知识与资讯
专业词汇
 
印刷科技词汇大全(1)
发布时间:2011-7-16 21:36:00||  点击:9410次||  文章分类:专业词汇||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)


   A
  
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   A sizes
  Series of finished trimmed sizes in ISO(International Standardisation Organisation)ranges.See Paper size.
   A度
  已裁切的ISO(国际标准组织)纸张系列。参见纸度。
   
   
  AA
  An abbreviation for author's alteration.It is commonly used in America to identify any alteration in text or illustrative matter which is not a printer's error as author's alteration usually charged as extra.Similar English term is Author's correction.
   著者修改
  AA是美国印刷业常用的缩写,表示著作者对内文及插图的修改,以别于承印商的错误。因著者修改需另付费用。
   
   
  Aberration
  General term for various optical errors in photographic lenses which prevent the lens from giving good definition.See Astigmatism , Chromatic aberration ,Curvature of field , Distortion ,Spherical aberration ,Coma.
   像差
  是照相用镜头各种光学缺点的通称,这些缺点使影像失实。参阅纵横像差、色差、像面弯曲、畸变、球面像差、彗星差。
   
   
  Abrasion resistance
  Ability of a surface,such as a printed surface,or a coated surface to withstand rubbing and scuffing. Also called Abrasive resistance, Scuff resistance,Rub resistance, Abrasiveness.
   耐摩擦度
  物质表面,如印刷面、涂膜面所能够抵受摩擦及轻刮的性能。
   
   
  Abrasion test
  Test designed to determine the ability to withstand the effects of rubbing and scuffing of printing ink.
   耐摩擦试验
  鉴别油墨对摩擦及轻刮的持久性的试验方法。
   
   
  Abrasion paper
  Good grade of manila or other strong paper,coated with glue and an abrasive material,such as sand,emery or carborundum.Also called Emery paper,Sand paper.
   砂纸
  在结实的纸张或优质马尼拉纸上涂上胶及一些磨料如砂、刚砂或金刚砂而成。
   
   
  Abrasive resistance
  See Abrasion resistance.
   耐摩擦性
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Abrasiveness
  See Abrasion resistance.
   耐摩擦度
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Absolute address
  Pattern of charaters that identifies a unique store location in a computer.Also called Machine address, Specific address.
   绝对地址
  字母数字的模式。用以辨认电脑内某一特别储记部的位置。亦称机器地址、具体地址。
   
   
  Absorbency
  That property of a material,such as paper and board, which causes it to take up liquids or vapours (e.g.moisture) with which it is in contact.
   吸收性
  某类物料所具的性质。例如纸张和板纸,它们在接触液体或蒸气(例如湿气)时,就会把它吸收。
   
   
  Absorbent paper
  General term representing a class of bulky papers,spongy and bibulous in character,such as blotting,filter and towelling paper.
   吸水纸
  一般厚身、海绵状和具吸收性的纸张的通称。例如吸墨纸,滤纸和毛巾纸。
   
   
  Absorption
  (1) Optical term for the partial suppression of light in passage through a transparent or translucent medium or material.(2) Capillarity action of porous materials such as paper and board to to liquids. 
   吸收
  (1)光学名词。表示光线穿过一透明或半透明体或物料时所受的局部抑制。(2)具有微细孔的物料,如纸张或纸板等对液体所引起的毛细管现象。
   
   
  Absorption tester
  Instrument for determining the mean pore radius of a paper.When a strip of paper is hanged in a liquid,the level of the absorbed liquid,the level of the absorbed can be seen.The rate of absorption can be timed.In this way an average pore radius can be calculated.
   吸收试验器
  是测定纸张细孔的半径平均值的仪器。当一纸条悬垂于一液体上,纸张即吸收液体。观察及记录液体吸收至某一水平所需的时间。这样,细孔的半径平均值便可计算出来。
   
   
  Accents
  Marks which are placed above or below English characters to indicate their pronunciation,especially in many non-English languages.Accent may be incorporated in the alphabet to form accented letters and included in a fount as pi characters.Other method uses floating accent which are individual mark added to a character previously setted. 
   音标
  在很多非英语文字中,字母上边或下边注有符号,表示其读音,这些表音符号就是音标。音标可以连同字母一起铸成,成为音标字母,并可附加入一套铅字内为特别字符。另一个方法是用单独的表音符号即浮动音标,个别加上在已影排的字母上。
   
   
  Access
  This refers to the obtaining of data from a peripheral unit or retrieving it from a storage device.See Sequential access,Random access.
   存取
  指从外围贮存器或贮记部存取资料。参阅顺序存取,即时存取。
   
   
  Accordion fold
  Series of parallel folds in paper in which each fold turns to the opposite direction from the previous fold,like an accordion.Also called Concertina fold,Fan fold,over and back fold,Zigzag fold.
   风琴摺
  纸作连续的平行摺,但每次摺向相反,像风琴一样。亦称扇形摺、之字摺。
   
   
  Acetate
  (1) Transparent plastic sheet placed over a mechanical for overlays.(2) A cheap base materials for flats where humidity variations are not a problem.
   醋酸胶片
  (1)透明胶片,作复制用正稿的盖面。(2)不须考虑湿度变化时,作拼帖大版用的基片。
   
   
  Acetate foil
  Transparent sheet made from cellulose acetate by spreading esterified cellulose onto a highly polished cylinder,so forming a thin film which can be stripped off.It is water proof, and does not burn but melts.Increasingly used for packing purposes.
   醋酸箔
  用醋酸纤维素造成的透明薄胶片。在一个极平滑的圆筒上把酯化的纤维素分成薄膜,揭起而得。它防水、不易燃烧但却能熔解。是包装材料,用途逐渐增加。
   
   
  Acetate proof
  An inked reproduction proof pulled from type on thin acetate sheeting.Can be use as a positive for making contact negatives,or directly for stripping up a positive flat,and also for checking register or making a transfer of an etched engraving to another sheet of metal.
   胶片稿样
  用薄醋酸胶片在上墨的铅字版上压印而成的复制用稿样。可以当正片而作接触负片,或直接用以拼阳图片大版,亦可作套印的对正及金属片的触刻纹的移印。
   
   
  Acetone
  Volatile,fast-drying solvent used mainly in gravure inks.It is a colourless,flammable liquid with a characteristic smell,miscible with water,alcohol,ether,chloroform and most oils.Also called Dimethyl ketone,Methylacetyl,Propanone,Pyroacetic ether.
   丙酮
  挥发及快干溶剂,主要用于照相凹版油墨。它是无色、可燃烧液体,有特别气味,能混和水、酒精、醚、哥罗仿和一般油类。
   
   
  
  
   A
  
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   Achromatic
  Without colour.Black,white and grey are achromatic,but called colours by artist.
   无色
  没有色彩。黑色,白色和灰色是无色的,但美术家却称之为颜色。
   
   
  Achromatic lens
  A lens which refracts light of most colours equally,i.e.corrected for blue and green light of the primaries.See Apochromatic lens.
   消色差透镜
  能够把大多数色光作等量折射的透镜。是消除三原色里的蓝光和绿光的色差。参阅复消色差透镜。
   
   
  Achromatic synthesis
  A mass under colour removal technique in which black is used to replace those parts of colours that were formed by the combination of the three subtractive primaries,i.e. yellow,magenta and cyan.See CCR,GCR,ICR,PCR.
   综合消色作用
  是一种大量的底色消除工艺,它用黑色代替含有三原色(黄、洋红和青蓝)组合的颜色部份。亦称综合消色法,灰部置换。
   
   
  Acid resist
  An acid-proof protective coating applied to metal plates prior to etching designs thereon. Bichromated colloid solutions employed in photoengraving provide acid resists through the action of light on the sensitized surface.
   抗触膜
  在触刻图案前涂在金属版面上的抗蚀保护剂。重铬酸盐胶液是照相蚀刻版(俗称电版)所用的感光液及抗蚀膜。光线的照射引起它的抗蚀作用。
   
   
  Acidity
  (1) In aqueous solutions, the condition wherein the concentration of hydrogen ions exceeds that of hydroxyl ions. (2) In paper, the condition which results in an acid solution when the paper is treated or extracted with water.
   酸度
  (1)在水溶液中,氢离子多过氧根离子的情况。(2)纸张的酸度。是纸张的浸水液或水抽出液所显示的情况。
   
   
  Acid-free tissue
  Very thin wood-free or rag content papers used as wrappings for articles likely to tarnish or suffer from any free chemicals or impurities in the wrapping.This term may also be applied equally correctly to such papers as grass-bleached and jewellers' tissues.Specific pH values are important.
   无酸薄纱纸
  很薄的化学浆或含有布质的纸张。用以包裹那些容易被化学品或杂质染污或变黄的货品。亦指包珠宝的纱纸和漂白的草纸。这些必需有一个固的酸碱值。
   
   
  Across the grain
  The direction at right angle to that of the paper grain.Also called Against the grain,Cross grain,Cross direction.
   逆纹
  与纸纹成直角的方向。
   
   
  Actinic light
  Chemically active light from are lamps,mercury vapour lamps,photo-flood bulbs (gas filled tungsten filament incandescent lamps),to harden light-sensitive plate coating.
   光化光
  引起化学作用的光。由弧光灯,水银蒸气灯,溢光灯(钨丝充气白热灯)所发出的光。照相制版时,用作硬化版面材料。
   
   
  Activator
  Alkaline liquid to intiate image development in stabilisation processing.See Stabilisation process.
   活化剂
  在稳定冲洗中引起显影作用的碱性液体。参看稳定冲洗法。
   
   
  Active coupler
  Colouring agent to initiate the formation of colour after chemical action.
   活性成色剂
  化学作用后,引发颜色的色剂。
   
   
  Acutance 
  This describes the ability of a photographic material to duplicate the transition at a boundary in the original image.See Sharpness.
   锐度
  指照相材料复制原像边缘间变化的清楚能力。参阅清晰度。
   
   
  Acute accent
  Accent above the letter e.g.cafe.See Accents.
   尖音符号
  英文e字上边的音标。例如 cafe。参看音标。
   
   
  AD
  Latin,short for anno Domini,meaning in the year of our Lord.Usually set in small caps and before the figures (e.g.AD 250).
   公元
  AD是拉丁anno Domini的缩写;是主历年度的意思。排英文时,应用小型大写,放于年份之前。
   
   
  Adaptable fraction 
  A fraction made up of three separate parts:numerator,slash,denominator.This method is often used when no mathematical sign and fractions are provided in a fount.
   组合式分数
  由分子、斜线和分母三个部分组合而成。当某一副字体没有把数学或分数符号包括在内时,多采用这个方法。
   
   
  Additive colour mixing
  The mixing of additive primaries to match a specific colour.
   加法混色
  混和加色法原色,使它与某一指定颜色相似。
   
   
  Additive primaries
  See Additive primary colours.
   加色法原色
  参阅下文。
   
   
  Additive primary colours
  Refer to the colour of light. Red, green and blue lights are called additive primary colours because by the combination of these three primaries in different proportion,various coloured lights will produce. Also called Additive primaries.
   加色法原色
  是指光的颜色。红、绿和蓝三种色光称为加色法原色,因为不同份量的三原色,可以混合成各种不同色光。
   
   
  Additive process
  See Additive synthesis.
   加色法
  参阅加色作用。
   
   
  Additive synthesis
  Three-colour process wherein suitable proportion of red, green and blue lights are blended to form the sensation of white. Also called Additive process.
   加色作用
  把三原色,即红、绿和蓝光按一定比例混合则产生白色感觉的三色法。亦称加色法。
   
   
  Address
  A character or group of characters which identify a register,a particular section of storage, or some other source or destination permitting it to be accessed correctly,See Absolute address,Base address,Indirect address, Instruction address,Relative address,Symbolic address.
  
