Series of finished trimmed sizes in ISO(International Standardisation Organisation)ranges.See Paper size.
An abbreviation for author's alteration.It is commonly used in America to identify any alteration in text or illustrative matter which is not a printer's error as author's alteration usually charged as extra.Similar English term is Author's correction.
General term for various optical errors in photographic lenses which prevent the lens from giving good definition.See Astigmatism , Chromatic aberration ,Curvature of field , Distortion ,Spherical aberration ,Coma.
Ability of a surface,such as a printed surface,or a coated surface to withstand rubbing and scuffing. Also called Abrasive resistance, Scuff resistance,Rub resistance, Abrasiveness.
Test designed to determine the ability to withstand the effects of rubbing and scuffing of printing ink.
Good grade of manila or other strong paper,coated with glue and an abrasive material,such as sand,emery or carborundum.Also called Emery paper,Sand paper.
See Abrasion resistance.
See Abrasion resistance.
Pattern of charaters that identifies a unique store location in a computer.Also called Machine address, Specific address.
That property of a material,such as paper and board, which causes it to take up liquids or vapours (e.g.moisture) with which it is in contact.
General term representing a class of bulky papers,spongy and bibulous in character,such as blotting,filter and towelling paper.
(1) Optical term for the partial suppression of light in passage through a transparent or translucent medium or material.(2) Capillarity action of porous materials such as paper and board to to liquids.
Instrument for determining the mean pore radius of a paper.When a strip of paper is hanged in a liquid,the level of the absorbed liquid,the level of the absorbed can be seen.The rate of absorption can be timed.In this way an average pore radius can be calculated.
Marks which are placed above or below English characters to indicate their pronunciation,especially in many non-English languages.Accent may be incorporated in the alphabet to form accented letters and included in a fount as pi characters.Other method uses floating accent which are individual mark added to a character previously setted.
This refers to the obtaining of data from a peripheral unit or retrieving it from a storage device.See Sequential access,Random access.
Series of parallel folds in paper in which each fold turns to the opposite direction from the previous fold,like an accordion.Also called Concertina fold,Fan fold,over and back fold,Zigzag fold.
(1) Transparent plastic sheet placed over a mechanical for overlays.(2) A cheap base materials for flats where humidity variations are not a problem.
Transparent sheet made from cellulose acetate by spreading esterified cellulose onto a highly polished cylinder,so forming a thin film which can be stripped off.It is water proof, and does not burn but melts.Increasingly used for packing purposes.
An inked reproduction proof pulled from type on thin acetate sheeting.Can be use as a positive for making contact negatives,or directly for stripping up a positive flat,and also for checking register or making a transfer of an etched engraving to another sheet of metal.
Volatile,fast-drying solvent used mainly in gravure inks.It is a colourless,flammable liquid with a characteristic smell,miscible with water,alcohol,ether,chloroform and most oils.Also called Dimethyl ketone,Methylacetyl,Propanone,Pyroacetic ether.
Without colour.Black,white and grey are achromatic,but called colours by artist.
A lens which refracts light of most colours equally,i.e.corrected for blue and green light of the primaries.See Apochromatic lens.
A mass under colour removal technique in which black is used to replace those parts of colours that were formed by the combination of the three subtractive primaries,i.e. yellow,magenta and cyan.See CCR,GCR,ICR,PCR.
An acid-proof protective coating applied to metal plates prior to etching designs thereon. Bichromated colloid solutions employed in photoengraving provide acid resists through the action of light on the sensitized surface.
(1) In aqueous solutions, the condition wherein the concentration of hydrogen ions exceeds that of hydroxyl ions. (2) In paper, the condition which results in an acid solution when the paper is treated or extracted with water.
Very thin wood-free or rag content papers used as wrappings for articles likely to tarnish or suffer from any free chemicals or impurities in the wrapping.This term may also be applied equally correctly to such papers as grass-bleached and jewellers' tissues.Specific pH values are important.
Across the grain
The direction at right angle to that of the paper grain.Also called Against the grain,Cross grain,Cross direction.
