知识与资讯
专业词汇
 
印刷科技词汇大全(9)
发布时间:2011-7-16 21:29:00||  点击:7504次||  文章分类:专业词汇||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)


  Transitional
  A group of type design developed in England in the eighteenth century which marked the transition from the traditional old face letter to the modern face letter.
   过渡体
  十八世纪时,在英格兰 开发的一类英文字体设计.它标记着从此古体的设计过渡到现代体的特色。
   
   
  Translation table
  See Look-up table.
   对照表
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Translator
  (1) A compiler,interpreter or assembler conversion program that translates a high-level language or low-level language into machine language.
   (1)翻译程式,(2)翻译器
  (1)是一个用编译,传译或真译方法的转换程式.它把高阶层语言或低阶层语言翻译为机器语言.
  
  (2)一个能做翻译的装置。
   
   
  Transmission codes 
  Standard code sets used in computers to represent alphabets and numbers.Examples include ASC and EBCDIC.
   传送代码
  电脑用的一套标准代码,代表字母和数字.例如雅舒码和纳斯迪码。
   
   
  Transmission copy 
  Copy which is viewed by transmitted light,e,g.a transparency.As distict from"reflection copy"which is viewed by reflected light.
   透射原稿
  用透射光观看的原稿,例如透明片,幻灯片。有别于用反射光观看的反射原稿。
   
   
  Transparency 
  See Abrasion resistance.
   透明片(幻灯片)
  照相影像在透明基片上,用透明光观看的单色或彩色正片。
   
   
  Transparncy viewer
  Box arrangement with special light source to enable the viewing of colour transparencies under cosistent conditions.Also calledLight box.
   光箱
  箱子形状,装设有特别光源,使能在平稳情况下观看彩色透明片,幻灯片。参阅上文。
   
   
  Transparent inks 
  Inks such as process inks which permit other colours to show through when overprinted and so produce subsequent mixed colour.
   透明墨
  叠印时,能让其他颜色显现,并随即造成一个混合色的墨,如四色彩印墨。
   
   
  Transpose 
  To change places with another letter,word,lie or illustration.
   对调次序
  把字,字词,字行或插图的次序对调。
   
  Trapping
  (1)The ability of a printed ink to accept a succeeding or overprinted ink,making it possible to superimpose one colour over another to create proper colour balance.Trapping is very important in wet-on-wet printing.Ink tack should be adjusted so that the colours first printed must be tack than the subsequent inks,in this manner,the first ink helps pull the subsequent one off the plate or blanket.Normally,trapping should be 85% or higher. 
  
  (2)A slight overlapping where two colours meet,necessary to avoid a white line between the two colour areas.See Overdrawn.
   (1)牵引力 ,(2)叠边
  (1)是油墨对随后施印或叠印的墨的接受能力。适当的牵引力,造成正确的色彩平衡。在湿叠印时,牵引力十分重要。先印墨的黏度要调高。这样,先印的墨才可以把随后施印的墨从版面或胶布面拉下来。一般的牵引力是85%或以上。
  
  (2)在两色套印时,把接触的边缘,稍为重叠的情况。这是防止它们之间,有白边出现的必须工序。参阅加大轮廓。
   
   
  Tri-metal plate 
  Offset plate for very ling run work where three layers of metal are used in manufacturing the plate.The layers are stainless steel or aluminium are plated respectively. 
   三层金属版
  用在层不同金属造成,能作极大印量的柯式印版。它用不锈钢或铝为基层,再镀上铜和铬而成。
   
   
  Trim
  (1)To cut off and square the edes of paper before printing. (2)To cut and aquare a printed product during finishing.For single leaf work,all the four edges will be trimmed.On bound work,trimming is only required on head,foredge and tail.Normal trim allowance is about 3 mm(1/8 inch).but for bled work,about 6 mm (1/4 inch) is required.
   裁边
  (1)印刷前,把纸边裁切正文。
  
  (2)在完成加工时,把印成品裁切正方。单张的印件,要裁切四边;订本则只需裁切天头,切口和地脚。一般的裁切量约3毫米(1/8 寸) ;出血印件则约为6毫米(1/4 寸)。
   
   
  Trim marks 
  Also called"cut marks","tick mark",SeeCut marks.
   裁切记号
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Trimmed size 
  The size of a printed piece after trimming.Also referred to asFinished size.
   裁切尺寸
  印刷品裁边后的尺寸。亦称为完成尺寸。
  
   
   
   
  Triplex board
  Board made up of three layers of thinner paper or of one cheap central tayer lined on both sides with better paper. 
   三层叠合纸板
  用三层较薄纸张裱合,或用廉价的纸作中间层,两边裱上较佳纸张面成的纸板。
  
   
   
   
  Tristimulus values 
  In the CIE colour systims,the amiunt of red green and blue light required to make up a given colour.These values are obtained by measuring a colour sample through red green and blue filters.With these values,the physical characteristics of the colour,"Y,x,y","Lab",or "LUV",can be calculated and indicated by numbers. 
   三刺激值
  在国际照明委员会所用的表色法内,造成某个颜色的红、绿、兰光的份量。这个份量的数值是把颜色样本分别经红、绿、兰滤色片量度而得。用这些数值,就可以计算该色的物理特性,如‘Y,x,y ’,‘L*a*b’或‘LUV’数字表达出来。
   
   
  True small caps 
  Small capitals designed as such,rather than created as a smaller size of main-text capitals.The strokes of true small capitals are of better proportion. 
   真小型大写
  专为作小型大写而设计的小型大写,而不是把正文字体的大写字母变小而成。真小型大写的笔画比例较为美观。
   
   
  
   T
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   True type 
  A scalable fount,Each fount comtains its own algorithm for generating the final bit maps.True type founts work will with both non-PostScipt and PostScript output devices.However,on a PostScript printer,the fount must first be converted to a PostScript outline,the quality of output depends on the quality of output depends on the quality of the conversion. 
   真实字体
  可以放大,缩小的一 副字体。 每副字体有它本身的演算法来传发完成的数元图记。真实字体在后记码和非后记码两种输出装 置都运作良好然而, 在后记码的印字机上,真实字体先要转为后记码的轮廓,输出的品质便转为后记码 的轮廓,输出的品质便依赖转换时的品质。
   
   
  Tub-sized 
  
  Surface sizing of paper by passing the sheet through a bath or"tub"of size. 
   槽法施胶
  把纸张带过一个装有 胶液的槽或缸,在纸面涂上胶液。 
   
   
  Turned 
  
  (1)A table or illustration turned sideways on a page so as to fit better.Such tables or illustrations should always be turned so that the foot of them is on the right-hand side of the page when the book is in normal,upright,position.
  
  (2)In newspaper or magazine,the unfinished part of an article carried over on to another page after many pages of interception.Synonymous with Run over. 
   (1)横倒排,(2)跳页
  (1)为配合页面,表格或插图在书页内,侧倒过来横排的情况.它们的排式需要一致.当书在正常 直立情况下,表格的脚部在书页右边。
  
  (2)在报纸或杂志上,未完成的文章转往多页之后继续.参阅上文。
   
   
  Turned in 
  
  The material used on the case of a book is turned in round the edges so as not to leave the boards'edges exposed rather than cut flush.
   包边
  造书壳的物料,沿着连续,向内转 折,包着纸板,不让它露边,书壳宁可包边,也不作齐边切。
   
   
  Turned over
  
  A style of the drawn-on cover in which the foredge of the front and back covers is allowed to extend for 45mm or more to make a flap.See Drawn-on cover.
   勒口
  黏脊书皮的一种款式,封面及封 底的外白边向外伸展4.5毫米或更多, 折为勒口.参阅黏脊书皮。
   
   
  Turner bar (Turning ba )
  
  Metal bar on a web offset press which redirects the web through a right-angle.See Angle bar.
   转向棍
  卷筒纸印刷机上的金属棍,它把纸郑的方 向作一个直角的改变,参阅上文。
   
   
  Turnkey system
  
  A complete system of hardware and software designed for a specific use and delivered to the customer in a ready-to-run condition.The system supplier will provide training to such an extent that there are someone proficient enough to take over.
   交匙方式
  专为某种工作而设计的 一个系统,包括硬件和软件.送到顾客时,随即可以使用,系统供应商会提供训练,直至有人熟练,可以接手为止。
   
   
  Turnover
  
  Words transferred from the end of one line to the beginning of the next.
   转行
  本行排不完,把字转往下一行的情况。
   
   
  Tusche
  
  The liquid emulsion ink that is is painted or drawn on the lithographic stone in direct lithography to form theimage.Tusche can be used to effect corrections on offset plates if the run is short.
   制版墨
  乳状液体墨,用来在石版上描绘或书画, 造成直接石印印纹.制版墨也可以用来修改印量不多的柯式印版。
   
   
  Twelve-mo (Duodecimo)(12mo)
  
  A size of paper obtained by sub-dividing a broad sheet into twelve parts.Used to describe book size
   十二开
  把原张纸分十二份所得的尺寸.用来表示书本大小。
   