   
   地址
  一个或数个字符的标记,表示寄存器,贮记部的某一部分或其它源头或终端,以方便存取。参阅绝对地址,基地址,间接地址,指令地址,相对地址,符号地址。
   
   
  Addressing machine
  Machine for printing addresses on letters, packaging, etc,for mailing. 
   印地址机
  专印邮寄地址在信封或包裹上的机器。
   
   
  Addressograph
  A trade name for Addressing machine.See Addressing machine.
   印地址机
  参阅上文。是印地址机的一个牌子。
   
   
  Adhesive binding
  A popular method of book binding. The back of the gathered sections are cut off and the leaves are held together by glue or synthetic adhesive.For case bound book,linging-up is required.Also called Perfect binding,Unsewn binding,Flexiback binding,Thermoplastic binding.
   胶装
  是流行的书籍装订方法。集帖后,把各帖的脊切去,成为单张,然后用胶或合成粘合剂粘紧。精装书籍则要加上贴背工序。
   
   
  Adhesive lettering
  A form of typesetting in which the alphabet is printed on a thin sheet of acetate or other material which are coated at the back with pressure sensitive adhesive.The letters are cut apart and applied to artwork. Also called Self-adhesive lettering.
   粘贴字
  可作排字用。每个字线先印在薄胶片或其他材料上,底部则涂上压感胶粘剂。使用时,把每个字母割出,贴在适当位置上。亦称自粘字。
   
   
  Adhesive paper
  Paper coated on one side with adhesive gum, the adhesive being a dextrin,fish or animal glue,and resin or a blend of any of these, used for stickers, labels,seals,stemps,splices,tapes,etc.Wetting is required when use.Also called Gummed paper.
   胶底纸
  纸的一面涂上粘性胶,如糊精、鱼胶、动物胶或树脂或这些材料的混合剂。 作贴纸、标签、封口、邮票、接合、胶带等用途。使用时要用水湿润。
   
   
  
  
  
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   Advance copy
  (1) Specimen of a forth-coming publication sent in advance to editors and critics for review.(2) Copy sent to the composing room ahead of time.Also called Advance sheet.
   预书样、预排稿
  (1)出版前送给编辑及书评家作评论的书籍样本。(2)预先送往排字的原稿。
   
   
  Advanced feed hole
  Refer to sprocket holes of paper tape,which are in line with the leading edge of the code holes.Thus an operator will know if he is loading the tape into the reader with the right end of the tape.Also called Advanced sprocket.
   前向齿孔
  纸带上和代码孔相并行排列的齿轮孔。操作员从它而知纸带的输入方向是否正确。
   
   
  Advance sheet
  See Advance copy.
   预排稿
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Advancing colour 
  Colours which seem to move forward in the reader's vision,usually reds, oranges and some yellows.Also called Warm colour.
   前进色
  视觉上有动感或激进感的颜色。通常是红色、橙和一些黄色。亦称暖色。
   
   
  ad(s)
  Shot for advertisement,usually referred to newspaper and magazine advertising.An abbreviation commonly used in America.
   广告
  ad是美国常用的简写。通常指报纸及杂志上的广告。
   
   
  Aerograph
  Trade name for a particular type of air brush.See Air brush.
   喷笔
  参阅下文。是喷笔的一个牌子。
   
   
  Aerosol
  Originally a fine division of fluid or solid particles.By extension a packaging for under pressure packed products,a pressurized packaging.
   喷雾装
  本来指一些微点固体或流体。其意义引伸去指物品加上气压的包装,即是压缩气包装。
   
   
  Affinity
  Natural attraction for, as salt for moisture.
   性向
  自然的吸引倾向,例如盐封湿气。
   
   
  Against the grain
  See Across the grain.
   逆纹
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Agate
  The name of an obsolete size of type equivalent to 5.5 point (about 2mm).In United States,newspaper advertisement still use this as a unit to calculate column space,i.e.number of Agate lines of a certain column width.14 agate lines equal 1 inch. See Type size.
   雅基
  已淘汰的一种外文铅字大小单位名称,相当于5。5点。在美国,报纸上的广告仍用这个单位计算篇幅,即若干雅基行乘柱位阔。14雅基行相等一英寸。参阅字大小。(注:Agate的原字义是玛瑙,现作音译。)
   
   
  Air brush
  Small air pressure gun, shaped like a fountain pen, that sprays paint by means of compressed air. Used to create effects of gradated tone; ideal for retouching photographs.
   喷笔
  形状似墨水笔的小型气压喷枪,利用压缩空气把色料喷出来。用来创造渐变色调的效果,是修描相片的理想工具。
   
   
  Air doctor dampening system
  A type of dampening system on offset presses consisting of a rubber roller which rotates very fast in a water fountain and throws thick water film on the plate. An air doctor regulates the film of water remaining on the plate.
   空气括刀润湿系统
  柯式印刷机的一种润湿系统。一个转动快速的胶轴在水槽内,带起多量的水,它射向版面。空气括刀调节版面上的润湿份量。
   
   
  Air eraser
  Miniature sand-blasting hand appliance, using compressed air and pumice for removing superfluous lithographic images from the plate. It erases the images without destroying the texture of the plate.
   擦版气笔
  手提的小型喷砂器,用压缩空气和浮石粉去除平版上多余的印纹。它擦去画像而不影响版面上的纹理。
   
   
  Air knife 
  A device in a drying system, where stream of sir are forced through a narrow slit at high pressure.
   气刀
  在干燥系统内的一个装置。它让高压空气连续的在一个窄长口子喷射出来。
   
   
  Air permeability 
  (1) According to Tappi(Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, U.S.A.) the average number of seconds required for the displacement of 100ml of air through an area of 6.45 sq.cm.(1sq.in.)of the paper.(2)According to BSI(British Standards Institution)the volume of air which passes through 1 sq.cm.of area of the paper being tested in one second when urged by pressure difference of 1g/sq.cm. This expression also called Air resistance.
   透气度
  某(1)据美国制浆造纸工业技术会所订。一张6.45平方厘米(一平方寸)的纸排出100毫升气体所需的平均秒数。(2)据英国标准局所订。一平方厘米的纸在一秒内让带有每平方厘米一克压力的空气透过的体积。这个表达方式亦称空气阻力。
   
   
  Air resistance
  See Air permeability.
   空气阻力
  参阅透气度。
   
   
  Airmail paper
  Light-weight, high grade writing papers invariably made from rag for strength. One of the common usages is for aerogramme.
   空邮纸
  轻身高级书写用纸,多用破布造成,质地结实。常用作航空邮柬。
   
   
  Air-blade coating
  See Air-brush coating.
   气刀涂布
  参阅气刷涂布。
   
   
  Air-brush coating
  A method of coating paper. Coating applied through a roller is levelled and controlled and the excess removed by the air-brush in which a stream of compressed air issues form an orifice. Also called Air-blade coating, Air-knife coating,Air-jet coating.
    
  气刷涂布
  
  纸张涂面的一个方法。涂布剂经滚轴上后用气刷控制涂布量,平整及刮去过多的涂布剂。气刷是一排喷出连续压缩空气的小孔。亦称气刀涂布,喷气涂布。
  
   
   
   
  Air-conditioning
  The control of air humidity, temperature, movement and cleanliness of an ambient environment.
   空气调节
  控制一个环境空间内的空气湿度、温度、流动和清洁情况。
   
   
  Air-dry paper
  Hand-made and good machine made writing and brown paper, dried slowly by exposure to the air at a uniform temperature. Thus, having moisture content in equilibrium with that of the air.
   气干纸
  手造纸,优质机制书写纸和褐色包装纸在平均温度下让空气把它吹干。这样,纸的水份含量与空气平衡。
   
   
  Air-drying (-dried)
  Method for drying pulp, paper or board, generally carried out by suspending sheets in freely circulating air, or in the web by contact with heated air in a room or in a tunnel as distinct from heated cylinders on the paper machine.
   气干
  纸张、纸板或浆板的干燥方法。通常是把单张的悬挂在通风处:卷筒则把它引过热风隧道或房间。有别于经过造纸机上的热圆筒而熨干。
   
   
  Air-knife coating
  See Air-brush coating.
   气刀涂布
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Air-jet coating
  See Air-brush coating.
   喷气涂布
  参阅气刷涂布。
   
   
  Album paper
  Black, brown or grey cover paper for albums, suitable for pasting photographs or other material.
   相薄纸
  作相薄用的黑色、棕色或灰色的封面纸,适合粘贴相片或其他物料。
   
   
  Albumin(Albumen)
  Natural protein, soluble in water and most commonly found in the white of eggs, the colloid used for certain bichromated sensitizers employed in photomechanical process. It is also used as size in gold stamping and application of gold leaves to edges.
   蛋白
  是一种天然蛋白质,可溶于水,在蛋白中最为常见。这种胶质在照相制版法里用以作重铬酸盐感光剂。熨金及页边上金也用它作胶粘剂。
   
   
  Albumin (Albumin) process
  Procedure of photomechanical process utilizing a coating of bichromated albumin as a sensitized surface on which images are made by exposing a line or halftone negative followed by development of the inked image with water.
   蛋白制版法
  是一种照相制版法。它利用重铬酸盐蛋白胶的涂层作为感光面。印纹则用线条或半色调阴片曝光,上墨,然后水洗显影而成。
   
   
  
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   Alcohol
  Organic compounds characterized by a hydroxyl group (OH) bonded to a carbon atom. In common parlance, a term for ethyl alcohol. See Methyl alcohol, Ethyl alcohol,Propyl alcohol, Isopropyl alcohol.
   醇(酒精)
  是有机化合物。它的特性是一个氢氧团和碳原子的结合。一般把乙醇称为醇,俗称为酒精。参阅甲醇,乙醇,丙醇,异丙醇。
   
   
  Algol 
  Short for Algorithmic language. A compiler language used mainly for scientific applications in computer.
   算法语言
  是一种组合用的电脑语言,主要在科学方面使用。
   
   
  Algorithm 
  A set of well defined procedural steps for the solution of a particular problem.
   算法
  用以解答某一问题的一套妥为编排的工作步骤。
   
   
  Align
  To place letters, words, designs, etc on the same horizontal or vertical line.
   对齐
  把字母,单字或设计等等沿着同一水平或垂直对齐排列。
   
   
  Alignment
  Typographic term to indicate the position of each type is perfectly aligned across a base line. The term in full is Base alignment.
   基线对齐
  印刷字体学的术语。指每个字母都沿着它的基线对齐位置。
   
   
  Alkali
  A soluble base which forms hydroxyl ions in solution. e.g. NaOH or KOH.
   强酸(强碱)
  在溶液中可形成rgn氢氧根离子的可溶性碱。例如氢氧化钠或氢氧化钾。
   
   
  Alkalinity
  The state or quality of being alkaline, having a pH of more than 7. Also called Causticity.
   碱度
  具有强碱的性质,其酸碱值高于七。
   
   
  Alkali-proof paper
  Paper with a high degree of resistance to alkali, used for wrapping and packaging of alkaline materials, such as soaps, adhesives, etc.
   耐碱纸
  具有高度抗碱性的纸。用作包裹和包装碱性物体如肥皂(枧),胶粘剂等等。
   
   
  Alkyd resin
  Thermosetting resin, obtained as reaction product from glycerol and phthalic acid. When modified with certain vegetable oils such as linseed or tung oil, alkyds form a very important group of vehicles for letterpress or litho inks. Also used for paper coatings and adhesives.
   醇酸树脂
  热固性树脂。是丙三醇(甘油)和笨二酸(酞酸)起化学反应的产品。若用植物油如亚麻子油或桐油稀释,醇酸则成为一类重要的活版或柯式油墨用的展色剂。亦可用作纸张的涂面剂和胶粘剂。
   
   
  Allotter
  A selection distributor of coded tape or computer generated impulses which directs the tape to a specific tape reader, thus eliminating the handing of tape at each stage.
   分配器
  一个选择和分派的设计。它把已有代码的磁带或经电脑所传发的脉动指派往某一阅读机。这样,减少了每阶段都要处理磁带的步骤。
  
   
   
   
  Alphabet
  Set of letters used in a language. For example, Greek alphabet, English alphabet, etc.
   字母
  外文文字的一套字母。例如希腊字母,英文字母等等。
   
   
  Alphabet length
  The horizontal measurement, in points, of the lower-case alphabet set in type of a particular face and size.
   字母长
  任何一种字款和字大小,由全部小写字母所排列成的长度(以点数为单位)。
   