Chemically active light from are lamps,mercury vapour lamps,photo-flood bulbs (gas filled tungsten filament incandescent lamps),to harden light-sensitive plate coating.
Alkaline liquid to intiate image development in stabilisation processing.See Stabilisation process.
Colouring agent to initiate the formation of colour after chemical action.
This describes the ability of a photographic material to duplicate the transition at a boundary in the original image.See Sharpness.
Accent above the letter e.g.cafe.See Accents.
Latin,short for anno Domini,meaning in the year of our Lord.Usually set in small caps and before the figures (e.g.AD 250).
A fraction made up of three separate parts:numerator,slash,denominator.This method is often used when no mathematical sign and fractions are provided in a fount.
Additive colour mixing
The mixing of additive primaries to match a specific colour.
See Additive primary colours.
Additive primary colours
Refer to the colour of light. Red, green and blue lights are called additive primary colours because by the combination of these three primaries in different proportion,various coloured lights will produce. Also called Additive primaries.
See Additive synthesis.
Three-colour process wherein suitable proportion of red, green and blue lights are blended to form the sensation of white. Also called Additive process.
A character or group of characters which identify a register,a particular section of storage, or some other source or destination permitting it to be accessed correctly,See Absolute address,Base address,Indirect address, Instruction address,Relative address,Symbolic address.
Machine for printing addresses on letters, packaging, etc,for mailing.
A trade name for Addressing machine.See Addressing machine.
A popular method of book binding. The back of the gathered sections are cut off and the leaves are held together by glue or synthetic adhesive.For case bound book,linging-up is required.Also called Perfect binding,Unsewn binding,Flexiback binding,Thermoplastic binding.
A form of typesetting in which the alphabet is printed on a thin sheet of acetate or other material which are coated at the back with pressure sensitive adhesive.The letters are cut apart and applied to artwork. Also called Self-adhesive lettering.
Paper coated on one side with adhesive gum, the adhesive being a dextrin,fish or animal glue,and resin or a blend of any of these, used for stickers, labels,seals,stemps,splices,tapes,etc.Wetting is required when use.Also called Gummed paper.
(1) Specimen of a forth-coming publication sent in advance to editors and critics for review.(2) Copy sent to the composing room ahead of time.Also called Advance sheet.
Advanced feed hole
Refer to sprocket holes of paper tape,which are in line with the leading edge of the code holes.Thus an operator will know if he is loading the tape into the reader with the right end of the tape.Also called Advanced sprocket.
See Advance copy.
Colours which seem to move forward in the reader's vision,usually reds, oranges and some yellows.Also called Warm colour.
Shot for advertisement,usually referred to newspaper and magazine advertising.An abbreviation commonly used in America.
Trade name for a particular type of air brush.See Air brush.
Originally a fine division of fluid or solid particles.By extension a packaging for under pressure packed products,a pressurized packaging.
Natural attraction for, as salt for moisture.
Against the grain
See Across the grain.
The name of an obsolete size of type equivalent to 5.5 point (about 2mm).In United States,newspaper advertisement still use this as a unit to calculate column space,i.e.number of Agate lines of a certain column width.14 agate lines equal 1 inch. See Type size.
Small air pressure gun, shaped like a fountain pen, that sprays paint by means of compressed air. Used to create effects of gradated tone; ideal for retouching photographs.
Air doctor dampening system
A type of dampening system on offset presses consisting of a rubber roller which rotates very fast in a water fountain and throws thick water film on the plate. An air doctor regulates the film of water remaining on the plate.
Miniature sand-blasting hand appliance, using compressed air and pumice for removing superfluous lithographic images from the plate. It erases the images without destroying the texture of the plate.
A device in a drying system, where stream of sir are forced through a narrow slit at high pressure.
(1) According to Tappi(Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, U.S.A.) the average number of seconds required for the displacement of 100ml of air through an area of 6.45 sq.cm.(1sq.in.)of the paper.(2)According to BSI(British Standards Institution)the volume of air which passes through 1 sq.cm.of area of the paper being tested in one second when urged by pressure difference of 1g/sq.cm. This expression also called Air resistance.
See Air permeability.
Light-weight, high grade writing papers invariably made from rag for strength. One of the common usages is for aerogramme.