   
  Twenty-four-mo (24mo)
  
  A size paper obtained by sub-dividing a broadsheet into twenty-four parts.Used to descibe book size.For A size paper ,it equivalents to 2/3A4,which is a common book size.
   二十四开
  把原张纸分二十四份所得的尺寸. 用来表示书本大小.以A度纸计,二十四开相等于2/3A4的大小,是常用的书本尺寸。
   
   
  Twin-wire paper
  Paper or board,made from two separate webs which are bought together while wet with their undersides, or wire sides at the centre,at the press section of the twin-wire paper machine.
   夹网纸
  两个湿纸卷的反面或网面,在夹网 造纸机的压窄部相接,压合为一的纸或纸板。
   
   
  Twin-wire paper
  Paper or board,made from two separate webs which are bought together while wet with their undersides, or wire sides at the centre,at the press section of the twin-wire paper machine.
   夹网纸 
  两个湿纸卷的反面或网 面,在夹网造纸机的压窄部相接,压合为一的纸或纸板。
   
   
  Two-colour press
  Two-unit machine which can print two colours on one side of a sheed in singlw pass.
   双色机
  有两个机组岢以一次过在 纸的一面印两个颜色的印刷机。
   
   
  Two -letter index
  An index consisting of 12 divisions,each of two letters but omitting x and z from the alphabet.
   双字母索引
  分十二部分的索引, 每个部分用两个英文字母,略去X和Y。
   
   
  Two-sheet detector 
  A device in a sheet fed press for stoping the machine if more than one sheet is fed.
   双纸探测器
  单张纸印刷机地, 给纸若多过一张,即停止机器的装置。
   
   
  Two-shot binding 
  Adhesive binding in which the first application is of PVA adhesive,the second of hot-melt adhesive.See One-shot binding.
   两次胶胶装
  第一次涂聚乙烯醇(白胶浆), 第二次涂热熔胶的胶装方式.参阅一次胶胶装。
   
   
  Two-up
  (1)Printing two copies of the same thing at one imprssion by using duplicate plates or a step-and-repeat machine.This is often more economic than printing the single image on smaller sheets of paper because duplicate plates or step-and-repeat cost less than double press time.Printing can be done three-up,four-up,etc,as well. (2)Two books,usually joined together at the head;folded,gathered and sewn as one,then cut apart during trimming.
   双版同印
  (1)用复制版或用连 机造成印版施印,使一次压印,得两份相同印件.用这个方法较用单版,细纸度施印为廉宜,因为造复制版或连 的成本较双倍印刷时间少.此外,亦可用三版,或四版等一同施印。
  
  2)两本书,头对头,连在一起,当作一本.一起施印,摺叠,集帖和锁线,在裁边时,然后切开。
   
   
  Tying-up
  Using cord to secure type storage.
   绑版
  用绳把活字绑稳,以便贮存。
   
   
  Type
  A small,square or rectangular piece of lead alloy or wood,having on its top surface a raised and reversed letter or other character.
   活字
  是一长方柱形金属或木块, 它的顶部有着凸起的反向字,字母或其他符号.
   
   
  Type area
  Area occupied by text and illustration on a page,including running head and folio.See Text area.
   版心
  正文及插图,包括书眉和页码, 在书页内所占的面积.参阅正文版式度.
   
   
  Type family
  A range of various designs that are all based on one typeface style of the alphabet.This usually starts with roman(upright)face,develope into italic,bold,cindensed,extended,and variances in weight from extra light to extra bold.Some families have more members than others.See Family of type.
   字族
  跟据一种字体设计,加以变化, 成一系列相关字体.通常是以罗马休(正休)为主,变化出斜体,窄体,阔体和不同的线条比对,双特幼到特粗等.参阅上文.
   
  Type gauge 
  A tool used for copy fitting,measuring type size,and the number of lines set in a given depth.Type gauges are calibrated in points and pieas.See Line gauge. 
   字尺
  量度字大小或量度在一特 定版深内排成的行数,和计算版数的工具。字尺上刻有点及倍卡。参阅行数尺。
   
   
  Type high
  The height of type or engravings when mounted on wood or metal in order to make an impression.This height is 23.317mm (0.918 inch).
   字高
  活字的高度或电版装嵌 于木或金属版垫后,可以压印的高度。这个高度是23.317毫米(0.918 寸)。
   
   
  Type metal
  The alloy for cast type,comprising lead,tin and antimony.
   活字金属
  铸造活字的合金,由铅,锡和锑组成。
   
   
  Type series
  The range of type sizes on one typeface design.For metal,it ranges from 6 pt,up to 72pt.For computer typesetting system,the size may range from 4,pt,to more than 576 pt,depending on the program.
   字系
  同一字体设计的一系列字大小。 在金属活字方面,字大小的范围从6点至72点。在电脑排字系统内,视乎所用排字软件,范围从4点至576点或以上。
   
   
  Type sizes
  The size of type denoted by points.Before the adoption of the point system,typw sizes were known by destinguishing names,such as"agate" for 5/12pt," long primer" for 10 pt,"pica"for 12 pt"great primer"for 18 pt,etc.
   字大小
  印刷字体的大小,用点作单位。点数制在十八世纪开始使用。 在此之前,字大小分别用名字识别。例如:‘雅基’是5 1/2点;‘长派码’是10点;‘培卡’是12点;‘大派码’是18点等。
   
   
  Type style
  Referred to a particular fomily member of a typeface,such as italic,or bold,etc.SeeType family.
   字型
  指字体族内的某一成员, 例如斜体或黑体等。参阅字族。
   
   
  Typeface
  A specifically designated style.There are thousands of typeface designs,some styles are more than 400 years old,and some styles differ only very slightly from one another.For ease of identification.English typefaces can be divided into three main groups,viz:"types with serif", "types without serif(sans serif)" and "decorative".Chinese typefaces can be divided into two main groups viz:"text type" and "display type."
   字体
  具有个别特徵的字形。现时 有成千上万的字体。一些是400多年前的设计; 亦有一些字体,其中只有轻微差别。方便辩认,字体可分为三大类,即是:‘有衬线’,‘无衬线’和‘装饰体’。
   
   
  Typesetter
  (1) A person who sets typw.Also calledCompositor.
  
  (2)A device that actually creats the type from keyboarded instructions. 
   (1)排字员,(2)排字机
  (1)做排字工作的人员。亦称排字技工。
  
  (2)一部依照键盘指令,实际产生字体的装置。
   
   
  Typesetting
  The assembling by hand,linecasting machine,typewriter,phototypesetter or computer,of typegraphic materials suitable for printing or for incorporating into a printing plate.
   排字
  用手工,行式铸字机,打字机, 照相排字机或电脑,把排字材料组合适合印刷或成为印版的情况。
   
   
  Typewriter composition
  See Strike-on composition.
  
   
   打字排字
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Typographer
  
  Designer of printed materials which are text dominated. In some cases, a typegrapher would be responsible for the entire concept and execution of a piece of printed matter relating design to its functional purpose.Such a person is now more often called "graphic designer"because illustrations,graphics and colours are often included in a printed piece.As technology develops, such a person would be would be called "visual communication designer".
   印刷设计员
  设计以文字为主的人员。 在一些情况下,印刷设计员负责整体概念, 把设计配合实用,直至印刷品完成。因为现在的印刷品,都加入插图,美术和颜色,所以这个人员,亦被称为'平面设计员'。 随着科技发展,这个人员,将被称为'视觉传达设计员'。
   
   
  Typographic parameters
  The basic typesetting specification required before a piece of text can be set.These include"typeface"."type size"."measure"and "leading". 
   排字参数
  在开始排一段文字前, 需要的基本排字指示。它们是:'字体'、'字大小'、'字长'、'行距'。
   
   
  Typography
  The meaning of this term are changing following the changing of technoloty.In the days when letterpress dominates.Now it means the study of type and its use.Also the style,arrangement or appearance of typeset matter as well as graphic materials.It thus involves the design of books,magazines, newspapers,booklets,leaflets,posters,
  advertisements,tickets,etc,in fact,any thing that is printed and communicates to other people by means of words.
   字体排印术
  这个术语的意义跟科技变更而 有不同解释.当活版印刷是主流的时候,它是活字 印刷术的意思.现在,它的意思是研究字体和它的应用.亦是研究字体和美术材料的款式,编排或外观.因此,它包括 书籍,杂志,报纸,小册子,传单,海报,广告,入场券等等的设计;事实上,使用文字,经印刷而向其他从士传达信息的 任何印刷品的设计,都包括在内。
   
   
  
   U
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
   U.&L.C(u/lc)
  Commonly used abbreviation for upper and lowercase.Used to specify text that is to be set in capitals and small letters as written.
   大写配小写
  英文是大写配小写的常用缩写。用来批示内文应依照原稿,用大写和小写排字。
  
   
   