   
  Alphanumeric
  Contraction of 'alphabet and numeric' that refers to any system combining letters and numbers.
   字母数字
  这是由两个英文字浓缩而成的字。泛指任何把字母和数字联同使用的方法。
   
   
  Alternating current
  An electric current which increases to a definite value, then decreases, finally changing direction and reaching the same value in the opposite direction, then increases again and repeats the changes. One pair of changes is called a cycle. The number of cycles per second is called frequency which usually represented by Hertz *(the symbol is: Hz). Abbreviation:AC.
   交流电
  这种电流升到一定值后,即行下降并改变其方向直至达到反方向的一定值,然后又上升,重复它的变化。一双变化称为一循环。每秒内的循环称为频率。频率通常以赫芝为单位(符号 Hz)。交流电的英文缩写是:AC。
   
   
  Alum
  White crystals, soluble in water. Used for sizing paper.
   明矾
  可溶于水的白色晶体。纸张施胶的材料。
   
   
  Aluminium foil 
  Aluminium sheet or coil rolled to a thickness of less than 0.15mm.
   铝箔
  轴压至小于0.15毫米厚的铝片或铝卷。
   
   
  Aluminium paper
  Base paper of ordinary wrapping weight coated with aluminium powder, sometimes made by incorporating the powder in the beater or a size press. Used for wrapping food products and particularly for cigarettes.
   铝纸
  用一般厚的包裹纸为基纸,涂上铝粉而成。亦有在打浆时或在施胶时然后加入的。用作包裹食品,特别是香烟的包装。
   
   
  Aluminium plate
  A thin sheet of aluminium used in lithography as a base for plate coating after surface treatment. It is used for both surface type and deep-etch offset plates.
   铝版
  一块薄铝片,经过表面处理后作为平版印刷用的版基,以承载版面涂层。可用柯式用的平面版或深触版。
   
   
  Amberlith 
  Brand mane for a red-or orange-coated acetate sheet. The coating is strippable; that is, it can be selectively cut and peeled away for masking purpose.
   琥珀胶片
  是商品名称。一种带有红色或橙色涂层的醋酸胶片。涂层成薄膜,可随意裁割剥去,作遮光用途。
   
   
  Ammonium bichromate (dichromate)
  Salt formed by neutralising chromic acid with ammonia. An orange colour crystal Soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol. Sensitive to actinic light rays; used with a colloid as a sensitiser for lithographic printing plate coatings.
   重铬酸铵
  氨与铬酸中和所产生的盐。橙红色晶体。可溶于水,不溶于醇(酒精)。光化光引起它的感光作用。把它混和胶体,可作平版印刷的版面感光性涂料。俗称红矾。
   
   
  Ammonium bromide
  Colourless crystals or a white powder, soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. Used for precipitating silver salts (silver bromide) when mixing with silver nitrate for photographic emulsions. Also called Bromide of ammonia.
   溴化铵
  无色晶体或白色粉末。可溶于水及微溶于醇。用它混和硝酸银就产生可作照相乳剂的(银盐)溴化银沉淀。
   
   
  
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   Ampersand
  The symbol "&" for the word "and".
   &号
  用以代替英文and字的符号。
   
   
  Amplifier
  A device, usually electronic, for increasing the power level of a signal, which is usually an electrical voltage or current. It receives the signal at a low level and sends it out at a high level in identical or nearly identical form.
   放大器
  通常是一个电子装置,用以增强一个信号的功率强度。这个信号通常是一个电压或电流。它接收一个较弱的信号把它增强然后用相同或大致相同的形式放出。
   
   
  Amplitude modulation (AM)
  The form of modulation in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. In amplitude of na alternating current voltage (or current) contains information. Abbreviation: AM.
   调幅
  是对振幅的一种调节。振幅跟随即时数值的调制信号而转调。在调幅的技术里,交流电的电压(或电流)的振幅载有翻译片。英文缩写是AM。
   
   
  Analog (Analogue) computer
  A computer which handles continuous varying quantities and solves problems by translating the varying quantities such as speed, temperature, length, etc., into analogous electrical quantities such as voltages and currents. See Digital computer.
   模拟电脑
  这种电脑处理连续变动的数量,把各种恒变的数量如速度、温度、长度等转为相对的电压或电流,去解决问题。参看数字电脑。
   
   
  Analog (Analogue) signal
  In data communication systems, a continuous electrical signal that varies in direct correlation to a signal impressed on a transducer. The frequency or amplitude of the single may vary, for instance, in response to changes in phenomena or characteristics such as sound, light, heat, position of pressure, etc. Generally, voice transmission is in analogue form.
   模拟信号
  在数据通信系统内的一个连续电力信号,它跟着变换器所收到的信号而变动。例如跟着声音、光线、热力、压力的位置等现象或特性的变动而产生相对的频率或振幅的变动。通常,声音的传送是用模拟形式。
   
   
  Analytical method
  Method to find the nature and/or the amounts of ingredients in a substance.
   分析法
  找出物质的本性及/或它的成分的方法。
   
   
  Anastatic printing 
  A relief printing process used by artists to produce prints. The design to be printed is painted directly onto a zinc plate with asphalt varnish which acts as an acid resist. The non-printing area is etched away with dilute nitric acid.
   艺术凸版
  艺术家用用板画的凸版印刷方法。先用沥青制假漆作为抗触膜,在锌版上直接绘画图案。非印纹部份用稀硝酸蚀去。
   
   
  Anastigmatic lens
  Photographic lens corrected for astigmatism as well as other distortions. Process camera lenses are anastigmats.
   消像差透镜
  消除纵横像差和其他畸变的摄影用透镜。制版照相机所用的镜头是消像差透镜。
   
   
  Angle bar
  Non-rotating metal bar in a rotary press, laid horizontally at 45 degree from the direction of the press. Used to turn the web when feeding from the side, or to by-pass the former in ribbon folding. Usually filled with air and perforated to reduce friction from web travel. Also called Turner bar, Turning bar。
   转向棍
  轮转印刷机上的金属辊:它平放而不转动,与印刷机的方向成45度。它的作用是把横边送来纸改变方向或在带式摺时绕过先前的纸。转向棍通常是有小孔和充气,用以减少摩擦。
   
   
  Angle brackets
  Marks used in pairs for inclosing words or figures, Its use is quite similar to quotation marks but mainly for title of books. 
   角括号
  用来包括词句或数字的一对符号。用途相等于引号和书名号。
   
   
  Angle cut 
  To cut paper to special angles in order to avoid waste in the manufacture of enveloped.
   斜角切
  在制造信封时,把纸张作特别角度裁切,以减少损耗。
   
   
  Angle cutter
  Machine for cutting paper at an angle to the machine direction of the paper.
   斜切裁纸刀
  能把纸张斜切的机器。它的切线与纸纹方向成一角度。
   
   
  Angle of view
  The largest angle of acceptance of a lens which is capable of producing an image of usable quality on the film.
   视角
  镜头所能包括的最大角度。这个视角范围内的影像在菲林上构成实用的品质。
   
   
  Angle of wipe
  In rotogravure printing press, the angle between the doctor blade and the engraved cylinder. 
   刮墨角
  在轮转式照相凹版印刷机上,括墨刀与凹版圆筒所成的角度。
   
   
  Angstrom unit
  A unit of measurement of the length of light waves. It is equal to 1/10 of a millimicron.
   埃
  量度光波长度的单位。一埃等于十分一毫微米。
   
   
  Angular field
  The maximum circular area in the focal plane that yields a sharp image by a lens. The diameter of the circular area approximates the focal length of the lens which limits the size of a process camera.
   视场
  一个镜头在焦点平面构成清晰影像的最大圆面积。该圆的直径约等于镜头的焦距。它限制了制版照相机的大小。
   
   
  Anhydrous plate wash
  An anhydrous alcohol, a water-free alcohol used in lithographic deep-etch platemaking to wash the plate before applying tie lacquer image base. Also called Alcohol wash.
   无水洗版液
  是无水酒精。在制深蚀版时用来清洗版面,然后在印纹基样上涂上假漆。亦称洗版酒精。
   
   
  Aniline dye carbon paper
  
  A special carbon paper used in the spirit duplicator process.
   苯胺染料碳纸
  供酒精复印用的一种特制碳纸。
   
  
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   Aniline ink
  Quick drying printing ink used on kraft paper, cotton fabric, cellophane, polyethylene, etc. Originally solution of coal-tar dyes in organic solvents (alcohols, esters, ketones, ethers), now with pigments rather than dyes and of two types: spirit inks containing organic solvent as vehicle, and emulsion inks, in which water is the main vehicle. This is an obsolete term and is being replaced by the term Flexographic ink.
   苯胺油墨
  印刷牛皮纸,棉织品,玻璃纸,聚乙烯片等快干油墨。这类油墨初期是煤焦油染料在有机质溶剂(醇类,酯类,酮类,醚类。其一是酒精油墨,它的展色剂含有机质溶剂。另一是乳液油墨,它的主要展色剂是清水。苯胺油墨这个古老名词逐渐被胶版油墨一词取代。
   
   
  Aniline printing
  Method of rotary relief printing using flexible rubber plates and aniline inks. This is an obsolete term as it is thought that name for a printing process should reflect more on the characteristic of the printing plate rather than the type of ink which is no more viable. This term is being replaced by the terms Flexography, Flexographic printing, Rubber-plate printing.
   苯胺印刷
  采用柔性橡胶版和苯胺油墨的凸版轮转印刷方法。苯胺印刷这个不再使用的名词已被胶版印刷一词代替。因为用印版的特性去描述一种印刷方法比较用一种油墨的特性为好;况且,这种油墨也不再通行。
   
   
  Anilox roller
  A special designed ink duct roller for flexographic printing press to meter and control the volume of ink transferred to the printing plate. It is engraved across the full face with minute cell at 60 to 120 lines per cm and to a specified depth, usually 50 micron to 100 micron to provide a better ink distribution. The anilox roller may also used as coating roller in a gravure press and glue applicator in a binding line.
   网纹辘
  专为胶版印刷机而特别设计的墨槽轴。它量度及控制油墨传送到印版的份量。它的整个表面刻上有一定深度的微细窝;密度由每厘米60至120线,深度通常为50至100微米。这样,油墨分布得更为平均。网纹轴还可用来在凹版印刷机上作涂布思及在装订生产线上作施胶器。
   
   
  Animal glue
  Glue obtained from hides, bones and hoofs of animals; used in bookbinding, in surface sizing of paper to increase its strength and durability. Also called Animal size.
   动物胶
  由动物的蹄,骨,和皮所组成的胶。用于装订书籍和纸张表面施胶以啬纸张的强度和耐用性。
   
   
  Animal size
  See Animal glue.
   动物胶
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Animal tub sized paper
  Paper which is sized by passing the sheet through a bath or "tub" of animal size or gelatine. It is common to use the abbreviation "ATS" to represent the words "animal tub sized."
   槽法施胶纸张
  把纸张带过一个装载有动物拉或明胶的缸或槽而使其表面涂上胶液。ATS是常用的简写,表示槽法施胶。
   
   
  Annex
  An addition to the main text to provide supplementary informations.
   附件
  附加于正文后的补充资料。
   
   
  Anode
  Electrode connected to the positive side of supply current.
   阳极
  连接导入电流的正电极。
   
   
  Anodized aluminium plate
  Aluminium plate for offset printing with a specially prepared surface.See Anodizing.
   阳极氧化铝版
  版面经过特别处理的柯式印刷用铝版。参阅阳极投送化法。
   
   
  Anodizing
  A process in which the surface of a metal, usually aluminium, is converted by electrolytic oxidation into a coating. The aluminium serves as the anode, and another metal, or carbon, serves as the cathode during anodizing. The electrolyte into which the aluminium is placed is an acid, usually sulfuric or chromic. An electic current is applied to the cell, converting the aluminium surface into a coating of aluminium oxide.
   阳极氧化法
  是把金属,通常是铝,的表面经电解而造成氧化层的方法。这方法把铝片当做阳极,另一种金属或碳当做阴极,电解液是酸,通常是硫酸或铬酸。电解池通过电流,铝片的表面就逐渐积聚起氧化铝层。
   