See Air-brush coating.
A method of coating paper. Coating applied through a roller is levelled and controlled and the excess removed by the air-brush in which a stream of compressed air issues form an orifice. Also called Air-blade coating, Air-knife coating,Air-jet coating.
The control of air humidity, temperature, movement and cleanliness of an ambient environment.
Hand-made and good machine made writing and brown paper, dried slowly by exposure to the air at a uniform temperature. Thus, having moisture content in equilibrium with that of the air.
Method for drying pulp, paper or board, generally carried out by suspending sheets in freely circulating air, or in the web by contact with heated air in a room or in a tunnel as distinct from heated cylinders on the paper machine.
See Air-brush coating.
See Air-brush coating.
Black, brown or grey cover paper for albums, suitable for pasting photographs or other material.
Natural protein, soluble in water and most commonly found in the white of eggs, the colloid used for certain bichromated sensitizers employed in photomechanical process. It is also used as size in gold stamping and application of gold leaves to edges.
Albumin (Albumin) process
Procedure of photomechanical process utilizing a coating of bichromated albumin as a sensitized surface on which images are made by exposing a line or halftone negative followed by development of the inked image with water.
Organic compounds characterized by a hydroxyl group (OH) bonded to a carbon atom. In common parlance, a term for ethyl alcohol. See Methyl alcohol, Ethyl alcohol,Propyl alcohol, Isopropyl alcohol.
Short for Algorithmic language. A compiler language used mainly for scientific applications in computer.
A set of well defined procedural steps for the solution of a particular problem.
To place letters, words, designs, etc on the same horizontal or vertical line.
Typographic term to indicate the position of each type is perfectly aligned across a base line. The term in full is Base alignment.
A soluble base which forms hydroxyl ions in solution. e.g. NaOH or KOH.
The state or quality of being alkaline, having a pH of more than 7. Also called Causticity.
Paper with a high degree of resistance to alkali, used for wrapping and packaging of alkaline materials, such as soaps, adhesives, etc.
Thermosetting resin, obtained as reaction product from glycerol and phthalic acid. When modified with certain vegetable oils such as linseed or tung oil, alkyds form a very important group of vehicles for letterpress or litho inks. Also used for paper coatings and adhesives.
A selection distributor of coded tape or computer generated impulses which directs the tape to a specific tape reader, thus eliminating the handing of tape at each stage.
Set of letters used in a language. For example, Greek alphabet, English alphabet, etc.
The horizontal measurement, in points, of the lower-case alphabet set in type of a particular face and size.
Contraction of 'alphabet and numeric' that refers to any system combining letters and numbers.
An electric current which increases to a definite value, then decreases, finally changing direction and reaching the same value in the opposite direction, then increases again and repeats the changes. One pair of changes is called a cycle. The number of cycles per second is called frequency which usually represented by Hertz *(the symbol is: Hz). Abbreviation:AC.
White crystals, soluble in water. Used for sizing paper.
Aluminium sheet or coil rolled to a thickness of less than 0.15mm.
Base paper of ordinary wrapping weight coated with aluminium powder, sometimes made by incorporating the powder in the beater or a size press. Used for wrapping food products and particularly for cigarettes.
A thin sheet of aluminium used in lithography as a base for plate coating after surface treatment. It is used for both surface type and deep-etch offset plates.
Brand mane for a red-or orange-coated acetate sheet. The coating is strippable; that is, it can be selectively cut and peeled away for masking purpose.
Ammonium bichromate (dichromate)
Salt formed by neutralising chromic acid with ammonia. An orange colour crystal Soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol. Sensitive to actinic light rays; used with a colloid as a sensitiser for lithographic printing plate coatings.
Colourless crystals or a white powder, soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. Used for precipitating silver salts (silver bromide) when mixing with silver nitrate for photographic emulsions. Also called Bromide of ammonia.
The symbol "&" for the word "and".
A device, usually electronic, for increasing the power level of a signal, which is usually an electrical voltage or current. It receives the signal at a low level and sends it out at a high level in identical or nearly identical form.