   
  Ultra high frequency (UHF)
  Electromagnetic waves having wavelength between 10 cm and 1 m and frequency between 300 and 300 MHz.
   特高频
  波长在10厘米至1米间,频率在300至3000兆赫间的电磁波。
   
   
  Ultra-violet(UV)ray
  Electromagnetic radiation of wavelength between 10 to 380 nm.These rays cannot be seen,but they act on photographic film and they cause ionization.
   紫外线
  波长在10至380纳米间的电磁幅射波。紫外线不能看见,但能使照相菲林感光,能引致电离。
   
   
   
  Un-shift
  A keyboard term,meaning to revert to lower case.See Shift.
   放转档
  键盘术语,表示转回用小写字母参阅转档。
   
   
  Uncial
  A style of type characterized by somewhat rounded capital letters found in Greek and Latin manuscripts from the 4th to 8th centuries.
   安色尔字体
  英文字体的一种。它的特点是有着四至八世纪时,希腊和拉丁文书中的圆角大写字母形状。
   
   
  Uncoated paper
  The basic paper,produced on the paper-making machine with no coating operations.
   不涂面纸
  在造纸机上生产,不再加工涂面的原纸。
   
   
  Uncut edges
  Books untrimmed,but not necessarily unopened.
   毛边书
  不裁边的书,但并不表示它不能打开。
   
   
  Under-colour removal(UCR)
  In process colour printing the technique of reducing colour in areas of overlap.Results in better trapping and lower ink cost.
   除去下色
  四色彩印,把颜色重叠的地方墨量减少的技巧。效果是较佳的油墨牵引能力和降低油墨成本。
   
   
  Undercut
  In printing presses the difference between the radius of the cylinder body,it is the allowance for plate or blanket plus a margin for packing adjustment.
   下削量
  印刷机上,圆筒肩?直径和圆筒本身直径的差额。这个宽限,容纳印版或胶布和调校压力用的垫料。
   
   
  Undercutting
  Action of acid as it cuts sideways instead of only downward in etching photo-engravings.
   侧壁腐蚀
  电版腐蚀时,酸除向下腐蚀,还向侧面腐蚀的情况。
   
   Underlay
  The packing placed under a letterpress block so as to bring its height up to impression level.See Interlay.Overlay.
   下垫
  把垫料放在活版块底部,把它升高至可以压印为止参阅中垫.上垫.
   
   
  Underlines
  (1)A term used in the United States to mean "caption",See Caption.
  
  (2)A rule which appears below a word or phrase to give emphasis.Also called Underscore.
   (1)图片说明,(2)底线
  (1)美国用的术语,是图片说明书的意思.
  
  (2)在字词或片语之下,加上的线条,以凸出其重要性.
   
   
  Underscore
  Synonymous with "underline".See Underline.
   底线
  参阅上文.
   
   
   
  Underside
  The side of the web of paper which contacted the machine wire on the paper-making mahine.Also called Wire side.See Top side.
   底面
  造纸机上,纸卷与造纸接触的一面,亦称网面.参阅正面.
   
   
  Unit
  (1)The counting basis for the set width of each character in a fount.A unit is the smallest subdiviion into which the em character of a fount is divided.Actual size varies with the manufacturers'system.For example: the Monotype System is based on 18 or 96 units to the em.See Set width. (2)One set of printing cylinders with an inking system.In case of offset,with a damping system as well.A four colour press will have four units.each printing one colour.
   (1)单位,(2)机组
  (1)一副字体内,计算个别字符字宽的依据,把该副字体所用的正文,尽量分至最细小,一份就是一单位.单位的实际大小,视乎制造商所用的方法.例如蒙纳公司,她采用每正方分为18到底6份不等的方法.参阅字阔.
  
  (2)装有滚墨系统的一组印刷贺筒.若是柯式,则还加上润湿系统.一部四色机有四个机组,各印一个颜色.
   
   
  Unit value
  The number of units assigned to be the set width of a character.
   单位量
  分配给某字符的单位数目.
   
   
  Unitization
  
  In typeface design,the assignment of set width to the characters in a fount according to aesthetic and legibility.The assigned units are the baiss for the counting mechanism of the justification program.
  
   
   单位化
  字体设计,根据美观和清晰性,决定各字符字宽的单位量.它是齐行程式用来计算的依据.
   
   
  Unix
  A multi-user,multi-tasking operating system that runs on a wide variety of computer systems from micro to mainframe
   Unix(尤力斯操作系统)
  是一个多用户,多用途的电脑操作系统.它可以在各类不同的电脑上使用,从微电脑到在大型电脑.
   
   
  Unjustified setting
  A style of text setting,where lines of type are aligned vertically on one side.and ragged on the other,word spacing are usually kept to a constant value.Unjustified setting may be set flush left or flush right.
   不齐行排字
  字行向一边的垂直线对齐,另一边则参差,字词间距通常是等宽的排字方式.因此,不齐行排字可以是齐左或齐右.
   
   
  Unsewn binding
  Also called Adhesive binding.Perfect binding.Theradless binding.See Adhesive binding.
   胶装
  参阅上文.
   
   Unsharp mask 
  Feature offered on most seanners enabling deliberatedly lower definition in pre-defined local areas to increase smoothness and gradation of tone.
   虚光蒙片
  大多数的扫描机都具备的一项功能.它着意的降低指定部份的轮廓清晰度,从而增加色调节器的均匀和层次.
   
   
  Untrimmed size
  Dimeneions of a sheet or printed piece before trimming.
   未裁边尺寸
  裁边前,印张或印刷品的尺寸.
   
   
  Up
  Several at once,two-up means two copies the same out of one sheet.It can be 3-up,4-up,etc.See Two-up.
   多版同印
  多个版一同施印的意思.双版施印是在一印张上有两份相同的印件.很多时,可用三版,四版等一同施印.参阅双版同印.
   
   
   
  Update
  To change data in a file or database.Update and edit are often used synonymously,however,edit implies changing existing data,while update also implies adding and deleting records.
   更新
  把数据库或档案内资料更改的情况.更新和校订很多时有相同意思,但是,校订倾向把现有数据修改,而更新则倾向增加或册除记录.
   
   
  Upload
  To transmit data from a personal computer or work-station to a central computer or file server.Upload implies transmitting a block of data rather than an interactives session.
   上传
  把数据从个人电脑或工作站传送到中央电脑或档案服务机上的情况.上传指整段数据的传送而不是互动的操作环节.
   
   
  Uppercase
  The capital letters of a typeface.So named because at the time of hand composition,capital letters were kept in a case which were placed in a upper position in the frame.See Lower case.
   大写字母
  英文字体的大写字母.因手工排字时,盛载大写字母的字盘是放在字架的最上面,故英文称之为上盘.参阅小写字母.
   
   
  Upright 
  Synonymous with "portrait".See Portrait.
   直立式
  参阅上文.
   
   
  User area
  That part of computer memory allocated to user data,the remainder being reserved for buffersand operating systems.
   用户领域
  电脑贮记部,拨出作用户数据贮存的部份,余下留作操作系统和缓冲作用.
   
   
  User defined format(UDF) 
  An instruction assigned to an input key to perform a particular command or string of commands over and above any normal funtion.Keys programmable by the user in this way are known as "user defined kwys"or "user programmable deys".
   用户自定格式
  指派一个输入键,作超越正常功能,执行特别指令或一串指令的指示.字键被这样的程式化后,称为'用户自定字键'.
   
   
  User defined key
  A key programmed by the user as a macro.See User defined format.Macro.
  
   
   用户自定字键
  被用户指派作宏指令的键.参阅用户自定格式,宏指令.
   
   Utility program
  A program that supports the operation of the computer.Utility programs,or simply utilities,provide file management capabilities as well as deagnostic and measurement routines that check teh health and performance of the computer.
   应用程式
  支援电脑操作的程式.它提供档案管理能力并对电脑的正常情况和运作表现,作日常的诊断和检查.
   
   
  Uv curing 
  A method of accelerating the dying of ink or varnish by means of ultra-violet radiations.For this type of curing,which uses the principe of photo-polymerization,special formulated UV ink or varnish must be used.
   紫外线固化
  用紫外幅射线,使油墨或光油快速干燥的方法.使用这种固化方式,是利用光聚合化的原理,需要特别配方的油墨或光油.
   
   
  Uv ink
  Inks which are chemically reactive to ulteraviolet light.When these specially-formulated,acrylic-based inks are exposed to ultra-violet light,their chemical configuration literally changes through ionization which causes polymerizstion,from wet to dry instantly.
   紫外线墨
  紫外光会引致化学反应的墨.当这些特别配方,以丙烯酸为主要成份的墨,补紫外光照射时,它的化学结构起重大变化,经电离而引致聚合,湿墨即时变干.
   
   
   
  Uv varnish
  Varnishes which dried immediately by exposure to ultra-violet light.A UV varnish unit sometimes installed in-line with a printing machine to perform overall or spot varnishing.
   紫外线光油
  在紫外光照射下,即时干燥的光油.有时,紫外线光油机组是印刷机的一个联动装置,作全面或局部加印光油.
  V
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Vacuum frame
  Contact printing frame for films or plates using vacuum pump to excludes the air to ensure that the emulsion contact is perfect.
   真空晒架
  接触晒印菲林或印版用的晒架,它用真空泵把空气抽出,以确保乳剂层与乳剂层间的紧密接触.
   
