inputting and editing text through the medium of a dedicated word processor or specific word processing software.
Machine using comuter logic to accept,store and retrieve documents for subsequent editing and output in typewriter style.
The space between words which may be fixed as for unjustified setting,or variable as for justified setting.
A feature of all word processing and other text handling systems that wraps text automatically to the next line when a line end is encountered.
A scheme of imposition in common use.Synonymous with "sheet work".See Sheet work.
A scheme of imposition.After printing the first side,turn the sheet on its short dimension,feeding the other long edge to the grippers,then print the reverse side using the same plate.Each sheet,cut in half at its short dimension,yields two copies.See Half-sheet work.
A common scheme of imposition.After printing the first side,turn the sheet on its ling dimension,and then printing the reverse side using the same plate and the same gripper edge.Each sheet,cut in half at its long dimension,yields two copies.See Half-sheet work.
A scheme of imposition which is largely used in letterpress to print complicate ruled forms for ease of setting.A sheet is printed once,then turned round,keeping the same side up but bringing a different edge of the sheet to the grippers,and then print again using the same plate.Each sheet,when cut in half,yields two copies.
(1)A high-performance,single user micro or minicomputer that has been specialized for graphics,computer-aided design,computer-aided engineering or scientific applications.
(2)Any terminal or personal computer.
The unintentional lifting to impression level of spacing materials in a letterpress forme.Usually caused by poor lock-up.
Number of passes through a printing machine to make up a complete job,e.g. four workings on a single-colour press to produce a four-colour print or one working on a four-colour press.
A program introduced by a software publisher that is designed to abort execution if unauthorized usage is detected.See Virus.
Paper produced using a plain,woven dandy roll and there fore without laid lines,as distinct from Laid paper.
Genuine cloth of cotton,linen and silk,used for case covering.See Buckram.
Short for "wrap round".See Insert.
To place colour pages around signatures before sewing.See also Insert.
To wrap text automatically around regular or irregular shaped graphics.Also called Runaround.Text wrap.
A thin,flexible one-piece zinc,magnesium,copper,or synthetic resin relief plate wrapped around the cylinder on a rotary press,much like an offset plate.Used for direct or indirect printing.
Attaching a paper or board cover by gluing at the spine of a book block which may be stabbed,adhesive bound or sewn.See Drawing on.
A general term to describe paper for wrapping of different type of goods.There are many defferent grades and may be classified as general wrappings,special wrappings,oil resist wrappings,moisture resist wrappings,etc.
Creases in printed paper caused by uneven moisture content which are mainly due to the ambient air conditions.See Cockling>
to record data into or onto a mimory or storage device,such as disc,tape,and firmware.Read and write is analogous to play and record on an audio tape recorder.
The condition that data can be recorded or written onto magnetic disc or tape.
The prohibition of data being erased or written onto magnetic disc or tape.
A kind of paper with a smooth surface,sized to prevent ink from being absorbed into the fibres.
An error in typesetting in which an incorrect type-fount has been used in setting.It is a common practice to use its abbreviation for proof reading.
Also called Underside.Wire side.See Underside
When viewed from the emulsion side of the film,the image reads in the reverse,or is a mirror image.For offset plate-making,a wrong-reading negative or positive is required.See Right-reading film.
Acronym for "what you see is what you get".Used to describe a visual display of text and graphics on screen the same way it will be printed.
The horizontal location of data on a graph CRT,or page layout,or the horizontal distance from a selected reference point.
The height of the body of lower-case letters,exclusive of ascenders ,i.e. height of the small letter x.In typeface design,x-heitht affects the legibility of a passage of text.Typeface with a large x-height looks larger and requires suitable line spacing.Typefaces with a small x-heitht looks smaller and no line spacing is required.
The imaginary line which marks the tops of the body of lower-case letters.Also called Mean line.
Electromagnetic radiation of short wavelength.An X-ray photograph is produced by passing X_ray radiation through the subject to be recorded by a special photographic emulsion.
A group of rows and columns.The x-axis is the horizontal row,and the y-axis is the vertical column.An x-y matrix is the reference framework for two-dimensional structures,such as mathematical tables,display screens,digitizer tablets,dot matrix printers and 2-d graphics images,etc.
A three-dimensional structure.The x and y axes represent the first two dimensions:the z axis,the third dimension.In a graphic image,the x and y denote width and height ;the z denotes depth
A discharge lamp in which the electrical discharge takes place in xenon gas .The light produced is of hi8gh-intensity,consists of fairly even spectro-colour distribution and thus a good light source for colour reproduction.
It is a form of elefctrostatic printing in which a special surface is charged with static electricity to form the latent images,toner powders added and then transferred to paper to ge heat fused to produce the print.See Electrostatic printing.
Mark on the packing,indicating retree.See Retree.
Mark on the packing,indicating broke.See Broke.
The term applied to the art of printing from wood blocks.Also called Wood block printing.
The vertical location of data on a graph,CRT,or page layout,or the vertical distance from a selected reference point.
Steam-heated paper drying cylinder in the Yankee machine.The diameter of which is over 3m.It burnishes the paper surface to give a glazed finish.See Yankee machine.
A paper-making machine characterized by having a single highly polished large diameter drying cylinder (called Yankee dryer).Use to produce machine galzed papers,creped paper,etc.
Yapp edges cover
Edges of a binding which overlap the edges of the pages of the book to provide a "fringed" effect,Bibles are frequently bound in this manner.
One of the four printing plates in a subtractive colour process which is to be printed in yellow ink.
The force required to start a liquid to flow.It is a property to be consider in ink manufacture.For example: the yield value for letterpress and offset inks is much higher than that of gravure inks
Relief engraving made on zinc and often used for short-run blocking.Also called Zinco.
Series of parallel folds in paper in which each fold turns to the opposite direction from the previous fold,like a row of z's.Also called Accordion fold.Concertina fold.Fan fold.Over and back fold.
A line or coarse screen half-tone block etched on zinc for letterpress printing.See Zinc engraving.
A term used in art for the planographic printing technique using a plate made of zinc to make prints.However,such technique were more often subsumed under the generic name "lithography".
A lens whose focal length can be varied continuously over a substantial range.One zoom lens can replace several fixed focal-length lensed,but results are likely to be inferior.
The act of enlarging or reducing the view of a page layout.Enlarging the view of a portion of the document helps when working on detailed items,reducing the view allows the whole page or a pair of pages to be seen in full on the screen to check the overall appearance of the layout.