Amplitude modulation (AM)
The form of modulation in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. In amplitude of na alternating current voltage (or current) contains information. Abbreviation: AM.
Analog (Analogue) computer
A computer which handles continuous varying quantities and solves problems by translating the varying quantities such as speed, temperature, length, etc., into analogous electrical quantities such as voltages and currents. See Digital computer.
Analog (Analogue) signal
In data communication systems, a continuous electrical signal that varies in direct correlation to a signal impressed on a transducer. The frequency or amplitude of the single may vary, for instance, in response to changes in phenomena or characteristics such as sound, light, heat, position of pressure, etc. Generally, voice transmission is in analogue form.
Method to find the nature and/or the amounts of ingredients in a substance.
A relief printing process used by artists to produce prints. The design to be printed is painted directly onto a zinc plate with asphalt varnish which acts as an acid resist. The non-printing area is etched away with dilute nitric acid.
Photographic lens corrected for astigmatism as well as other distortions. Process camera lenses are anastigmats.
Non-rotating metal bar in a rotary press, laid horizontally at 45 degree from the direction of the press. Used to turn the web when feeding from the side, or to by-pass the former in ribbon folding. Usually filled with air and perforated to reduce friction from web travel. Also called Turner bar, Turning bar。
Marks used in pairs for inclosing words or figures, Its use is quite similar to quotation marks but mainly for title of books.
To cut paper to special angles in order to avoid waste in the manufacture of enveloped.
Machine for cutting paper at an angle to the machine direction of the paper.
Angle of view
The largest angle of acceptance of a lens which is capable of producing an image of usable quality on the film.
Angle of wipe
In rotogravure printing press, the angle between the doctor blade and the engraved cylinder.
A unit of measurement of the length of light waves. It is equal to 1/10 of a millimicron.
The maximum circular area in the focal plane that yields a sharp image by a lens. The diameter of the circular area approximates the focal length of the lens which limits the size of a process camera.
Anhydrous plate wash
An anhydrous alcohol, a water-free alcohol used in lithographic deep-etch platemaking to wash the plate before applying tie lacquer image base. Also called Alcohol wash.
Aniline dye carbon paper
A special carbon paper used in the spirit duplicator process.
Quick drying printing ink used on kraft paper, cotton fabric, cellophane, polyethylene, etc. Originally solution of coal-tar dyes in organic solvents (alcohols, esters, ketones, ethers), now with pigments rather than dyes and of two types: spirit inks containing organic solvent as vehicle, and emulsion inks, in which water is the main vehicle. This is an obsolete term and is being replaced by the term Flexographic ink.
Method of rotary relief printing using flexible rubber plates and aniline inks. This is an obsolete term as it is thought that name for a printing process should reflect more on the characteristic of the printing plate rather than the type of ink which is no more viable. This term is being replaced by the terms Flexography, Flexographic printing, Rubber-plate printing.
A special designed ink duct roller for flexographic printing press to meter and control the volume of ink transferred to the printing plate. It is engraved across the full face with minute cell at 60 to 120 lines per cm and to a specified depth, usually 50 micron to 100 micron to provide a better ink distribution. The anilox roller may also used as coating roller in a gravure press and glue applicator in a binding line.
Glue obtained from hides, bones and hoofs of animals; used in bookbinding, in surface sizing of paper to increase its strength and durability. Also called Animal size.
See Animal glue.
Animal tub sized paper
Paper which is sized by passing the sheet through a bath or "tub" of animal size or gelatine. It is common to use the abbreviation "ATS" to represent the words "animal tub sized."
An addition to the main text to provide supplementary informations.
Electrode connected to the positive side of supply current.
Anodized aluminium plate
Aluminium plate for offset printing with a specially prepared surface.See Anodizing.
A process in which the surface of a metal, usually aluminium, is converted by electrolytic oxidation into a coating. The aluminium serves as the anode, and another metal, or carbon, serves as the cathode during anodizing. The electrolyte into which the aluminium is placed is an acid, usually sulfuric or chromic. An electic current is applied to the cell, converting the aluminium surface into a coating of aluminium oxide.
See Anti-fogging agent.