   
  Vacuum tube
  An electronic device that controls the flow of electrons in a vacuum and is used as a swith amplifier or display screen.Used as on/off switch they allowed the first computers to perform digital computations.Today it is primarily used as the CRT in monitors and TV.
   真空管
  控制电子在真空中流动的电子装置.作开关,扩大器或显像荧幕使用,最先的电脑是用它作开关,作数字运算.现在,它的主要用途是作电视或显示器的阴极射线管.
   
   
  Validity checking
  The process of cross-checking,particularly with relation to data which is to be entered into a computer for further procesing.For example: the total hours in a week should not be greater than 168.See Verification.
   确实性检查
  交互检查的方法,特别是对有关输入电脑作进一步处理的数据.例如一个星期的小时数不大于168.参阅检证.
   
   
   
  Value
  One of the three elenents of colour.It is the lightness or darkness of a colour.In printing value of a printed colour can be checked by using a densitometer.If the density of ink is kept consistent,so will be the value of the colour.Synonymous with Luminosity.Tone..
   明度
  颜色三要素之一.是颜色的明暗程度.在印刷方面,印刷色的明度可用密度计检查,若密度保持一致,明度也保持一致.亦称色调.参阅上文.
   
   
  Vandyke
  A type of dyeline proof commonly used in American.Also called Brownline.Brownprint.
   云棣稿样
  美国流行的一种染料稿样.亦称棕稿样.
   
   
  Variable
  In programming,a symbol that represents a numerical value or string of text used in the grogram.The value or content of that symbol may vary each time the program is repeated.
   变数
  在程式设计中,代表程式内的一个数值或一个文字串的符号.它代表的数值或内容,在重复程式时,可一次次的改变.
   
   
  Variable space
  Space which do not have a fixed value,placed between words so as to justify a line as opposed to Fixed space.
   活间距
  放于字词间的不同定数值空位,用来对齐字行长度.有别于固定间距.
   
   Varnish
  Thin,transparent coating applied to printed work for gloss or protection..
   光油
  稀,透明涂剂.施加于印刷品上以增加光泽及作保护层.
   
   
  Vat papers
  Hand-made paters formed on a wire in a vat..
   手抄纸
  把造纸网投入浆槽内,用手工抄造的纸.
   
   
  Vector
  A quantity that has magnitude and direction such as velocity,electric current,etc.In computer graphies,a line designated by its end points(x,y or x, y,z coordinates). When a circle is drawn,it is made up of many small vectors.
   向量
  具有在小和方向的量.例如:速度,电流等.在电脑图形方面,线条是用两个尾点表示(x,y 或 x,y,z是坐标).当绘画一个图形时,它是由很多的向量组成.
   
   
   
  Vector data 
  Data held in vector(outline) form.
   向量数据
  以向量(轮廓线条)贮存的数据.
   
   
  Vehicle
  The liquid componed of ink. It is the combination of lacquer,oil and alcohol which serves to carry the pigment and bonds it to the substrate.
   展色剂
  油墨内的液体成份.它是由清漆,油及醇混合而成.作用是携带颜料并把它黏结于承印物上.
   
   
  Vellum
  Prepared inner side of calf-skin,used for binding finding fine books.
   精制皮纸
  经处理的内层小牛皮,装订精美书籍用.
   
   
  Vellum finish
  A finish applied to paper to imitate vellum.SeeParchment. 
   仿皮
  造成精制皮纸似的纸面修饰.参阅羊皮纸.。
   
   
  Velox print
  Another term for"screened photographic print".See Screened print 
   网点相片
  参阅上文.
   
   
  Verification
  Data validation achieved by keying the information twice and then performing a character-by-character check.
   验证
  把资料作两次键盘输入,逐个字符核对,使它成为确实数据的情况.
   
   
  Verify
  An operating system utility that confirms that data written to disc has been correctly recoreded. 
   查验
  电脑操作系统的应用程式,它确定写于磁碟上的数据为正确. 
   
   Version number
  
  Identification of a particular "edition" of software.
   版本次数
  某一软件的版次说明
   
   
  Verso
  Left-hand page with even number.See Even pages 
   偶数页
  当横排书页打开时,在左边的一页.参阅上文.
   
   
  Vertical justification
  Spacing a column or page of type to fit a predetermined depth.Automatic process on some typesetting systems. 
   深度对齐
  把书页内各栏字行依照指定深度对齐.这个操作,在一些排字系统里,是自动的.
   
   
   
  Vertical scrolling 
  The ability to move text displayed on a screen up or down a line at a time to reveal other parts of the text. 
   垂直卷放
  在荧幕上,可以把文字显示逐行卷上或推下,展示内文的其它部份.
   
   
  Vertiformer
  A twin-wire paper machine in which the normal horizontal wire of a fourdrinier paper machine is replaced by a pair of vertical wires. The headbox is at the top and the sheet is formed between the two wires as they move downwards. 
   直立夹网造纸机
  是一部夹网造纸杨,它用一对直网代替长网造纸机的标准水平长网.流浆箱是在机的顶部,纸浆从直网间流下成形.
   
   
  Very large scale integration(VLSI)
  Refers to the very large number of transistors and other electronic components that are built onto a single chip.VLSI is in the range of approximately 100,000 to 1,000,000 components per chip. 
   超大规模集成电路
  指大数量的电晶体和其它电子元件组成的单个晶片.有着约十万至百万个元件的组合,称为超大规模集成电路.
   
   
  Vibrator
  One of the distributing rollers in an inking system.Also calledDistributor,Reciprocating roller .See Distributing rollers.  
   摆动辊
  滚墨系统内的一种分布辘.参阅上文及分布辘.
   
   
  Video camera
  A camera that takes continuous pictures and generates a signal for display or recording.It captures images by breaking down the image into a series of lines. Eachline is scanned one at a time, and the continuously varying intensities of red, green and blue light across the line are filtered out and blue light across the line are filtered out and converted into a variable signal.
   录影机
  可以连续拍摄相片,跟着传发作显示或记录的讯号的相机.它把影像分拆成一列线条,逐线扫描,把线条内的连续变化的红,绿及蓝光的强度,经过滤色片,转为一个变数讯号,然后记下.
   
   
  Video disc
  A variety of optical disc on which information is stored in analogue form.Video discs used for movies use a constant linear velocity(CLV) format that records the signal on a continuous,spiralling track, as does a phonograph record. Video discs used for interactive purposes use a constant angular velocity(CAV) format like that of a magnetic disc,in which the tracks are concentric circles, each one containing one frame of video.
   影碟
  用模拟讯号贮存资料的种种光碟,电影影碟采用恒等线速度格式,像留声唱片似的把讯号记录在连续螺旋状转动的轨道上,互动式影碟采用恒等角速度格式,像磁碟似的,轨道在同心圆上,每条轨道代表一格影像.
   
   
  Video display
  A text or graphics display device which may be a cathode-ray tube,or LED. 
   视讯荧幕
  一部阴极射线管或发光二极管的文字或圆形显示装置.
   
   
  Video graphics array(VGA)
  High-resolution graphics adapter standard from IBM.it offers 256 colours on colour monitors or 64 shades of grey on monochrome monitors. 
   视讯图形矩阵
  始自IBM的高解像圆形衔接器标准.它给予彩色显示器256颜色或单色显示器64个明暗灰度.
   
   Video RAM
  The RAM chips used to make up video memory.These are built into high-end video adapter boards.
   视讯随机存取贮记器
  组成视讯贮记部的随机存取晶片.它们装在高级视讯衔接器配板上.
   
   
  Vignette
  Effect applied to half-tone in which the background fading out graduslly and blends almost imperceptibly into the white of the paper.
   晕影图片
  半色调图片可以造成的一个效果.图片的背景逐渐变淡,在不觉中与纸色融合.
   
   
  Virgin fibre
  Fibre used for the first time to make paper (i.e.not re-cycled).
   原纤维
  初次使用的造纸纤维(不是再造纤维).
   
   
   
  Virtual device interface (VDI) 
  An ANSI graphies standard defining an interface between device-independent and device-dependent graphics code.
   虚拟器件接驳器
  是美国国家标准学会的图形标准代码.它在两个代码间:即不依赖装置制制图和依赖装置制图间,提供接驳.
   
   
  Virtual disc
  A disc that is simulated in memory.SeeRAM disc.
   虚拟磁碟
  作模拟贮记的磁碟.参阅上文.
   
   
  Virtual image
  In graphics ,the complete graphic image stored in memory,not just the part of it that is displayed at the current time.
   虚拟影像
  在图形方面,不独是现行显示的影像,而是整个贮存与贮记内部的影像.
   