   
  Antifoggant
  See Anti-fogging agent.
   防雾剂
  参看下文。
   
   
  Antique feather-weights
  Any good bulking, light weight paper with a rough surface. They are made in white and pale colours and some qualities have a deckle edge.
   轻磅仿古纸
  任何有适当厚度而轻身,表面粗糙的纸。可造成白色或其他淡的颜色;还可造成有毛边的品质。
   
   
  Antique finish paper
  Machine made papers with colour and characteristics similar to old hand-made paper-soft, white or pale in colour, with a rough surface. Also called Antique paper.
   仿古纸
  参看上文。
   
   
  Antique paper
  See Antique finish paper. 
   防卷曲涂层
  菲林基片的底面通常涂上一层明胶,以防止菲林卷曲。亦儿底面涂层。
   
   
  Anti-curl coating
  Gelatine is usually used to coat the back surface of the film base to prevent curling of the film. Also called Undercoating.
   防雾剂
  菲林显影剂内的一种成份。在显影时,,溴化钾常用作抑制灰雾的产生。其他物质如溴化钠,碘化钾和苯并三唑等都有使用。
   
   
  Anti-fogging agent
  One of the constituents in the film developer. Potassium bromide is commonly used to restrain the growth of fog during development Other substance, like Sodium bromide are being used also. Also called Antifoggont. 
   防光晕背层
  参阅防光晕层。
   
   
  Anti-halation backing
  See Anti-halation layer.
   防光晕层
  菲林底面的涂层。通常含有染料或有色颜料以吸收光线,这样可以防止光线从菲林基片的反射造成光晕。亦称防光晕背层。
   
   
  Anti-halation layer
  Coating on the back of a film. Usually containing a dye or coloured pigment for the purpose of absorbing light rays, thus preventing their reflection from the back surface of the film base to form haloes. Also called Anti-halation backing, Anti-halo layer./
   防光晕层
   
   
   
  Anti-halo layer
  See Anti-halation layer.
   防反印喷雾器
  印刷机收纸部份的一种装置。它喷出微点液体或粉末于纸面上,用以防止反印。
   
   
  Anti-setoff spray
  Device on the delivery end of the printing machine to prevent setoff by projecting a fine spray of liquid or powder at the sheet.
   防静电喷雾器
  可用一种高分子量的脂肪醇作喷剂的液体喷雾器。作用是把纸面或胶片面上的静电电荷用传导法洩去。
   
   
  Anti-static spray
  Spray of liquid which may be a kind of high molecular weight fatty alcohol. It is to allow the static electrical charges on paper or film to leak off by means of conduction.
   口径
  在相机镜头前的圆形,可以调节的孔。它控制传至菲林上的光线量。
   
   
  
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   Aperture
  Circular,adjustabale opening in the front of the camera lens which controls the amount of light allowed to pass on to the film. 
   口径
  在相机镜头前的圆形,可以调节的孔。它控制传至菲林上的光线量。
   
   
  Aplanatic lens
  
  Compound lens corrected for spherical aberration and coma. Also called Aplanat.
   消球差透镜
  矫正球面销售量差和慧星差的复合式透镜。
   
   
  Aplanat
  See Aplanatic lens.
   消球差透镜
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Apochromatic lens
  Compound lens corrected for chromatic aberration, i.e. the three primary colours, red, green and blue are corrected. Also called Apochromat.
   复消色差透镜
  矫正色差的复合式透镜:即是红、绿和蓝三原色的色差都已矫正。
   
   
  Apochromat
  See Apochromatic lens.
   复消色差透镜
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Apostrophe
  Sign of omission of letter or to show possessive.
   省略号
  在英文字内表示略去一些字母或表示拥有的符号。
   
   
  Appendix
  Additional matter to a book. It is usually literary matter relating to the subject of the book but not desirable to include in the body of the book.
   附录
  书籍正文后面的附加物。通常是和书籍内容有关的文件;但又不愿包括于正文之内者。
   
   
  Application programme
  A computer programme written in order to solve a particular problem encountered by a single user.
   应用程式
  为某一用户去解决一特定问题而编写的电脑程式。
   
   
  Aqua film
  A kind of hand-cut film for screen process printing. Aqua film is adhered to the screen mesh with water. It requires the use of a lacquer-base ink for printing.
   水溶菲林
  网版印刷所用的一种手工割菲林。用水溶解而粘附网上。印刷时要采用漆基类油墨。
   
   
  Aquatint
  It is, an etching process on copper or steel by means of nitric acid. In this technique, a thin layer of resin dust is sprinkled on the plate and heated to make it adhere. The etchant penetrates between the fine grains to etch the plate forming countless tiny cells that print in a soft texture.
   水彩色调
  用硝酸在钢片或铜片上作腐蚀的蚀刻法。这个技巧是在版面上洒上一层薄薄的树脂粉,加热把它粘附于版面。腐蚀剂在微粒间渗入,把版面腐蚀,造成无数小窝,印出一个柔和纹理。
   
   
  Aquatone
  A vegetable substance, applied in solution to a lithographic surface and dried to produce a hydrophilic film on the non-image area, to help to increase its wettability. Also called Gum arabic.
   充珂罗版
  用柯式机印制类似珂罗版效果的照相制版印刷法。
   
   
  Arabic gum
  A vegetable substance, applied in solution to a lithographic surface and dried to prodice a hydrophilic film on the non-image area, to help to increase its wettability. Also called Gum arabic.
   阿拉伯胶
  一种植物类的物质,它的溶液涂抹在平版版面上,干后在非印纹部份造成一层亲水性的膜,增加它的湿润性能。
   
   
  Arabic numerals
  Ten figures, zero and numerals 1 through 9, so called because they originated in Arabia, as opposed to Roman numerals. 
   阿拉伯数字
  相对于罗马数字。有十个数字,由1至9及零。源始于阿拉伯,故名。
   
   
  Arc lamp
  lamp that produces light by a current arcing across an air gap between two electrodes, usually of carbon. Thus called Carbon arc lamp. Used as a light source in reprophotography and platemaking.
   弧光灯
  电流经弧跨一窨的两电极而产生光的灯。电极通常为碳,故亦称碳精弧光灯。用作复制照相及制版用的光源。
   
   
  Architecture
  The internal configuration of a computer, including its registers and instruction set, or the overall configuration of a net work.
   体系结构
  指电脑内部的配置,包括它的寄存器和指令系统,或指一个网络的整体配置。
   
   
  Archive
  The storage of informations which are not needed currently but which may be needed in the future, from a computer, or typesetting front end system.
   文件库
  是存贮器。它把由电脑或排字系统的前端机所传发的暂时不用但将来可能需用的信息存贮起来。
   
   
  Area composition
  In computerised phototypesetting, the preparation of groups of types for output in such a way that as many elements as possible are in place according to a layout. Depending on the system, area composition may achieve full page make-up, where no paste-up at all is needed.
   区域排版
  在电脑照排方面,把各组文字整理,输出时使各单元能尽量依照版面格式放置。视乎系统的性能,区域排版可完成整版拼排工作而完全不需拼贴。
   
   
  Arithmetic unit
  That part of the computer which carries out calculations and makes logical decisions.
   运算部
  电脑进行计算和逻辑决定的部份。
   
   
  Arrow
  Printing fault in gravure which appears as a mark in the shape of an arrow head on the print. Also called Comet.
   箭形印记
  是照相凹版印刷的瑕疵。印刷品上带有像箭头的印纹。亦称慧星印记。
   
   
  Art copy
  All original copy, whether prepared by an artist, camera, or other means. Loosely speaking, any copy to be reproduced.
   美术稿
  指一切由艺术家、相机或其他方法制造的原作艺术品。一般来说,指任何将被复制的稿件。
   
   
  Art paper
  (1) In printing, paper coated either on one or both sides with a composition of china clay or kindred mineral. Its smooth surface is best for reproducing arts, thus named. it is even called "copper plate paper" because at the time when letterpress printing were dominate, copper blocks were used to print fine halftones. (2) In art and craft, good bulk, high grade paper for drawing and decoration.
   粉纸,美术纸
  (1)粉纸是印刷方面的名词。指单面或双面涂上含有瓷土或类似矿物质物料的纸张。它表面平滑,最适合作美术品的复制印刷用,故亦称美术纸。它又称铜版纸。因为在活版印刷是主流期间,用铜版来印刷精细网点色调是最通行的,故名。 (2) 在劳美方面,美术纸是指厚身。高品质的纸张,绘画或装饰用。
   
   
  Artwork
  Materials specially prepared in accordance to a design for reproduction purpose. Finished artwork or mechanical usually completely camera ready and include any type matter in position, as well as halftones in the form of pre-screened prints.
   正稿
  依照设计而特别准备作复制用的原稿。字体和以加网相片表达的半色调图片都放置在它们适当的位置上。完成的正稿或拼贴可以即时作照相用。
   
   
  ASA
  Short for American Standards Association, but use as a speed rating system for the sensitivity of photographic materials to light. The light the number, the faster the speed of the film. ASA ratings have a strict arithmetical progression, 400 ASA being twice as fast s 200 ASA in terms of film sensitivity.
   ASA
  是美国标准协会的英文缩写,用作定照相材料的感光速度等级。数字越高,感光速度越快。ASA是严谨的算术级数,400ASA的感光速度比200ASA的快两倍。
   
   
  
   A
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
   Ascender
  That part of the lowercase letter that rises above the body of the letter, as in b, d, f, h, k, l, and t.
   上升笔划
  英文小写字母,如b,d,f,h,k,l和t。其高出主体的部份。
   
   
  ASCII
  Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A standard code used by almost all electronic equipments not made by IBM to represent text inside a computer and to transmit text between computers or between a computer and a peripheral device. It is a code based on a seven-lever or -bit structure, where each of the 128 permutations of the seven bits signifies a particular character. Sometimes an eighth level is used for a parity character. Sometimes an eighth level is used for a parity check. The ASCII character includes the upper and lower case alphabet, numbers, special character can be stored in one byte of memory, i.e. half of a memory word in a 16-bit processor architecture or one full word in an 8-bit computer architecture. 
   雅舒码
  英文是<美国信息交换标准代码>的缩写,成为一个字首字。现作音译。除IBM外,各种电子仪器都采用这个标准作电脑与电脑间或电脑与外围设备的内文传送。它用7层或7数元结构,造成128个排列,每个排列代表一个字符。有时,它采用第8 层结构作奇偶校验。雅舒字符包括大写和小写字母,数字,特别符号和控制代码。一雅舒字符可贮于一字节的记忆内,即是在16位数元处理机内占半个字,在8数元处理机则占一个字。
   
   
  Asphaltum
  Natural mineral compounds consist of carbon, hydrogen, sulphur and nitrogen or the residue from distillation of petroleum, coal tar or rosin. Their characteristic vary considerably depending on the processing condition and constituent. Used in various inks and varnishes, and as an acid resist in photo-engravings.
   沥青
  天然产生的沥青是含有碳、氢、硫和氮的矿产化合物。人造沥青是蒸溜石油,煤焦油或松脂后的余下渣滓。视乎它的成份和处理过程,它有很多不同特性。用制各类油墨和清漆,并用作照相蚀刻版的抗蚀膜。
   
   
  ASR
  Short for Automatic Send and Receive. A teletypewriter having the ability to receive data and produce it on a printer or paper tape, and to send data entered through a keyboard or paper tape.
   自动收发机
  英文是“自动发送和接收”的缩写。指一种能接收和发送数据的电传打字机。接收的数据可以记在纸带上或由印字机印出,发送则经由键盘或纸带。
   
   
  Assembler
  A program or set of programs that converts into machine language other programs written in an assembly language. See Compiler.
   汇编程序
  一种或一组电脑程式,它把汇编语言或其他程式转为机器语言。参阅编译程序。
   
   
  Assembly language
  A low level programming language that permits the programmer to use mnemonics or symbolic codes for function codes. Assembly languages are the most like machine langrages, and are therefore extremely difficult for humans to earn and use but extremely efficient for computers to utilizi.
   汇编语言
  一种低阶程式语言,它容许程式设计员采用符号或助记忆符号代替功能代码。汇编语言和机器语言很接近,所以人们学习和重用这种语言十分困难,但是在电脑应用方面,则极为有效。
   