Any good bulking, light weight paper with a rough surface. They are made in white and pale colours and some qualities have a deckle edge.
Antique finish paper
Machine made papers with colour and characteristics similar to old hand-made paper-soft, white or pale in colour, with a rough surface. Also called Antique paper.
See Antique finish paper.
Gelatine is usually used to coat the back surface of the film base to prevent curling of the film. Also called Undercoating.
One of the constituents in the film developer. Potassium bromide is commonly used to restrain the growth of fog during development Other substance, like Sodium bromide are being used also. Also called Antifoggont.
See Anti-halation layer.
Coating on the back of a film. Usually containing a dye or coloured pigment for the purpose of absorbing light rays, thus preventing their reflection from the back surface of the film base to form haloes. Also called Anti-halation backing, Anti-halo layer./
See Anti-halation layer.
Device on the delivery end of the printing machine to prevent setoff by projecting a fine spray of liquid or powder at the sheet.
Spray of liquid which may be a kind of high molecular weight fatty alcohol. It is to allow the static electrical charges on paper or film to leak off by means of conduction.
Circular,adjustabale opening in the front of the camera lens which controls the amount of light allowed to pass on to the film.
Compound lens corrected for spherical aberration and coma. Also called Aplanat.
See Aplanatic lens.
Compound lens corrected for chromatic aberration, i.e. the three primary colours, red, green and blue are corrected. Also called Apochromat.
See Apochromatic lens.
Sign of omission of letter or to show possessive.
Additional matter to a book. It is usually literary matter relating to the subject of the book but not desirable to include in the body of the book.
A computer programme written in order to solve a particular problem encountered by a single user.
A kind of hand-cut film for screen process printing. Aqua film is adhered to the screen mesh with water. It requires the use of a lacquer-base ink for printing.
It is, an etching process on copper or steel by means of nitric acid. In this technique, a thin layer of resin dust is sprinkled on the plate and heated to make it adhere. The etchant penetrates between the fine grains to etch the plate forming countless tiny cells that print in a soft texture.
A vegetable substance, applied in solution to a lithographic surface and dried to produce a hydrophilic film on the non-image area, to help to increase its wettability. Also called Gum arabic.
A vegetable substance, applied in solution to a lithographic surface and dried to prodice a hydrophilic film on the non-image area, to help to increase its wettability. Also called Gum arabic.
Ten figures, zero and numerals 1 through 9, so called because they originated in Arabia, as opposed to Roman numerals.
lamp that produces light by a current arcing across an air gap between two electrodes, usually of carbon. Thus called Carbon arc lamp. Used as a light source in reprophotography and platemaking.
The internal configuration of a computer, including its registers and instruction set, or the overall configuration of a net work.
The storage of informations which are not needed currently but which may be needed in the future, from a computer, or typesetting front end system.
In computerised phototypesetting, the preparation of groups of types for output in such a way that as many elements as possible are in place according to a layout. Depending on the system, area composition may achieve full page make-up, where no paste-up at all is needed.
That part of the computer which carries out calculations and makes logical decisions.
Printing fault in gravure which appears as a mark in the shape of an arrow head on the print. Also called Comet.
All original copy, whether prepared by an artist, camera, or other means. Loosely speaking, any copy to be reproduced.
(1) In printing, paper coated either on one or both sides with a composition of china clay or kindred mineral. Its smooth surface is best for reproducing arts, thus named. it is even called "copper plate paper" because at the time when letterpress printing were dominate, copper blocks were used to print fine halftones. (2) In art and craft, good bulk, high grade paper for drawing and decoration.
（1）粉纸是印刷方面的名词。指单面或双面涂上含有瓷土或类似矿物质物料的纸张。它表面平滑，最适合作美术品的复制印刷用，故亦称美术纸。它又称铜版纸。因为在活版印刷是主流期间，用铜版来印刷精细网点色调是最通行的，故名。 （2） 在劳美方面，美术纸是指厚身。高品质的纸张，绘画或装饰用。
Materials specially prepared in accordance to a design for reproduction purpose. Finished artwork or mechanical usually completely camera ready and include any type matter in position, as well as halftones in the form of pre-screened prints.