   
  Virtual memory
  A technique that simulates more memory than actually exists and allows the computer to run several programs concurrently regardless of their size. 
   虚拟贮记部
  模拟更大贮记量的技巧.它增加现有贮记空间,使电脑在同一贮记时间,运行多个不论大小的软件.。
   
   
  Virus
  An agent of disease.In computer,it is the program code introduced into an operating system for malicious purposes.At a determined point ,when a write command is encountered,for example,the virus will crase all files from a disc.SeeWorm.
   病毒
  一种疾病的媒介.在电脑方面,它是引入操作系统内作恶意目的的程式代码.例如:在确定操作,电脑接到写入指令时,病毒就把磁碟上的全部档案洗去.参阅虫形病毒.
   
   
  Viscosity
  The resistance to flow of a liquid and is defined as the rate of flow per unit force applied.The unit is "poise".Viscosity is one of the important properties of printing ink.
   流阻度
  是液体流动的阻力.定义是:液体受一单位力所引致的流动速度.单位是"泊".流阻度是印刷油墨的一项重要特性.
   
   
  Visible light
  The part of electromagnetic radiation which stimulates our eyes and thus enable us to see. Tt lies between the region of 380to 720 nm.Also call Visible spectrum.See Electromagnetic radiation.
   可见光
  在电磁幅射能之内,可以刺激眼睛而产生视觉的部份.它的范围在380至720纳米之间.亦称可见光谱.参阅电磁幅射 
   
   
   Visible spectrum 
  Synonymous with "visible light".See Visible light.
   可见光谱
  与可见光同意.参阅可见光
   
   
  Visual
  A general term used by designers to mean layout or rough of artwork.
   设计图
  设计师用术语,泛指正稿的版面设计图或粗略设计图.
   
   
  Visual display terminal/unit(VDT/VDU)
  Cathode ray tube screen and keyboard for input and correction of copy to a computer or photosetter.VDT screens come in a number of sizes and resolutions. A popular format for text display is 80 characters across by 25 lines down,with a screen resolution of 640 pixels x200 pixels(a character matrix of 8 dots by 8dots at something like 72 dpi).Screens of A4or A3 size are preferable for interactive page make up.
   视觉显示终端机
  电脑或照相排字机用来作输入和修改的一部连键盘的阴极射线管荧幕.它有不同大小和解像度.显示文字的流行格式是直向25行,每行横向80个字符;荧幕解像度是640*200像素(字符矩阵是8*8点,即等于每寸72点).互动式的拼版用荧幕最好是A4或A3度.
   
   
   
  Voice recognition 
  The conversion of spoken words into computer text.Speech is first digitized and then matched against a dictionary of coded waveforms.The matches are converted into text as if the words were typed on the keyboard.SeeSpeech recognition.
   声音识别
  把说话在电脑上转为文字的情况.先把语音数码化,然后和一个声波代码字典核对,把配对数码转为文字,就好象用字键把字打出来一样.参阅语音识别.
   
   
  Voice synthesis
  See Speech synthesis. 
   语音作用
  参阅上文.
   
   
  Volatile memory/storage
  Memory that does not hold its contents without power.A computer's main memory,made up of dynamic RAM or static RAM chips,loses its content immediately upon loss of power. 
   易失贮记
  没有电力就不能保持资料的贮记.电脑的贮记部,由动态即时存取贮记晶片或静态即时存取品片组成,当没有电力时,所有贮存资料,即时失去.
   
   
  Volatility
  The readiness if a liquid to evaporate. Liquids such as petrol, benzene,etc. are of high volatility 
   挥发性
  液体容易蒸发拭目以待程度.例如石油,苯等是挥发性高的液体.
   
   
  Volume
  (1)Bound book. (2)A measure of the thickness of papers in relation to their substance. Expressed as a volume number(e.g.vol.18) equal to the thickness in millimetres of 100 sheets of paper in 100 gsm.SeeBulking number.
   (1) 卷,(2) 厚度量
  (1)已装订的书本.(2)量度纸厚和定量的关系的方法;以厚度量表达.(例如:厚度量18)等于100张100克每平方米的纸的总厚度,以以毫炉子计.参阅厚度号数.
   
   
  Volumetric paper
  A volumetric paper is one which is made to a guaranteed bulk. Typically an "antique wove".
   厚身纸
  厚身纸是用来保证书本有一定厚度的纸,.典型的是"仿古纸".
  W
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Warm colours
  A colour on the red or yellow side.Also called Advancing colour.
   暖色
  偏向红及黄的颜色。亦称前进色。
   
   
  Wash drawing
  A drswing made by a brush in washes with a single pigment of black or dark colour soluble in water,to be reproduced by the half-tone process.
   水墨画
  用毛笔沾溶于水的黑色或深暗颜色绘画有浓淡色调的单色画。复制时,需用半色调方法。
   
   
  Wash-up
  The cleaning of the inking and printing units of a press prior to a change of ink or shut-down of the machine.
   清洗印机
  在转换油墨颜色或下班停机前,把滚墨系统和压印系统清洗的情况。   
   
  Washing scum
  The unintended dissolving by water of pigment in ink during offset printing causing the nonimage areas to carry pigments which are more or less uniformly distributed in the damping solution.These pigments transfer to the blanket and print on paper producing a defect.SeeTinting.
   着水浮污
  柯式印刷,油墨内颜料在不应发生的情况下,溶于水槽液内,引致印版的非印纹部份,被润湿后,很平均的带着颜料。这些颜料经胶布印在纸上,成为故障。参阅着淡色.
   
   
  Wastage
  Waste incurred during the printing or binding processes.Also calledSpoilage.
   损耗
  在印刷或装订时所损坏的数量。参阅上文。
   
   
  Waste furnish
  Board or paper furnish consisting of waste paper,such as packaging,cardboard,newsprint,magazine papers,etc.
   废纸配料
  用废纸,如旧包装纸,纸板,新闻纸,杂志纸等混合成的造纸或造纸板用配料。
   
   
  Water finish
  High finish to paper achieved by damping the web as it passes through the calender stack.
   水磨修饰
  纸卷在砑光机磨光时,加上水份,造成极为平滑的表面。
   
   
  Water fountain
  The metal trough on an offset press which holds the damping solution.
   水槽
  在柯式印刷机上,盛载水槽液的槽。
   
   
  Water immersion size test
  Test using water immersion to establish the effectiveness of sizing in a paper as a water repellent.
   浸水法测试施胶度
  用浸水法确定施胶对抗水的在效程度的测试。
   
   
  Water vapour transmission rate
  An indication which detertmines the waterproof qualities of packaging paper.It is the amount of water vapour,by weight,under a specific air condition,that penetrates one square metre of the sample being tested within 24 hours,expressed in g/sq.m.24 hr.
   透湿度
  鉴定包装纸的防水性能的质量指标。它是在一定的温度和湿度条件下,在于24小时内,透过1平方米试样的水蒸气的重量,以克每平方米(24小时)表示。
   
   
  Water-soluble inks
  Inks in which the pigments are soluble in water.Used in screen process printing,printing from rubber plates,and in gravure.
   水溶性墨
  墨内颜料可溶于水者。应用于四色网印,橡胶版和凹版印刷。
   
   
  Waterleaf
  Unsized and moisture-absorbent paper such as blotting paper or filter paper.
   不施胶纸张
  不施胶,具在吸水性的纸,例如吸水纸或滤纸。
   
   
  Waterless offset
  Offset printing using waterless plate,thus the damping system may be eliminated.
   无水柯式
  使用无水印版的柯式印刷。这个方式,可公省去润湿系统。
   
   
  Waterless plate
  Specially prepared deep etch plates for offset printing.The surface layer of these type of plates is covered with anh oil resist synthetic resin which is removed in those image areas.Using special type of ink which only adhered to the image areas,the plate does not require damping.
   无水印版
  特别构造的深蚀柯式印版。版的表层是抗油的在机运载脂层,只要把印纹地方的表层除去。便可用只黏附于印纹上的特别配方油墨施印,不需用水把版面湿润。
   
   
  Watermark
  A design pressed into the wet paper during paper-making by the dandy roll to indicate quality and provide a means to guard against counterfeit in case of security printing.The watermark is visible when a sheet of paper is help up to the light.
   水印
  在造纸时,由水印辘在湿纸卷上压上,表示品质的图形。它在保密印刷方面,提供一个防止假冒的方法。拿起纸张向光,就看见水印。
   
   
  Waterproof wrappings
  Papers which are waterproof and are used for protective wrappings;such as:parechment,oiled and waxed papers,tarred and paraffin-treated papers special kraft papers treated with bitumen,tar or asphalt.
   防水包装纸
  具防水性,作保护凶装用的纸,例如:羊皮纸,油纸和蜡纸,经焦油或石蜡处理的纸,经不同程度的沥青处理的牛皮纸。
   