   
  Asterisk
  Reference mark used in the text to indicate a footnote. Also used to indicate missing letters or words.
   星号
  在正文中用来表示脚注的附注符号。也用来标示略去的字母或单词。
   
   
  Astigmatism 
  The inability of a lens to focus mutually perpendicular point, such as a cross, onto the same plane. When the vertical line is in focus, the horizontal is out of focus, and vice versa.
   纵横像差
  透镜的缺点。互相垂直的线条,如十字线条的焦点不能落在同一平面上。当纵线的焦点对准时,横线则失准;反之将横线对准时,则纵线又失准。
   
   
  Astronomical sign
  Symbols to represent stars of the heavenly body.
   天文符号
  用来表示天体星辰的符号。
   
   
  Asymmetrical balance
  Placing of elements in a layout in such a way that all elements do not centered along an imaginable vertical axis down the middle of the page and yet give a pleasing visual effect. Also called Dynamic balance, Informal balance.
   不对称平衡
  设计图上的各单元并不跟随版面中间虚设的垂直轴线分中放置,但仍然具有悦目效果。亦称动态平衡,非形式化平衡。
   
   
  Asynchronous communication
  Data transmission where the time interval between characters is allowed to vary. Each character is therefore transmitted with "start" and "stop" signals.
   异步通讯
  某在数据传送中,容许每字符间有不同的间距。所以每字符都有一个开始和结束的讯号。
   
   
  ATS
  Short for Animal Tub Size. See Animal tub sized paper.
   槽法施胶
  参阅槽法施胶纸张。
   
   
  Author's correction
  See AA.
   著者修改
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Author's proof
  Proof to be sent to the author or editor for the purpose of having it returned marked "OK" or "OK with corrections". 
   著者校样
  送往著作者或编辑校对的稿样,以期获得“核准”或“改正后核准”的字样。
   
   
  Auto leaders
  Functions of typesetting available on some systems that with a command, leaders will automatically fill up a space.
   自动加引点
  一些排字机所具备的功能。只要一个命令就可以把左右文字间的空位用引点填满。
   
   
  Automatic feeder
  A device to separate sheets from the stack and forward them to the lays of the sheet fed printing machine.
   自动给纸器
  单张纸印刷机上把纸堆上的纸分离,然后把它送到定位标针上的装置。
   
   
  Autoplate
  A machine for producing curved stereotype plated for rotary presses in newspaper printing.
   自动铸版机
  一种制造半圆形铅铸版的机器。版供轮转机印报纸用。
   
   
  Autopositive
  A class of photographic materials which will yield a positive image from a positive original without an intermediate negative stage.
   直接正片
  一种照相材料,可以无须经中间负片的步骤而把正片原稿复制为正片。
   
   
  Autoscreen film
  A photographic film embodying the halftone screen, exposed to a continuous-tone image, produces a dot pattern automatically just as if a halftone screen had been used in the camera.
   带网菲林
  一种带有预加半色调网点的照相材料;在相机上,把它对着全色调图像曝光,就得到网点色调效果,和使用正式的半色调网片一样。
   
   
  Auto-focus
  The automatic adjustment of the lens distance to give a sharp image on the film.
   自动对焦
  自动调节镜头的距离,使菲林得到清晰的影像。
   
   
  Auto-kerning
  The automatic reduction of unwanted white spaces between characters for aesthetic reasons. See Kerning.
   自动字间减位
  某因美观关系,字母间不需要的空位自动减少。参阅字间减位。
   
   
  Auto-paster
  System on a web-fed press that joins a new reel of paper to the nearly exhausted web of the previous reel without the necessity for stopping the press for a change-over. Also called Flying paster. 
   自动接纸装置
  在卷筒纸印刷机上的一种装置。它把新的纸卷接驳在快要用尽的纸卷上而无须停止印刷机更换。
   
   
  Auxiliary storage
  Computer storage situated outside of the computer itself, and includes disc, drum and magnetic tape storage methods. Also called Bulk,Mass,or Bacling storage.
   辅助存贮器
  电脑主体以外的存贮装置,包括磁碟,磁鼓和磁带等存贮方法。亦称大容量存贮器,后备存贮器。
   
   
  Axis
  An imaginary dividing line around which design elements are located.
   轴线
  一条虚设的分界线,利用它来确定设计单元的摆放位置。
   
   
  Azo pigment
  One of the most important groups of chemical pigment for printing ind manufacture. The prime raw materials for azo pigment are a diazo component such as aromatic amine and a coupling component auch as phenolic compound.
   偶氮颜料
  一类生产印刷用油墨的极重要化学颜料。偶氮颜料的主要原料是一些重氮成份如芳香族胺和一些偶联成份如酚类化合物。
   
   
  Azure laid
  A high grade writing paper for ledger and other uses. It has a series of translucent line texture and light blue in colour as its name imply.
   浅蓝帘纹纸
  高级收发室用纸,作账部或其他用途。正如其名,它是浅蓝色和有着半透明的竹纹理。
   
   
  
   B
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
   
  B size
  Series of ISO paper sizes intended primarily for posters, wall charts and similar items where the A sizes do not meet the requirement economically. The B sizes provide an intermediate size between two A sizes, e.g.B4 is larger than A4 but smaller than A3. 
   B度
  国际标准纸度的一个系列,专为某些尺寸的印刷品如海报、挂图或类似性质的印刷品使用。这些印刷品的尺寸,若用A度裁切印刷则不符合经济原则。B并的大小是介乎两个A度之间,例如B4度是较A4度大而小于A3度。
   
   
  Back
  (1) The opposite side of nick or belly of a type. (2) The portion of the binding that connects the front and back cover of a book. On this part, title of the book and name of the publisher is also printed. There are two kinds: a square/flat back or a round back. Each kind either has a hard/stiff back, a flexible back. Called Shelf-back in America. See Backbone, Spine. (34) See Back margin.
   (1)字背,(2)书背,(3)内白边
  (1)铅字缺刻或字腹的后面。(2)是连接对面和封底间的书皮部份。在书背上一般印有书名和出版社名称。有两种款式:方背和圆背。每种款式又分别有硬背、软背、密背或空背。美国术语亦称书架背。参阅书脊。(3)参阅下文。
   
   
  Back copy
  Out-of-date issue of magazines or periodicals. Also called Back number.
   过期刊物
  过时的杂志或定期刊物。
   
   
  Back cover
  The sheet covering the end of a book.
   封底
  书本的最后一面。
   
   
  Back edge
  Used to indicate the position of a cylinder, plate or sheet. It is the farthest part from the point at whish printing begins. Also called Tail edge, Trailing edge.
   后边(尾)
  用来指出圆筒,印版或纸张的部份。是距离开始印刷的最远位置。故有圆筒尾,版尾和纸尾的名称。
   
   
  Back gauge
  That part of a guillotine controlling the position and dimension of paper cutting.
   后挡规
  切纸机上控制切幅面大小和定位的部件。
   
   
  Back lining
  A main step to reinforce the book in case binding. Depending on the quality required, back lining may include gauzing or mulling, paper lining and headanding.
   贴脊
  是精装本的一个主要工序,它使书帖连接得更加牢固。依照品质要求,贴脊纸和贴顶带(堵头布)。
   
   
  Back margin
  In book work, the white space of a page between the printed image and the binding edge. In some occasion, "back" is simply used to mean back margin. See Gutter.
   内白边
  在书本制作上,内文书页上介乎印纹和订口间的空白部份。参阅版沟。
   
   
  Back planing
  Finishing operation to the back of a stereotype or an electrotype after backing up to make it smooth and to the required height.
   平背
  铅铸版或电铸版在背后所需的刨平和达致标准厚度的工作。
   
   
  Back pressure
  The squeeze pressure between the blanket (offset) cylinder and the impression cylinder, Also called Impression pressure.
   后压力
  胶布圆筒(柯式机)和压力圆筒间因紧压而产生的压力。亦称压印力。
   
   
  Back rounding
  Forming the back of a book into a convex curve and thus the fore-edge a concave curve which makes the turning of pages more easy. The curvature of the back may be defined using the bulk of the book.
   圆脊
  把书脊做成凸起的圆弧,书口则是凹入的圆弧,方便翻阅。书脊的弧度可以用书厚作半径求得。
   
   
  Back rounding machine 
  Machine for rounding the back of a book.
   圆脊机
  把书脊做成凸起圆弧的机器。
   
   
  Back separation 
  One of the two distinct methods of separating papers adopted by automatic feeders for sheet fed presses. The action is to lift and forward the top sheet on a pile by the back edge. See Stream feeding.
   分纸尾
  单张纸印刷机所采用的两种截然不同的分纸方法之一。它在纸堆面上逐一提起纸尾然后把它送前。参阅流水式给纸。
   
   
  Back trapping
  In wet-on-wet printing, the condition that the first down ink was unable to trap the second printing ink but part of it was taken away by the second printing ink.
   反牵力
  在湿式叠印时,先印的油墨不但不能把第二次的印刷墨牵着,而且让第二的印刷墨把部份的先印墨拉去的情况。
   
   
  Back up
  (1) To print on the teverse of a sheet of paper, one side of which has previously been printed. Also called Backing up, Perfecting. (2) To strengthen electrotype by pouring molten metal to its back. Also called Backing up. (3) Extra standby equipment, personnel or copies of data provided in order to maintain capacity in the event of a failure of the primary equipment.
   (1)印反面,(2)衬背,(3)后备
  (1)当一页纸其中一面印好后,再印它的另一面。(2)把熔化的金属,浇涛在电铸版的背面,以增加它的强度。(3)额外的备用器材,人手或数据的副本。用来应付临时机件故障,以维持应有的运作。
   
   
  Back up roller
  Roller which backs up the impression rooler for additional pressure in gravure printing.
   加压辘
  在照相凹版印刷机上,给予压力圆筒额外压力的辊辘。
   
   
  Backbone
  That part of an uncovered book which is fastened together when teh bool is bound. Called Spine in English terminology.
   书脊
  书本装订时联缀书帖一起的部份。是未套上书皮时所用的名称。参阅书背。
   
   
  Background
  Area behind the main subject.
   背景
  主调后面的范围。
   
   
  Background processing
  Computer processing mode which can occur concurrently with main use of the machine, e.g. hyphenation and justification of a text file while other material is being input.
   后台处理
  是电脑作业的一种方式。它可以和机器的主要工作同时进行。例如处理英文文件的分字和齐行调整时可同时处理其他输入。
   
   
  Backing
  Marking of the shoulder or joint on the spine of a hard cover book into which the cover boards will fit after back rounding. 
   起膊
  精装书籍在圆脊后两旁压成肩膊或关节,以套入书皮板纸。
   
   
  Backing away
  Ink refuse to flow out of the duct because of the pasty nature and built-up of thixotropy of the letterpress or offset ink. Also called Hanging back.
   滞墨
  由于活版或柯式墨的糊状性质和触变性的累积使它滞留在墨槽里而不流出来。
   
   
  Backing paper
  A base layer to give strength or support to a top layer. Depending on the requirement of the top layer, backing papers vary very much in nature. See Releasing paper.
   托底纸
  用来支撑面层的纸以啬强度或承托面层。视乎面层的要求,托底纸有各种极端不同的性质。参阅剥离纸。
   
   
  
   B
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
   Backing-up
  See Back up.
   印反面,衬背
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Backing storage
  See Auxiliary storage.
   后备存贮器
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Backmatter
  An American term to describe those pages following the main text of a book. It may include Appendix, glossary, Bibliography and Index.Endmatter is the corresponding English term.
   结文
  指书籍正文后的部份。它包括附录、词汇、参考书目和索引。
   
   
  Backslant
  Baclward sloping typeface, i.e. opposite to italic.
   左斜字体
  向左倾斜的字体。即是一般斜体字的反向。
   