Short for American Standards Association, but use as a speed rating system for the sensitivity of photographic materials to light. The light the number, the faster the speed of the film. ASA ratings have a strict arithmetical progression, 400 ASA being twice as fast s 200 ASA in terms of film sensitivity.
That part of the lowercase letter that rises above the body of the letter, as in b, d, f, h, k, l, and t.
Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A standard code used by almost all electronic equipments not made by IBM to represent text inside a computer and to transmit text between computers or between a computer and a peripheral device. It is a code based on a seven-lever or -bit structure, where each of the 128 permutations of the seven bits signifies a particular character. Sometimes an eighth level is used for a parity character. Sometimes an eighth level is used for a parity check. The ASCII character includes the upper and lower case alphabet, numbers, special character can be stored in one byte of memory, i.e. half of a memory word in a 16-bit processor architecture or one full word in an 8-bit computer architecture.
Natural mineral compounds consist of carbon, hydrogen, sulphur and nitrogen or the residue from distillation of petroleum, coal tar or rosin. Their characteristic vary considerably depending on the processing condition and constituent. Used in various inks and varnishes, and as an acid resist in photo-engravings.
Short for Automatic Send and Receive. A teletypewriter having the ability to receive data and produce it on a printer or paper tape, and to send data entered through a keyboard or paper tape.
A program or set of programs that converts into machine language other programs written in an assembly language. See Compiler.
A low level programming language that permits the programmer to use mnemonics or symbolic codes for function codes. Assembly languages are the most like machine langrages, and are therefore extremely difficult for humans to earn and use but extremely efficient for computers to utilizi.
Reference mark used in the text to indicate a footnote. Also used to indicate missing letters or words.
The inability of a lens to focus mutually perpendicular point, such as a cross, onto the same plane. When the vertical line is in focus, the horizontal is out of focus, and vice versa.
Symbols to represent stars of the heavenly body.
Placing of elements in a layout in such a way that all elements do not centered along an imaginable vertical axis down the middle of the page and yet give a pleasing visual effect. Also called Dynamic balance, Informal balance.
Data transmission where the time interval between characters is allowed to vary. Each character is therefore transmitted with "start" and "stop" signals.
Short for Animal Tub Size. See Animal tub sized paper.
Proof to be sent to the author or editor for the purpose of having it returned marked "OK" or "OK with corrections".
Functions of typesetting available on some systems that with a command, leaders will automatically fill up a space.
A device to separate sheets from the stack and forward them to the lays of the sheet fed printing machine.
A machine for producing curved stereotype plated for rotary presses in newspaper printing.
A class of photographic materials which will yield a positive image from a positive original without an intermediate negative stage.
A photographic film embodying the halftone screen, exposed to a continuous-tone image, produces a dot pattern automatically just as if a halftone screen had been used in the camera.
The automatic adjustment of the lens distance to give a sharp image on the film.
The automatic reduction of unwanted white spaces between characters for aesthetic reasons. See Kerning.
System on a web-fed press that joins a new reel of paper to the nearly exhausted web of the previous reel without the necessity for stopping the press for a change-over. Also called Flying paster.
Computer storage situated outside of the computer itself, and includes disc, drum and magnetic tape storage methods. Also called Bulk,Mass,or Bacling storage.
An imaginary dividing line around which design elements are located.
One of the most important groups of chemical pigment for printing ind manufacture. The prime raw materials for azo pigment are a diazo component such as aromatic amine and a coupling component auch as phenolic compound.
A high grade writing paper for ledger and other uses. It has a series of translucent line texture and light blue in colour as its name imply.
Series of ISO paper sizes intended primarily for posters, wall charts and similar items where the A sizes do not meet the requirement economically. The B sizes provide an intermediate size between two A sizes, e.g.B4 is larger than A4 but smaller than A3.
(1) The opposite side of nick or belly of a type. (2) The portion of the binding that connects the front and back cover of a book. On this part, title of the book and name of the publisher is also printed. There are two kinds: a square/flat back or a round back. Each kind either has a hard/stiff back, a flexible back. Called Shelf-back in America. See Backbone, Spine. (34) See Back margin.