   
  Wavy edges
  Referring to a stack of paper in which the edges of the sheets are wavy.Caused by the stack having a lower moisture level than the surrounding atmosphere.The edges in contact with the air take up moisture and stretch.The uneven expansion between the edges and the centre,produce wavy edges.SeeTight edges.
   浪形纸边
  指纸堆的边缘成波浪形的情况。成因是纸堆的水份含量较周围的空气低。纸边接角空气,吸收水份而伸长。纸边和纸中心的不平均膨胀,造成浪形纸边。参阅弓形纸边。
   
   
  Wax engraving
  A process to produce a wax mould for use in making duplicate plates by electrotyping.Also,a process to prepare a plate for etching.A copper plate.covered with a thin coating of wax,on which lines are cut through the wax exposing the bright surface of the copper for further processing.
   蜡刻
  造电铸复制版用的模的方法。亦是制造蚀刻板画的印版式的方法。在一块涂上薄蜡的铜片,用手工在蜡面进行雕刻,把线条等刻穿蜡层,露出铜墙铁壁的光泽表面作进一步的加工处理。
   
   
  Wax test
  A pick resistance test for paper using graded wax sticks.There are many tests,typical of which is the "Dennison wax test".Papers for web presses require higher wax pick standards than do those for sheet-fed presses.See Dennison wax test.
   蜡测试
  用分级蜡条测试纸面的抗剥性。蜡测试有多个方法,典型的是“丹尼逊蜡测试”。卷筒印刷用纸的抗蜡剥标准较单张印刷用纸为高。参阅丹尼逊蜡测试。
   
   
  Waxed paper
  Paper which has either been dipped into a wax bath and inmmediately chilled,or passed through rollers which drive the wax into the paper.
   蜡纸
  浸入蜡槽后,立刻冷却或穿过压辘间,把蜡压上的纸。
   
   
  
   W
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Web
  A continuous rol of paper formed on a papermaking machine.Also called Reel.
   卷筒纸
  在造纸机上造成的连续纸卷。亦称纸卷。
   
  Web offset
  Web press using the offset lithography process
   卷筒纸柯式机
  用柯式印刷原理施印的卷筒纸机。
   
   
  Web press
  A high-speed press that prints from a continuous roll or web of paper.
   卷筒纸印刷机
  用连续纸卷印刷的高速印刷机。
   
   
  Web tension
  Stress applied to a web in a machine for control purposes.
   纸卷张力
  控制纸卷而施加的应力。
   
   
  Web-fed
  Feeding paper to a press from a reel or web of paper.
   卷筒纸给纸
  用整个纸卷送纸往印刷机的情况。 
   
   
  Weight
  (1)The degree of blacknes of a typeface.The relative weights are: extra-light, light, medium, semi-bold, bold, extra-bold and ultra-bold. 
  (2)The weight of 500 sheets of paper of standard size for a particular grade.If an M follows the dimensions the weight is for a thousand sheets.SeBasis weight.Basic size.
   (1)粗幼度,(2)拈重
  (1)字体笔画的粗幼程度。相关的粗幼度是:特幼,幼,中粗,半粗,粗,特粗,极粗。
  (2)500 张某类纸,以基本纸度计算的重量。若在纸度尺寸后,在“M”字跟着,则表示1000张纸的重量。参阅基重,基本纸度。
   
   
  Wet stock
  Pulp in its liquid form or during formation on the wire.
   湿浆
  混入水份后的浆,或在造纸网上的浆。
   
   
  Wet strength
  Tensile strength of saturated paper or board.Measured in N/m.Wet strength is important to certain types of paper and board.For example:towel paper,map paper,banknote paper,etc.requires a high wet strength.
   湿强度
  纸张或纸板浸透后的张力强度.以牛顿每米来表示.湿强度对某些纸或纸板是很重要的.例如毛巾纸,地图纸,钞票纸等,需要高的湿强度。
   
   
  Wet transfer
  Any form of decals which must be soaked in water so that the images be released from the base paper which can then be peeted off.
   湿转印
  任何形式但需要在水内浸透,让印纹从基纸分离,然后把基纸剥去的移图印花法。
   
   
  Wet-end
  The Fourdrinier wire section and the pressing section of a paper-making machine.
   湿部
  长网造纸机上的网部和压榨部的总称。
   
   
  Wet-on-dry
  Printing multi-colour on a single colour press,the condition that each down ink must be allowed to dry before overprinting with a succeeding coloured ink.
   湿叠干
  用单色印刷机印多色时,每次施印的油墨,要让它干透,然后印上跟着的颜色油墨。
   
  Wet-on-wet 
  The condition of printing on a multi-colour press that the succeeding coloured inks being overprinted before the previous ink has dried. 
   湿叠湿
  在多色印刷机上,油墨尚还未干,就印上另一颜色油墨的情况。
   
   
  Wettability
  The degree to which a liquid will spread upon a surface and measured by its "contact angle".The smaller the contact angle,the better its wettability.See Contact angle.
   湿润性
  液体在固体表面上的分散程度,用它的"接触角"量度.接触角越细,湿润性越高.参阅接触角。
   
   
  Wetting agent
  An additive,such as alcohol,which decreases the surface tension of water.
   湿润剂
  降低水的表面张力的添加剂;例如:醇。
   
   
  Whip stitching
  Sewing technique used-to-join sheets at the edges.See Over sewing.
   绞缝订
  缘着单页纸的边,把它们缝在一起的技法。参阅上文。
   
   
  Whirler
  Machine which applies photosensitive coating to printing plates.
   转盘
  涂布感受光液于印版表面的机器。
   
   
  White line engraving
  A relief print made from a block in which the non-printing engraved lines form the subject,producing a design in white lines and areas on a black ground
   白文木刻
  用木刻版印的凸版画.雕去它的主题部份,成非印纹,在黑色下面造成白色线条的图形。
   
   
  Whitewater
  Also called"backwater".See Backwater.
   白水
  又称回收水.参阅回收水。
   
   
  Whole-bound
  See Full bound.
   全装
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Wide area network(WAN)
  A network of micros spread over a larger area than a LAN,and linked typically by telecommunication.
   宽域网络
  较本地地区网络为大,主要用电讯联系的微处理机网络。
   
   
  Wide-angle lens
  Lens with wide covering power.It has a focal length which is less than the diagonal of the film format with which it is being used.
   广角镜头
  覆盖范围广阔的镜头.它的焦距长度短于所用菲林格式的对角线长度。
   
   
  Widow
  Short last line of a paragraph at the top of a page or column.Considered undesirable.Seealso Mstrong>Orphan.
   寡行
  一段文字结尾的几个字占一行,放在起页或起栏的位置的情况.属于不妥善的排字方式.参阅孤行。
   
   
  Winchester disc
  Fixed hard disc with extensive backing store capacity.See Hard disc.
   温彻斯特磁碟
  有充分后备贮存量的固定硬碟.参阅硬碟。
   
   
  Window
  (1)Clear panel left in a negative for half-tones to be stripped in.
  (2)Portion of a VDU screen dedicated to a particular file'document.Several windows can be open on-screen at one time,allowing the user to jump from one to another rapidly.Ideal operating conditions for on-screen cut and paste.
   (1)窗口,(2)视窗
  (1)在负片上留下透光的空白位置,以便把半色调图片插入。 
  (2)显示器荧幕上分配给某一档案或文件的部份.同一时间,在荧幕上可以打开多个视窗,方便使用者迅速的从一个视窗跳往另一个视窗.在荧幕上作剪及帖,视窗是理想的操作环境。
   
   
  Window envelopes
  A style of envelopes in which a clear panel has left in the front so as to show the name and address typed on the letter to be posted.
   窗口信封
  信封的一种款式.信封前面开一个空框,露出待寄信上的姓名和地址。
   
   
  Wing effect
  The result of out-of-square guillotining of a book:when the book is opened the edges look like a pair of butterfly wings rather than being parallel along the tops and bottoms.
   蝶形效果
  书本裁切不正方的结果.当打开书本时,上下书边不平行,像一对蝴蝶翅膀似的。
   
   
  Wipe-on-plate
  Offset plate to which the image forming lightsensitive coating is applied by hand.
   涂抹式印版
  用手工把造成印纹的感光液层涂上版面的柯式印版。
   
   
  Wire
  The moving fine metal mesh belt on which liquid stock is formed into a web of paper by draining away the water.
   造纸网
  有着微细小孔的移动金属带;液体浆料在网上漏去水份而成形,造成纸卷。
   
   
  Wire side
  That side of the paper that has rested on the wire during paper-making.Also called Wrong side.Underside.
   网面
  造纸时,纸和造纸网接触的一面亦称底面。
   
   
  Wire stitching
  A loose term for binding by wire stitching.It may be "saddle wire stitching" or "side wire stitching".
   铁丝装
  较为笼统的术语.它可以是"骑马铁丝订",亦是"铁丝平订"。
   
  
   W
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Wire-mark
  The impression of the machine wire imparted to the underside of the web of paper on a papermaking machine.
   网痕
  纸的底部,因在造纸机上和造纸网接触而压上的痕迹。
   