   
  Backwater
  Liquid containing dissolved ingredients in paper-making process, which passes through the wire when stock is deposited. Also called Whitewater.
   回收水
  造纸过程中,带着溶解的造纸成份穿过造纸网而流去的液体。又称白水。
   
   
  Bad break
  Undesirable or incorrect end-of-line htyphenation of a word, e.g. the first or last line of a page.
   分字不当
  英文字在齐行时作不适当或错误的分字。例如在每版的第一行或最后一行作分字。
   
   
  Bagasse fibre
  Fibre sometines used in paper-making obtained from sugar cane.
   蔗渣纤维
  甘蔗压榨后的蔗渣纤维,可作造纸用。
   
   
  Baggy paper
  Loosely wound web.
   松弛纸卷
  松而卷不实的卷筒纸。
   
   
  Balance
  (1) An instrument for measuring mass. (2) A design concept in which elements are systematically positioned to give a pleasing appearance. See Symmetrical balance, Asymmetrical balance.
   (1)天平,(2)平衡
  (1)度量质量的仪器。(2)一种设计概念。它把各单元作有规律的放置,使它有一个悦目的画面。参阅对称平衡,不对称平衡。
   
   
  Band strapping
  Enclosing a stack of printed material with a strong, thin plastic band to secure it. The machine used for this purpose is a Band strapper.
   捆扎
  用紧韧而薄的胶带把一定数量的印刷品扎紧。做这样工作的机器是捆扎机。
   
   
  Bandwidth
  The difference (in hertz) between the upper and lower limits of wave frequencies transmitted over a communications channel. See Brodband,Narrowband, Wideband.
   波段阔度
  在一个通信通道中,最高和最低波频率(单位是赫兹)的差别。参阅阔波段,窄波段和宽波段。
   
   
  Bank
  Grade of lightweight writing and printing paper used for correspondence, multi-part sets, etc. made in a range of substances from 45 g/sq.m. heavier weights of otherwise similar material are called Bonds, while lighter weights are called Manifolds.
   高级打字纸
  轻身的书写和印刷用纸的一类。作书信、联单文件等用。定量从45到63克每平方米不等。用相同材料造成较重纸张则称为高级书写纸(俗称二呈纸),较轻者则称为打字纸。
   
   
  Banner
  The main headline, in large type, acress the full width of a page.
   横额标题
  横跨整个版面的大字主标题。
   
   
  Bar code
  A group of lines in different thickness used on packaging and book covers and carry information relating to their contents. It is so designed that a computerised systems such as cash registers and stock control system can read it easily. The two most common types are the American UPC (Universal Products Code) and the EAN ( European Article Number).
   条码
  在包装品或在书本上的一组粗细不同的线条。它带着和该物品有关的信息。它的设计使一些电脑系统如收银机和存货管理等易于阅读。两种最常用的条码是美国的“环球产品代码”(UPC)和“欧洲货物号码”(EAN)。
   
   
  Baryta paper
  A very smooth matt-coated paper used to make repro pulls of type or blocks required for subsequent reproduction.
   钡地纸
  十分平滑的哑粉纸,用它压印铅字版或电版所得的稿样,可作复制照相稿用。
   
   
  Base
  (1) A substance which reacts with an acid to form a salt and water only, generally an oxide or a hydroxide of a metal. (2) A supporting layer on which coating may be applied.
   (1)碱,(2)基层
  (1)一种与酸反应而只形成盐和水的物质,一般是金属的氧化物或氩氧化物。(2)承托涂剂的底层。
   
   
  Base alignment
  See Alignment.
   基线对齐
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Base line
  Imaginary horizontal line on which characters in a line of type appear to stand.
   基线
  虚设的水平线。所有字符在视觉上都齐列在它之上。
   
   
  Base paper
  Paper to which a coating is to be added. Also called Body paper, Body stock.
   原纸
  用来加上涂剂的基层纸。
   
   
  BASIC
  Acronym for Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instrction Code. A widely used high-level computer programming language.
   单式语言
  英文是一个字首字,是“初学者通用简化代码”的意思。它是一种十分普遍的高阶层电脑程式设计语言。
   
   
  Basic size
  American paper term for the specified sheet size used to define Basis weight. Different papers have different basic sizes.
   基本纸度
  美国用的纸张术语,表达某个纸度和确定它的基重。不同种类的纸,有不同的基本纸度。
   
   
  Basis weight
  (1) In America, the weight in pounds per ream of paper cut to basic size. (2) With ISO range of papers, it is the weight of paper in grams per square meter. Also called Substance.
   基重
  (1)在美国,基重是某基本纸度的每拈重量,以磅为单位。(2)属国际标准的纸,基重是一平方米的重量,以克为单位。写法是克每平方米。亦称定量。
   
   
  Bastard progressives
  Set of progressive proofs not in accordance with the actual printing sequence, but showing every possible colour combination of the four process colours. See Progressive Proofs.
   破格演色稿
  这是一套不照实际印刷先后次序的演色稿。显示出四色套印的每一个组合的色彩效果。参阅演色稿样。
   
   
  Bastard size
  Non-standard size of any material or format.
   失度
  没有标准规格的材料或版式。
   
   
  Bastard title
  See Half title.
   前扉页
  参阅下文之简书名。
   
   
  Batch processing
  Method of computer processing where input data is collected into batches before processing, as distinct from Real tine processing.
   成批处理
  电脑处理数据的一种方式。输入的数据集中成一批,然后处理。有别于实时处理。
   
   
  Batter
  Broken or damaged type, blocks or plates.
   烂字/烂版
  损坏或破烂的铅字,电版或版片。
   
   
  Baud
  Number of computer bits transmitted per second over a data communications channel.
   波德
  在一个数据通信通道中,每秒种所传送的数元量。
   
   
  Baudot code
  A code for the transmission of data in which five bits represent one character. Baudot code was conceived by Emile Baudot, an early Grench telegraphic engineer, and is used in many teleprinter systems.
   波德码
  一种以五数元代表一字符的数据通信代码。波德码是一位早期的法国电报工程师艾美波德的构思,很多电传打字机都采用这个体制。
   
   
  Baume hydrometer
  Hydromter for industrial use, invented by the French chemist Antoine Baume, to determine the specific gravity (relative density) of liquidss.
   波美比重计
  工业用的比重计。是法国化学家安东尼波美的发明,用来测量液体的比重(相对密度)。
  
   
   
   
  
   B
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
   BC
  Short for before Christ. Usually set in small caps and after the figures(e.g. 150 BC).
   公元前
  英文是基督降生前和意思。排字时(英文),应用小型大写,放于年份之后。
   
   
  Beard
  (1) In English typographic term, it is that part of a piece of type which accommodates the descender of those lower case letters h,j,p,q and y. ALso called Descender space. (2) In American typographic term, it is the sloping part between the type face and the shoulder of a type. It has exactly the same meaning as the English typographic term Bevel.
   (1)字颔,(2)斜边
  (1)是英国印刷字体学的名词。指容纳英文小写字母如g,j,p,q和y的下降部份。(2)斜边是美国印刷字体学的名词。指字面和字肩的倾斜表面。英国则用另一个术语来表达斜边。
   
   
  Bearers
  (1) On flat bed letterpress printing machine, strip of type-high metal placed outside, the live matter of the forme to even up the printing pressure and prevent the ink rollers from slurring the forme. (2) On rotary printing presses, metal rims beside the gears on which the printing cylinder rides. The bearers make rolling contact for proper meshing of the driving gears when pressure was applied.
   肩铁
  (1)是和活字高度相等的金属条。在平台活版印刷机上,它被放置于字版印刷度之外,用来平衡压力和防止墨辘把印版拖花。(2)是轮转式印刷机上各圆筒两旁的金属边,在带动齿轮旁边,当圆筒加压转动时,它们互相接触,以确保带动轮的啮合。
   
   
  Beater
  Machine to confer by mechanical means on pulps in aqueous suspension the qualities necessary to make paper or board of the required characteristics. Also called Dutch engine. See Hollander.
   打浆机
  用机械方式把悬浮于水中的纸浆压磨成符合造某类纸或板纸的要求的机器。参阅荷兰式打浆机。
   
   
  Beater-sized paper
  Paper for which the pulp has been made more or less waterproof by the addition of rosin size and alum to the stock in the beater. Alse called Engine-sized paper.
   机内施胶纸
  把松香和明矾在打浆时加入马铃薯浆内,使纸具有一些防止洇水性质。
   
   
  Beater plate
  See Bed plate.
   底刀床
  参阅下文。
   
   
  Beater sizing
  Process of sizing paper by application of sizing materials in the beater, or to the furnish prionr to sheet formation, as distinguished from surface sizing or tub sizing.
   机内施胶
  抄纸前,在打浆机内或在配料内加胶的操作,有别于表面施胶和槽法施胶。
   
   
  Beating
  Mechanical treatment of fibrous materials in a beater or refiner to make the fibres suitably frayed out but not cut short much of them. These are properties necessary for the manufacture of a definite quality of paper or board.
   打浆
  在打浆机或精磨机上用机械方法把纤维素材料处理,使纤维适度的起丝但不致于把它切得太短,配合生产某类纸或板纸所需的特性。
   
   
  Bed
  Flat part or table of a letterpress printing machine on which the forme is loked for printing. Also called Type bed.
   版台
  活版印刷机上承载印版及将它锁稳印刷的平台部份。
   
   
  Bed plate 
  Metallic plate in which bronze or steel knives are fitted, set dirrctly underneath the beater roll of the hollander. Pulp fibres are creshed between the bars of teh roll and the knives of the bed plate. Also called Beater plate.
   底刀床
  在荷兰式打浆机内打浆轮下面的金属底床,它上面装上青铜或钢刀片。它连同打浆轮的磨条把纸浆纤维在两者间压磨。
   
   
  Bell code 
  A TTS code first used to ring a bell to announce an incoming tape transmission; now used as a flag or precedence code.
   报警码
  初时是电传打字机所用的代码,使电铃发出响声,表示输入纸带开始传送。现在则用作为标记或前置代码。
   
   
  Bellows
  The folding portions which unite the lens and image plane of process cameras.
   暗箱
  制版照相机上可以伸缩的部份,它连接起镜头和影像平面。
   
   
  Belly
  The front part or nick side of type. 
   字腹
  字粒的前面或缺刻面。
   
   
  Benday process
  A method of mechanically transferring dots or texture pattrens to produce tonal value in line drawings. Named after Benjamin Day, who invented the method in 1897. The pattern so used is also called Benday tint which is now better known as Screen tint.
   本戴制版法
  用机械方法把网点或纹理图案转移到线条画上以产生明暗色调的效果。是本杰明戴在1879年的发明。他所用的图案亦称为本戴淡色调,但现在则称为平网色调。
   
   
  Benzene
  Clear, colourless, flammable volatile spirit. It is narotic and toxic, obtained when soft coal is heated in the absence of air, used as a medium for carrying gravure inks.
   苯
  是透明,无色,可燃烧,挥发性酒精。它具麻醉性和有毒。是软煤在无空气下加热生成。用作凹版印刷油墨的介质。
   
   
  Bevel
  The sloping surface of a type running up from the shoulder to the face. See Beard.
   斜边
  是连接字面和字肩间的倾斜表面。
   
   
  Bevel gears 
  gears which connect two shafts at right angles. 
   伞齿轮
  连接直角相交两轴的齿轮。
  
   
   
   
  Bible paper
  A thin, opaque, high-tensile strength book paper used where low bulk is essential; for bibles, directory, dictionary, encyclopedias, etc. Basis weights normally range from 14 to 30 pounds. Another term for such a quality is India paper.
   圣经纸
  一种薄,不透明,抗张力度强的书纸。要减少书厚时就要采用它;例如圣经、名册、字典和百科全书等等。基重由14至30 磅不等。亦称印度纸。
   
   
  Bibiography
  List of books and articles realting to a written work, usually given at the end of the work. Each item in the list may include details of author, title, publisher, etc.
   参考书目
  和某一著作有关的书籍和文献的名单;通常在该著作之后列出。名单上的每一项都详细的把作者,书名和出版社等列出。
   