   
  Wire-o binding
  A method of loose-leaf binding in which a continuous double loop of wire runs through punched slots along the binding side of a booklet.
   双线圈装
  用连续的双圈铁丝绕穿过打在书本订口的方孔而成的一种活页装。
   
   
  With the grain
  A term used to describe the directional character of paper,often applied to the folding of a sheet of paper parallel to the grain.Paper folds more easily with the grain.See Across the grain.
   顺纹
  描述纸的方向特性的术语;常用于摺纸方面,指纸的摺向和纸纹平行.顺纹摺纸,亦较为容易.参阅逆纹。
   
   
  Wood block printing
  This term can be used as a synonym for printing using a woodcut,but more specifically refers to the technique of making colour prints using a separate wood block for each colour in the design.
   木版印刷(木刻水印)
  这个术语的意义和木刻印刷相似,但它特别指印制彩色版画的技法;画面上每一个颜色分别用一个木版施印。
   
   
  Wood engraving
  Similar to :woodent",but the craving are on the end grain of the plank.See Woodcut.
   木口木刻(木刻)
  和木而木刻相似,只是木块用树的横切面.参阅下文。
   
   
  Wood pulp
  Pulp made from weed.
   木浆
  用木材制服的造纸用浆。
   
   
  Wood type
  Type made from wood,and set by hand usually for display sizes over 72 point.
   木字
  通常是大于72点,手工执排,作标题用的木制活字。
   
   
  Woodcut
  The term woodcut is often used loosely for any carving made on a wooden block.Strictly speaking,however,the term applies only to cuts made on planks of wood which are lingitudinal cut and have a parallel grain,See Wood engraving.
   木刻(木面木刻)
  木刻一词,泛指任何的雕刻木版.严格来说,它是"木面木刻";即是用纵割,木纹平行的木块而作的雕刻.参阅木口木刻。
   
   
  Woodfree(WF) paper
  Any paper made from chemical wood pulp and containing no mechanical wood pulp.Commonly called"Dowling paper"(from Dowling Paper Manufacturing Co.Ltd.,U.K.) in the Far East,However,it is generally accepted that woodfree paper may include up to 10% mechanical or other fibre and still fall within the definition of "woodfree".
   不含磨木浆纸(道林纸)
  任何用化学木浆而不含磨木浆所造成的纸.俗称"道林纸",(从英国道林造纸有限公司而得名)。可是,一般含有不超过百分之十的其他纤维或磨木浆的纸,现在都列入这类纸的范围内。
   
   
  Woodfree pulp
  Pulp which is processed chemically and which contains no mechanical groundwood.
   不含磨木浆
  用化学方法制造,不含机械磨木的浆。
   
   
  Woody paper
  Synonymous with "mechanical paper".See Mechanical paper.
   磨木纸
  即机械木浆纸.参阅机械木浆纸。
   
   
  Word break
  Splitting of a word at a line ending.See Hyphenation.
   分字
  英文字在一行结尾时,需要分割开的情况.参阅上文。
   
   
  Word processing
  The act of composing,inputting and editing text through the medium of a dedicated word processor or specific word processing software.
   文字处理
  采用专门的文字处理机或某一特定的文字处理软件作排字,文字输入及删改的工作。
   
   
  Word processor
  Machine using comuter logic to accept,store and retrieve documents for subsequent editing and output in typewriter style.
   文字处理机
  用电脑逻辑接收,贮存和提取文件,跟着作编辑和以打字款式输出的机器。
   
   
  Word space
  The space between words which may be fixed as for unjustified setting,or variable as for justified setting.
   字间距
  字词间的空位.可以是不齐行用的固定间距,或齐行用的活间距。
   
   
  Word wrap
  A feature of all word processing and other text handling systems that wraps text automatically to the next line when a line end is encountered.
   字转行
  各种文字处理或内文处理系统所具备的功能.当察觉排满一行字时,自动把跟着的文字回转下一行。
   
   
  Work-and-back
  A scheme of imposition in common use.Synonymous with "sheet work".See Sheet work.
   双面式
  常用的装版方式,与"全张纸式施印"同义.参阅全张纸式施印。
   
   
  Work-and-tumble
  A scheme of imposition.After printing the first side,turn the sheet on its short dimension,feeding the other long edge to the grippers,then print the reverse side using the same plate.Each sheet,cut in half at its short dimension,yields two copies.See Half-sheet work.
   翻转式
  装版的一个方式.印一面之后,把纸沿着短边反转,使纸的另一个长边送往夹牙,然后用同一印版施印.把纸在短边中间切开,得两份相同印件.参阅半张纸式施印。
   
   
  Work-and-turn
  A common scheme of imposition.After printing the first side,turn the sheet on its ling dimension,and then printing the reverse side using the same plate and the same gripper edge.Each sheet,cut in half at its long dimension,yields two copies.See Half-sheet work.
   横转式
  常用的装版方式.印一面之后,把纸沿着长边反转,用同一夹牙边和同一印版施印.把纸在长边中间切开,得两份相同印件.参阅半张纸式施印。
   
   
  work-and-twist
  A scheme of imposition which is largely used in letterpress to print complicate ruled forms for ease of setting.A sheet is printed once,then turned round,keeping the same side up but bringing a different edge of the sheet to the grippers,and then print again using the same plate.Each sheet,when cut in half,yields two copies.
   扭转式
  活版用的装版方式.它方便排版,多数用于印制复杂有线表格.印过一次之后,把纸旋转,用另一长边作夹牙边,再次施印.把纸切开,得两份相同印件。
   
   
  Work-station
  (1)A high-performance,single user micro or minicomputer that has been specialized for graphics,computer-aided design,computer-aided engineering or scientific applications.
  (2)Any terminal or personal computer.
   工作站
  (1)单独使用的高效能,专门作图形美术,电脑辅助设计,电脑辅助工程或其他科学应用的微处理机或小型电脑。
  (2)一般个人电脑或终端机。 
   
   
  work-up
  The unintentional lifting to impression level of spacing materials in a letterpress forme.Usually caused by poor lock-up.
   起楔
  活版印刷,版内的填空材料,在不该的情况下被提高。原因多数是锁版不牢而致。
   
   
  Workings
  Number of passes through a printing machine to make up a complete job,e.g. four workings on a single-colour press to produce a four-colour print or one working on a four-colour press.
   机次
  印件经过印刷机的次数。例如四色彩印,用单色机印,就需要四个机次;但用四色机印,则只是一个机次。
   
   
  worm
  A program introduced by a software publisher that is designed to abort execution if unauthorized usage is detected.See Virus.
   虫形病毒
  由软件出产商引入的程式,其设计是当发觉未经允许而使用其程式时,就将执行指令作异常结束。参阅病毒。
   
   
  Wove paper
  Paper produced using a plain,woven dandy roll and there fore without laid lines,as distinct from Laid paper.
   布纹纸
  造纸时,水印辘用平坦的织物包面,纸面于是无压线纹理,有别于纹纸。
   
   
  Woven material
  Genuine cloth of cotton,linen and silk,used for case covering.See Buckram.
   纺织物料
  作书壳包面用的真棉布,麻布及丝绸织品。参阅书面布。
   
   
  Wrap
  Short for "wrap round".See Insert.
   包帖
  英文是包帖的简称。参阅包帖。
   
   
  Wrap round
  To place colour pages around signatures before sewing.See also Insert.
   包帖
  锁线前,把彩页包套着书帖的情况.参阅套帖。
   
   
  Wrap-around
  To wrap text automatically around regular or irregular shaped graphics.Also called Runaround.Text wrap.
   文绕圆
  把文字围绕着规则或不规则圆形排放的情况.参阅上文。 
   
   
  Wrap-around plate
  A thin,flexible one-piece zinc,magnesium,copper,or synthetic resin relief plate wrapped around the cylinder on a rotary press,much like an offset plate.Used for direct or indirect printing.
   卷筒式印版
  柔韧的整块薄片凸版;版材是锌,镁,铜或合成树脂与柯式印版相似,它包卷着轮转机的版圆筒,用作直接或间接印刷。
   
   
  Wrappering
  Attaching a paper or board cover by gluing at the spine of a book block which may be stabbed,adhesive bound or sewn.See Drawing on.
   包封面
  在书芯(用铁丝平订,胶装或线装造成)的脊部加胶,贴上纸或纸板书皮的情况.参阅上书皮。
   
   
  Wrapping paper
  A general term to describe paper for wrapping of different type of goods.There are many defferent grades and may be classified as general wrappings,special wrappings,oil resist wrappings,moisture resist wrappings,etc.
   包装纸
  各类物品的包装用纸的总称.有很多等级.可分类为普通包装纸,特别包装纸,防油包装纸,防潮包装纸等。
   
   
  Wrinkles
  Creases in printed paper caused by uneven moisture content which are mainly due to the ambient air conditions.See Cockling>
   皱纹
  纸张若受邻近空气影响,有着不均匀的水份含量,在印刷时造成的皱摺纹.参阅起皱。
   