   
  Binary
  Characterised by having two different components, or by having only two alternatives or values available; sometimes used synonymously with Binary system.
   二态
  其特点是只有两种不同的成份,或只容许两个更换或数值作选择。亦可以把它作二进制的解释。
   
   
  Binary digit
  The digits used in the binary number system; i.e.: a 0 or a 1.
   二进制数字
  是二进制数所用的数字;它们是“0”或“1”。
   
   
  Binary system
  A numbering system written in base 2 notation (i.e. using only the digits 1 and 0). For example, the binary numbers 1010 and 101011 is 10 and 43 is decimal respectively. 
   二进制
  是2的指数来定“位数”的记数法。(即是只用数字1或0)。例如二进制的1010和101011,分别相等于十进制的10和43。
   
   
  Binder 
  (1) Device for holding loose-leaf sheets. (2) Person who does bindery work. (3) Adhesive agent in an ink, usually a varnish or resin. Also called Binding agent.
   (1)活页夹,(2)装订工,(3)结合剂
  (1)把散张书页夹紧一起的装置。(2)装订书本的工人。(3)油墨内的粘合剂,通常是清漆或树脂。
   
   
  Bindery
  Place where binding is carried out. 
   装订工场
  装订书本的地方。
   
   
  Binding
  The process of fastening printed sheets together and securing them in a cover.
   装订
  将印好的书页联缀一起并加上书皮使其稳固的方法。
   
   
  Binding agent
  See Binder.
   结合剂
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Binding board
  Board used in the covers of a case-bound book. Usually good quality and single-ply.
   书面板纸
  精装书央所用的板纸,通常是高品质的单层板纸。
   
   
  
   B
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
   Bit
  A contraction of binary digit. Used as a unit of measurement for informations. A bit (1 or 0 ) is the smallest unit os information that a computer can hold. The value represents a simple two-way choice, such as yes or no, on or off ,positive or negative ,something or nothing. Any bi-conditional device, such as a memory core, is able to store a single bit.
   数元
  英文是把“二进制数字”一词缩写而成。用作量度信息的单位。一数元(1或0)是电脑所能接受的最小信息,它代表一项简单的二择一的选择。例如是或否,开或关,正或负,有或无等。任何的双重条件的装置,例如磁心贮记,都可以存贮一数元。
   
   
  Bite 
  Stage in the process of etching a metal block or plate with acid. Each application of the acid increases the depth of the etch and is called a "bite".
   蚀刻
  用酸腐蚀金属版片或电版的一个阶段。每用酸腐蚀一次,腐蚀深度便增加一些,称为蚀刻一次。
   
   
  Bitmapped display
  A display whose image is a representation of bits in an area of RAM called the screen buffer. With such a display, each dot, or pixel, on the screen corresponds, or is "mapped," to a bit in the screen buffer.
   数元图记显示
  影像以数元方式贮在荧幕缓冲器内。它占用即时存取贮记器内的一范围。用这个显示方法,萤幕上的每一点或光点相对或“图记”于荧幕缓冲器内的一数元。
   
   
  Bi-directional printing
  Movement both from left to right and right to left in a line printing machine, thus increing output. (Conventional printing machines only move left to right).
   双向印字
  在行式印字机内,从左至右然后从右至左的印字方式,以增速度。(传统的印字机只可以从左至右的印字)。
   
   
  Bi-metal plate
  Lithographic plate where the printing image area base is usually brass or copper, and the non-printing area is usually stainless steel or chromium. Used for printing long runs.
   双层金属版
  印纹部份常用黄铜或铜为底层,非印纹部份常用不绣钢或铬为面层的柯式印版。大数量印刷时所用的版材。
   
   
  Black letter
  A type style based upon a style of handwriting popular in the fifteenth century. Also called Gothic.
   古黑体
  一种仿十五世纪时浒的手写字体而设计的印刷字体。亦称哥德体。
   
   
  Black printer
  One of the four printing plates in a subtractive colour process which is to be printed in black ink to give correct neutral tones and detail.
   黑版
  减色彩印法中的四张印版之一。它需用黑墨施印,使中性色调和细节能够正确的表现出来。
   
   
  Black-step collation
  Method of ensuring sections of a publication are gathered in the correct sequence. The spine of each section is printed with a rectangle or short thick rule called collation mark. The position of the mark on each section is such that when the sine of the complete publication is viewed, the marks form a stepped pattern.
   黑梯级查帖法
  确保书本各帖都依照正确次序集合齐全的方法。在每帖的帖脊印上称为帖标的黑色方块或粗黑短线。各帖的帖标特别编排,使齐帖后的书脊有着梯级形图案,方便检查。
   
   
  Blade coater
  Machine for blade coating.
   刮刀涂布机
  用刮刀把涂剂涂布的机器。
   
   
  Blade coating
  Paper coating method where a surplus of coating is applied to the web and then levelled and controlled by a flexible steel blade. 
   刮刀涂布
  一种涂布方法。把大量的涂剂放于纸卷上面,然后把多余的涂剂用软性刮刀刮去,同时平滑涂层表面。
   
   
  Blade scratch 
  Paper defect where there is a hair-like indentation in a coated surface running in grain direction. Caused by a particle lodged behind the blade during coating.
   刮刀痕
  顺着纸纹方向,纸面的涂层有着像头发丝的凹痕故障。起因是在涂布时有一颗料积聚在刮刀后面所致。
   
   
  Blade streak
  Paper defect which is similar to a blade scratch but larger and caused by a larger particle.
   刮刀条纹
  和刮刀痕相似的纸张故障,但较为明显。因为它是由较大颗粒的积聚而引起的。
   
   
  Blanket 
  A rubber-surfaced sheet clamped around the cylinder of an offset litho printing press which transfers the printing image from plate to substrate.
   胶布
  夹紧于柯式印刷机圆筒上的一张物料,用来把印纹从印版转印到承印物上。
   
   
  Blanket cylinder
  In an offset printing press, the cylinder around which the blanket is clamped.
   胶布圆筒
  柯式印刷机上被胶布环绕而夹紧的圆筒。
   
   
  Blanket thickness gauge
  An instrument for measuring the thickness of a blanket.
   胶布厚度计
  量度胶布厚度的仪器。
   
   
  Blanket wash
  A solvent used for cleaning ink from the offset blanket.
   洗胶布液
  清洗胶布上油墨的一种溶剂。
   
   
  Blanket-to-blanket press
  A configuration of offset prisses where two blanket cylinders act as opposing impression cylinders printing both sides of the sheet or web simultaneously.
   胶布互压式印刷机
  是柯式印刷机的一种结构。两个胶布圆筒互压,分别为对方的压力圆筒,同时压鲺纸或卷筒纸的两面。
   
   
  
   B
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
   Bleaching
  (1) Chemical process on photographic materials, which converts the black metallic silver image into a colourless silver complex. Usually the first stage in toning and intensification processes, and an important stage in most colour chemical developing systems. (2) Chemical process on paper-making to whiten the pulp.
   漂白
  (1)照相材料的化学处理方法。它把黑色金属银粒的影像变成无色的银粒复合物。是大多数彩色投影法里的主要步骤;亦是一般加厚和加色过程里的第一个步骤。
  
  (2)造纸过程里,漂白纸浆的方法。
   
   
  Bleed
  Area of colours or photographs that extend biyond the cut edge of a page. the bleed allowance beyond the trimmed size is usually 3 mm or 1/8 inch.
   出界(出血)
  相贬或底色范围伸出页边裁切线以外者。出界宽限通常是完成尺寸加3毫米或1/8时。
   
   
  Bleeding
  The extraction from a lithographic ink, by the water, of some colourant which is not sufficiently insoluble in water. Also refer to the phenomenon that the colourant in an ink being soluble in the solverns during varnishing or laminating.
   洇色
  柯式油墨中的色剂稍溶于水而被水引出的现象。亦指油墨中的色剂溶于过刚叫用的容几说早光或过胶所造成的现象。
   
   
  Blind
  A term specificly used in bookbinding to indicate book cases or covers that are blocked, stamped or embossed without the use of ik or foil.
   素印封面
  装订用述语。指不用油墨或色印凹纹或凸纹于书壳或书皮上。
   
   
  Blind blocking
  A general term to describe the process of making a recess image on paper or board using an un-inked block. Called Blind Stamping in America.
   素压印
  泛指用不着墨的电版在纸品上压印,造成凹纹效果的方法。
   
   
  Blind embossing
  A general term for the process of raising an image using an un-inked block or die on paper or board. See Embossing.
   素压浮凸
  泛指用不着墨的电 或模在纸品上压成凸纹效果的方法。参看浮凸压印。
   
   
  Blind keyboard
  Typesetting keyboard that does not provide a visual record or a hard copy of the keying.
   盲键盘
  排字用键盘 。按键后,并无萤幕或硬卷记录。
   
   
  blind image
  An image on a lithographic plate which does not accept ink. Also called Blinding.
   印版拒墨
  柯式印版的纹不能着墨的情况。简称拒墨。
   
   
  Blind stamping
  See Blind blocking.
   素压印
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Blinding
  See Blind image.
   拒墨 
  参阅印版拒墨。
   
   
  Blister ink
  Ink which will blister when heated to a certain temperature. Used for blister printing.
   发泡墨
  发泡印刷用的油墨。加热到某一温度时就会膨胀的油墨。
   
   
  Blister pack
  (1) Packaging method for small retail goods, toys, etc. A pre-shaped hollow case of clear plastic is heat sealed to enclose goods onto a backing board which have been printed and coated with blister pack solution. (2) A sheet of plastic holding bubbles of air which form a cushion of protection for packing fragile materials.
   (1)成形包装,(2)气珠胶
  (1)用来包装琐细零售物品和玩具等的方法。把物品放在一个定形透明胶壳内,用热力把它封贴在一片印好和涂上压索油的纸板上。
  
  (2)用来包装易碎物品的夹层胶料。夹在胶料中的气珠就是包装的护垫。
   
   
  Blister Printing
  Printing using blister ink to give a relief image after heating. Used for decoration and for printing braille.
   发泡印刷 
  用发泡印刷,经过加热后,造成凸起的印纹。装饰品或盲文印刷品用。
   
   
  Blistering
  Paper defect usually occurring during heatset drying of coated papers where clearly defined bubbles form on both sides of the sheet. It is caused by the moisture in the paper trapped under coating layer. When heated, it expands rather then evaporate to form bubbles. 
   起泡
  印刷后的粉纸,用热固干燥时所常见的故障。纸的两面有明显的泡出现。成因是纸内的水气被困于粉层里,受热时只能膨胀而不能挥发,所以造成气泡。
   
   
  Block
  (1) A relief printing surface for letterpress. It may be wood-cuts, electros, or stereos, but more commonly refer to an etched copper or zinc plate, from which an illustration or text is printed. (2) Computer term for a group of information which can be singled out as a unit for processing.
   (1)版块(电版),(2)信息组
  (1)活版印刷用的文字或圆片版。它可以是木刻,电铸版或铅铸版,但通常指铜、腐蚀(电版)。
  
  (2)电脑用的术语。指可为一个单传送的一组信息。
   
   
  Block diagram
  A diagram of a system, instrument, computer, or program in which selected portions are represented by annotated boxesand interconnecting lines.
   框图
  用线框把一个系统,仪器,电脑或程式的主要部份围绕,并用线把它们注 的图示。
   
   
  Blocking
  (1) To make an impression on paper or board from a block which are heated and a foil is used. Called Hot stamping in America. (2) A serious fault where stack of printed sheets stick together by the ink or varnish due to incomplete drying.
   (1)烫印,(2)成块
  (1)将版块(通常是电版)加热把色箔压印到纸品面上。
  
  (2)最重的印刷故障。印刷后的纸堆,因光油墨干燥不的关系,使纸张粘合成块。
   
   
  Blocking-out
  The operation of eliminating undesirable backgrounds and portions of negatives by opaquing or masking the image. See Dropout.
   退地
  把底片上不需要的地方或背景用遮光液或用遮片掩盖的操作。参阅光部退地。
   
   
  Blotting paper
  A grade of highly absorbent papers for absorbing ink after writing.
   吸水纸
  一类吸收性较强的纸。作吸收书写后的墨水用。
   
   
  Blow up
  A photographic enlargement of copy such as photography, artwork or type.
   放大
  用照相方法把原稿如相片,美术稿或字体等放大。
   
   
  
   B
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
   Blue key
  A print on vinyl plastic sheet of a basic design containing all elements with register marks. It is coloured blue and used as a guide for film assembly of process colour sets to register.
   蓝套色图
  把基本设计元素和套正记号晒印在乙烯类胶片上,涂上蓝色,用来作拼色四大版时的定位指南。
   
   
  Blue printer
  One of the four pronting plates in a subtractive colour process which is to be printed in cyan ink.
   蓝版
  减色彩印法的四张印版之一。它需用青蓝色墨印刷。
   
   
  Blueline (Blues)
  Contact dyeline proof made on paper from stripped-up film. Used for general checking purposes especially imposition. The name comes from the colour used when the process was invented. Many colours are now avaiable, the print may be black, red or brown; one or two sided; negative or positive. Also called Diazo print, Ozalid print or Dyelines in UK. Called Brownline, Browns or VaNDYKES in US.
   蓝稿样
  用拼好的菲林接触晒印在纸上的染料着色稿样。版前,用来核对摆版和图像位置。发明这个方法时及的是蓝色,故名。现在这类稿样有多种颜色。它可以是墨色、红色、或棕色,单面或双面,阳图或阴图。英国称为重稿样,奥沙里稿样或云稿样。
   
   
  Blueprint
  The photoprint method used to duplicate mechanical and architectural drawings in the same size, shouing white lines on a blue background.
   蓝图
  用晒印法制成的机械或建筑图的原大复制图,在蓝底色上显出白色线条。
   
   
  Blurb
  Short note by the publisher or author describing and recommending a book and introducing the author. It is usually printed on the jacket flaps.
   勒口文
  出版社或作者撰写的短文,介绍作者或作广告式的推荐。它通常印在书本护封的勒口内。
   
   
  Board
  A general term for paper above 220 g/sq.m in UK. In US, it refers to paper thicker than one hundredth of an inch. The term includes numerous grades; some of one furnish throughout, others made from comnining several plys of same or different furnishes. Boards may be uncoated or coated one or both sides. Some types of board are: Bristol board, Chip board, Cloth centered board, Duplex board, Grey board, Ivory board, Mill board, Paste board, and Straw board, etc. See Card. 
   纸板
  一个广义名词。英国以定量计算,泛指超过220克每平方米的纸。美国以纸厚计算,泛指厚过百分之一寸的纸。它包括多种品质:一些是用同一配料造成;另一些是裱合数层相同或不同配料的纸造成。纸板更可以加上涂剂,涂布单面可两面。常用的纸板有:上等纸弧,粗纸板,布心纸板,双面白纸板,灰纸板,象牙白纸板,书皮纸板,裱糊纸板和草纸板等等。参阅咭纸。
   
   
  Body
  (1) The distance between the front and the back of a piece of type. Same as type size. See Body size. (2) The main section of a book, brochure, article, or other text material. Also called Body matter. (3) General ink-making term describing the property of ther ink such as a stout body or soft body. 
   (1)字身,(2)正文,(3)墨身
  (1)铅字粒字腹到字背的距离。相等于字大小。参阅字身大小。(2)书籍,小册子,论文或其他文字稿的主要部份。(3)制墨用的俗语,描述墨的质地。例如墨身或墨身软等。
   
   
  Body copy
  Copy for the body matter.
   正文原稿
  排正文的文字原稿。
   
   
  Body matter
  See Body.
   正文
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Body paper
  See Base paper.
   原纸
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Body size
  In typography, body size equals type size plus leading. It is the amount of space required for the Film advance or Paper feed in phototypesetting.
   字身大小
  在印刷字体学里,字身大小等于字大小加行隔。在照相排字方面,字身大小即是菲林前向量或相纸进给量。
   
   
  Body stock
  See Base paper.
   原纸
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Body type
  Type style used in the main text of a book, article, or other printed piece.
   正文字体
  用来排书籍,论文或其他文章的字体。
   
   
  Bold
  Typographic term for a geavier than standard weight of a type face.
   黑体
  印刷字体学的名词,指笔划较标准的字体为粗的字体。
   
   
  Bolt
  Any folded edge of a section other than the binding fold.
   摺口
  在一帖内,除帖脊外的屈摺部份。
   
   
  Bond
  Range of heavier substance printing and weiting papers often used for letterheads, invoices, etc. Usual range is from 63 g/sq.m to 120 g/sq.m.
   高级书写纸
  定量从63克到120克每米平米之间的印刷和书写纸张,俗称二号纸。常作信笺,发票等用。
   
   
  Book block 
  Bool at the binding stage after gathering, sreing and gluing but before other operations for adding the covers.
   书芯
  在装订过程中,配帖,锁线和胶脊后的书。跟着便进行其他工序加上书皮或书壳。
   
   
  Bool jacket
  Protective weap-round to a book, usually made of paper. Also called Jacket, Dust jacket.
   护封
  包卷书本的保护封套。它通常用纸造成。
   
   
  Book paper
  Uncoated paper with characteristics good for book printing but also used more generally for other purposes.
   书纸
  没有加上涂层的纸张,它的特性适合印制书本,但亦常用作其他一般用途。
   
   
  Booklet
  A book having not many pages, commonly bound in paper covers. Also called Brochure, Pamphlet.
   小册子
  通常是平装,用纸用书皮和页数不多的书。
   
   
  Bookwork
  Production of books.
   书籍制作
  生产书本的工作。
   
   
  Boot 
  To intiate operation of a ciputer with the bootstrap program.
   开机引导
  用引导程式使电脑进入操作状态。
   
   
  Bootstrap
  The instructions that provide niwly started computer with the basicinformation it needs to begin operation, or to begin reading the rest of its program from an input device. The bootstrap may be entered by the computer operator or be permanently stored in read-only memory.
   引导程式
  是一些指令,使刚开支的电脑具有必需信息来进行操作,或继续从输入机读入电脑程式。引导程式可以由操作员输入,亦可以永久的贮存于唯读贮记器内。
   
   
  Border
  Decorative design usually edging the page or type. 
   花边
  用来围绕页边或字体的装饰设计。
   
   
  Border zone theory
  A theory to explain why dot gain in fine screen is more seerious than in coarse screen. The concept is that dot gain always occurs in border xones of equal width around the dots. The width of this broadened border xone is independent of the size of the dots. For a single dot, the gain on coarse screen is greater than fine screen because the coarse screen dot is larger and has a longer border zone. But within a unit area, fine screen has many small dots while coarse screen has less, therefore, the sum of circumfereces of small dots in fine screen is much greater than the sum os circumferences of large dots in coarse screen. That is why fine screen has a greater dot gain than coarse screen.
   周界理论
  解释幼网的网点增大情况比粗网严重的理论。其概念是网点的增大是沿着网蹼的圆周发生,无论网点大小,增大的周界湿度是相同的。以单一个网点计,幼网的网点小,粗网的网点大,所以幼网增大了的周界比粗网短,即是粗网的网点增大率和比较粗网各点的增大总和为长,所以幼网有较大的网点增大率。
   
   
  Bound book
  A book in which the boards of the cover have first been attached to the book, the covering of leather, cloth, or other material being then affixed to the boards. Bound bookl being entirely hand made, are more expensive to produce and much stronger than cased books. See Full bound, Half bound and quarter bound.
   手精装
  先把作书皮用的纸板装在书芯上,然后裱上包封用的皮,布或其他材料。由于全部是手工制作,成本比较书壳式的精装为贵,但亦较为结实。参阅全装,半装和四分之一装。
   
   
  Bound volume
  The binding together of many copies of printed publications such as magazines into one single copy.
   合订本
  把许多已经印制成书的出版物如杂志等再合订在一起。
   
   
  
   B
  
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
   Bowl
  Typographical descriptive term for the loop in a letter that enclose a counter as in a "g" or "p". 
   字碗
  印刷字体学的术语。指围着英文字母的字谷如g或p等的圈形部份。
   
   
  Box
  Typographical term meaning rules which enclosed type matter as a frame.
   线框
  印刷字体学的术语。指用线作框把字体围绕。
   
   
  Boxed head
  A headline or title within a box.
   框标题
  加上线框的标题或题目。
   
  Boxhead
  The space at head of each column in a ruled table where heading is to be inserted.
   线表头
  线表栏头部份的空位,用来加上项目。
   
   
  Brace
  Form of bracket,mainly used to group many items under a heading other than for mathematics.
   大括号
  是括号的一种。除作数学符号外,主要用来把多项资料包括在一个项目内。
   
   
  Brackets
  Pairs of marks used for enclosing words, figures,etc.These are Parentheses,Square brackets, Angle brackets and Brace.
   括号
  一对用来包括文字、数字等的符号。括号有小括号、中括号、角括号和大括号。
   
   
  Braille printing
  A form of blind embossing to produce raised round marks which blind people can read by touching.
   盲文印刷
  用素压浮凸的形式,压出凸起的圆点。失明人士可凭触摸而阅读。
   
   
  Brass
  (1) Alloy of copper with tin or zinc.
  (2) A cut die made from metal used for blocking.
   (1)黄铜,(2)烫印铜模
  (1)铜和锡或锌所成的合金。
  
  (2)用来烫印的雕刻金属模。
   
   
  Brayer
  Small hand roller for applying ink to type when proofing.
   手墨辘
  压印铅字稿样时,用手推加墨的小墨辘。
   
   
  Break for colour
  American term meaning to colour separate the mechanical into printing colours.
   拆色
  美国术语。把拼贴稿照印刷颜色拆开。
   
   
  Breaking length
  Paper term for measurement of the limiting length of a uniformly wide strip of paper where the strip held by one end breaks due to its own weight.
   裂断长
  量度纸张特性的造纸术语。指一固定阔度的纸,在悬起一端时,因纸本身的重量而裂断的长度。
   
   
  Breaking strength
  The quality of paper by specifying its breaking length in metre.
   裂断强度
  以纸张的裂断长(米)来表达纸张品质。
   
   
  Brightness
  (1) Measure of a paper's reflectance with a blue light of wavelength 457 nm.This is a standard which readily detect the yellowing of paper. See Whiteness. 
  (2) Photographic term for the light reflected by the copy. Measured in cd/sq.cm.Also called Luminance. 
   亮度
  (1) 用波长457微米的蓝光量度纸张的反光强度。这个标准能迅速的测量纸的黄色程度。参阅白度。
  
  (2) 照相光学名词。指从原稿反射的光线强度。以烛光每平方厘米计算。
   
   
  Bristol board 
  The original bristol board, made in Bristol, England was a pasted basted board made of rag content paper. Now, generally refer to good quality paperboard with smooth finish.
   上等纸板(布里斯托纸板)
  原本的上等纸板是用碎布材料的纸裱贴和拷压而成,在英国的布里斯托制造。现时则泛指任何滑面,优质的纸板。
   
   
  Broadband
  A band of light wave or sound wave with a wide range of frequencies.
   阔波段
  频率范围广的一段光波或声波。
   
   
  Broadband filter
  A filter that transmits a range of light waves.see Narrowband filter.
   阔波段滤片
  能让一个范围的光波透过的滤片。参阅窄波段滤片。
   
   
  Broadsheet
  (1) Any sheet in its basic size, i.e.not folded or cut.
  (2) In newspapers,it refers to a large format such as Hong Kong's daily and evening newspapers. Also called Broadside in America. see Tabloid.
   (1)原张纸,(2)大报
  (1)基本纸度的纸,即是未经折或切的纸。
  
  (2) 报业术语。指大度的报纸如香港的日报和晚报。参阅小报。
   
   
  Broadside
  America term. see Broadsheet.
   大报
  参阅上文。
   
   
  Brochure
  From the French, meaning something stitched together.see Booklet.
   小册子
  是法国词语。指连缀一起的事物。参阅上文。
   
   
  Broke
  Defective paper discarded during manufacture and usually re-pulped. Usually marked xxx. see Retree.
   损纸
  在造纸时废弃的坏纸。通常用三个X作记号,再作浆化。参阅次等纸。


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