   
  Write
  to record data into or onto a mimory or storage device,such as disc,tape,and firmware.Read and write is analogous to play and record on an audio tape recorder.
   写入
  记录数据于贮记部或贮存装置如磁,磁带,及固件内的情况,写和读就像录音机的录音和播放。
   
   
  Write enable
  The condition that data can be recorded or written onto magnetic disc or tape.
   允许写入
  磁碟或磁带可以记录或写入数据的情况。
   
   
  Write protect
  The prohibition of data being erased or written onto magnetic disc or tape.
   写入保护
  防止磁碟或磁带被洗去或写入数据的情况。
   
   
  Writing paper
  A kind of paper with a smooth surface,sized to prevent ink from being absorbed into the fibres.
   书写纸
  表面平滑,经施胶以防止墨水渗入纤维内的纸。
   
   
  Wrong fount(w.f.)
  An error in typesetting in which an incorrect type-fount has been used in setting.It is a common practice to use its abbreviation for proof reading.
   用错字体
  排字时,错用另一款字体的情况.校对时,常用它的英文缩写作标志。
   
   
  Wrong side
  Also called Underside.Wire side.See Underside
   底面
  亦称网面。.参阅上文。
   
   
  Wrong-reading film
  When viewed from the emulsion side of the film,the image reads in the reverse,or is a mirror image.For offset plate-making,a wrong-reading negative or positive is required.See Right-reading film.
   反读菲林
  面向菲林的感光膜时,要作反方向阅读或看到一个镜子影像,这就是反读菲林.制柯式印版,需要反读的正片或负片.参阅正读菲林。
   
   
  WYSIWYG
  Acronym for "what you see is what you get".Used to describe a visual display of text and graphics on screen the same way it will be printed.
   所见即所得
  英文是一个字首字.意思是"你看到的就是你得到的".用来描述在荧幕上的文字和图形显示与实际印字效果相同。
   
  
   X
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   
  X coordinate
  The horizontal location of data on a graph CRT,or page layout,or the horizontal distance from a selected reference point.
   X座标
  在图表,显示荧幕或版面设计图上的数据的水平方位,或从一个参考点起计的水平距离。
   
   
  X-height
  The height of the body of lower-case letters,exclusive of ascenders ,i.e. height of the small letter x.In typeface design,x-heitht affects the legibility of a passage of text.Typeface with a large x-height looks larger and requires suitable line spacing.Typefaces with a small x-heitht looks smaller and no line spacing is required.
   X长
  英文小写字母,除去上升和下降笔画部份的字身长度;即小写X字的长度.英文字体设计,X长影响整段文字的清晰性.X长较大的字体,看起来较大,需要适量行间距.X长较小的字体,看起来较细小,不需加行间距。
   
   
  X-line
  The imaginary line which marks the tops of the body of lower-case letters.Also called Mean line.
   X线
  英文小写字母,用来对齐字身顶部的假想线条.亦称中间线。
   
   
  X-ray
  Electromagnetic radiation of short wavelength.An X-ray photograph is produced by passing X_ray radiation through the subject to be recorded by a special photographic emulsion.
   X光
  短波长的电磁幅射.X光照片是把X幅射光经物体面用特别照相感光层记录的底片。
   
   
  x-y matrix
  A group of rows and columns.The x-axis is the horizontal row,and the y-axis is the vertical column.An x-y matrix is the reference framework for two-dimensional structures,such as mathematical tables,display screens,digitizer tablets,dot matrix printers and 2-d graphics images,etc.
   x-y 矩阵
  是一组行和栏的组合.x轴线是横的行,y轴线是直的栏.x-y矩阵是平面结构的参考骨干;例如数学图表,显示器荧幕,数码化台板,点矩阵印字机和平面图形影像等。
   
   
  x-y-z matrix
  A three-dimensional structure.The x and y axes represent the first two dimensions:the z axis,the third dimension.In a graphic image,the x and y denote width and height ;the z denotes depth
   x-y-z 矩阵
  是三度空间的结构.首两个尺寸代表x和y轴,z轴是第三个尺寸.在美术图形方面,x和y代表宽度和长度,z代表深度。
   
   
  Xenon lamp
  A discharge lamp in which the electrical discharge takes place in xenon gas .The light produced is of hi8gh-intensity,consists of fairly even spectro-colour distribution and thus a good light source for colour reproduction.
   氙气灯
  是一种放式灯,电子在氙气中放射发光.它发出强光,所含的光谱颜色,分布相当均匀;因此,是复制色彩的良好光源。
   
   
  Xerography
  It is a form of elefctrostatic printing in which a special surface is charged with static electricity to form the latent images,toner powders added and then transferred to paper to ge heat fused to produce the print.See Electrostatic printing.
   干影印
  是静电印刷法的一种.在一个特制的表面上,用静电造成潜影印纹,加上色剂粉末,转印纸上,用热融固色剂,完成印刷.参阅静电印刷。
   
   
  XX
  Mark on the packing,indicating retree.See Retree.
   XX
  在包装上表示次纸的符号.参阅 次纸。
   
   
  XXX
  Mark on the packing,indicating broke.See Broke.
   XXX
  在包装纸上,表示损纸的符号.参阅损纸。 
   
   
  Xylography
  The term applied to the art of printing from wood blocks.Also called Wood block printing.
   木版印刷术
  用木刻版印刷的技巧和方法.亦称木版印刷,木刻水印。
  Y
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   
   
  Y coordinate
  The vertical location of data on a graph,CRT,or page layout,or the vertical distance from a selected reference point.
   Y座标
  在图表,显示荧幕或版面设计图上的数据的垂直方位,或从一个参考点起计的垂直距离.
   
   
  Yankee dryer
  Steam-heated paper drying cylinder in the Yankee machine.The diameter of which is over 3m.It burnishes the paper surface to give a glazed finish.See Yankee machine.
   杨克烘缸
  用蒸气发热,直径在此米以上,,安装于杨克造纸机上的烘缸.它烫磨纸面.使它平滑而有光泽.参阅杨克造纸机.
   
   
  Yankee machine
  A paper-making machine characterized by having a single highly polished large diameter drying cylinder (called Yankee dryer).Use to produce machine galzed papers,creped paper,etc.
   杨克造纸机
  这个造纸机的特点是用单一个特大直径,表面极度光滑的烘缸(称为杨克烘缸).用制造光面纸,皱纸等.亦称单烘缸造纸机.
   
   
  Yapp edges cover
  Edges of a binding which overlap the edges of the pages of the book to provide a "fringed" effect,Bibles are frequently bound in this manner.
   护边书皮
  装订后的书皮边缘较书的内页略大,造成凸边的效果.圣经多用这个装订方式.
   
   
  Yellow printer
  One of the four printing plates in a subtractive colour process which is to be printed in yellow ink.
   黄版
  在减色法彩印内的四个印版之一.它用黄墨施印.
   
   
  Yield value
  The force required to start a liquid to flow.It is a property to be consider in ink manufacture.For example: the yield value for letterpress and offset inks is much higher than that of gravure inks
   始流值
  引至液体流动的力.制造油墨时,需要考虑这个特性.例如:活版及柯式墨的始流值较凹版油墨高得多.
  Z
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   
   
  Zinc engraving
  Relief engraving made on zinc and often used for short-run blocking.Also called Zinco.
   锌电版
  用锌制成的凸版,常用于烫印小量印件.亦称线条锌版.
   
   
  Zigzag fold
  Series of parallel folds in paper in which each fold turns to the opposite direction from the previous fold,like a row of z's.Also called Accordion fold.Concertina fold.Fan fold.Over and back fold.
   之字摺
  纸作连续的平行摺,但每次摺向相反,像"之"字一样.亦称风琴摺,扇形摺.
   
   
  Zinco
  A line or coarse screen half-tone block etched on zinc for letterpress printing.See Zinc engraving.
   线条锌版
  活版印刷用的线条或粗网半色调凸版.参阅锌电版.
   
   
  Zincography
  A term used in art for the planographic printing technique using a plate made of zinc to make prints.However,such technique were more often subsumed under the generic name "lithography".
   锌版印刷术
  美术方面用的词语,指用锌版作平版印刷,制作版画的技法.可是,这个印刷方式,常被纳入"平版"这个总称内.
   
   
  Zoom lens
  A lens whose focal length can be varied continuously over a substantial range.One zoom lens can replace several fixed focal-length lensed,but results are likely to be inferior.
   变焦镜头
  可以把焦矩在相当大的范围内连续改变的镜头.一个变焦镜头可以代替多个固定焦矩镜头,但效果很可能比不上.
   
   
  Zooming
  The act of enlarging or reducing the view of a page layout.Enlarging the view of a portion of the document helps when working on detailed items,reducing the view allows the whole page or a pair of pages to be seen in full on the screen to check the overall appearance of the layout.
   缩放
  把设计图的观点放大或缩小的情况.把某个部分的观点放大,对在细微项目的工作,很有帮助;把观点缩小,荧幕就可以显示整页或跨页,方便检视整体设计的外观.


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