Out-of-date issue of magazines or periodicals. Also called Back number.
The sheet covering the end of a book.
Used to indicate the position of a cylinder, plate or sheet. It is the farthest part from the point at whish printing begins. Also called Tail edge, Trailing edge.
That part of a guillotine controlling the position and dimension of paper cutting.
A main step to reinforce the book in case binding. Depending on the quality required, back lining may include gauzing or mulling, paper lining and headanding.
In book work, the white space of a page between the printed image and the binding edge. In some occasion, "back" is simply used to mean back margin. See Gutter.
Finishing operation to the back of a stereotype or an electrotype after backing up to make it smooth and to the required height.
The squeeze pressure between the blanket (offset) cylinder and the impression cylinder, Also called Impression pressure.
Forming the back of a book into a convex curve and thus the fore-edge a concave curve which makes the turning of pages more easy. The curvature of the back may be defined using the bulk of the book.
Back rounding machine
Machine for rounding the back of a book.
One of the two distinct methods of separating papers adopted by automatic feeders for sheet fed presses. The action is to lift and forward the top sheet on a pile by the back edge. See Stream feeding.
In wet-on-wet printing, the condition that the first down ink was unable to trap the second printing ink but part of it was taken away by the second printing ink.
(1) To print on the teverse of a sheet of paper, one side of which has previously been printed. Also called Backing up, Perfecting. (2) To strengthen electrotype by pouring molten metal to its back. Also called Backing up. (3) Extra standby equipment, personnel or copies of data provided in order to maintain capacity in the event of a failure of the primary equipment.
Back up roller
Roller which backs up the impression rooler for additional pressure in gravure printing.
That part of an uncovered book which is fastened together when teh bool is bound. Called Spine in English terminology.
Area behind the main subject.
Computer processing mode which can occur concurrently with main use of the machine, e.g. hyphenation and justification of a text file while other material is being input.
Marking of the shoulder or joint on the spine of a hard cover book into which the cover boards will fit after back rounding.
Ink refuse to flow out of the duct because of the pasty nature and built-up of thixotropy of the letterpress or offset ink. Also called Hanging back.
A base layer to give strength or support to a top layer. Depending on the requirement of the top layer, backing papers vary very much in nature. See Releasing paper.
See Back up.
See Auxiliary storage.
An American term to describe those pages following the main text of a book. It may include Appendix, glossary, Bibliography and Index.Endmatter is the corresponding English term.
Baclward sloping typeface, i.e. opposite to italic.
Liquid containing dissolved ingredients in paper-making process, which passes through the wire when stock is deposited. Also called Whitewater.
Undesirable or incorrect end-of-line htyphenation of a word, e.g. the first or last line of a page.
Fibre sometines used in paper-making obtained from sugar cane.
Loosely wound web.
(1) An instrument for measuring mass. (2) A design concept in which elements are systematically positioned to give a pleasing appearance. See Symmetrical balance, Asymmetrical balance.
Enclosing a stack of printed material with a strong, thin plastic band to secure it. The machine used for this purpose is a Band strapper.
The difference (in hertz) between the upper and lower limits of wave frequencies transmitted over a communications channel. See Brodband,Narrowband, Wideband.
Grade of lightweight writing and printing paper used for correspondence, multi-part sets, etc. made in a range of substances from 45 g/sq.m. heavier weights of otherwise similar material are called Bonds, while lighter weights are called Manifolds.
The main headline, in large type, acress the full width of a page.
A group of lines in different thickness used on packaging and book covers and carry information relating to their contents. It is so designed that a computerised systems such as cash registers and stock control system can read it easily. The two most common types are the American UPC (Universal Products Code) and the EAN ( European Article Number).
A very smooth matt-coated paper used to make repro pulls of type or blocks required for subsequent reproduction.
(1) A substance which reacts with an acid to form a salt and water only, generally an oxide or a hydroxide of a metal. (2) A supporting layer on which coating may be applied.
Imaginary horizontal line on which characters in a line of type appear to stand.
Paper to which a coating is to be added. Also called Body paper, Body stock.
Acronym for Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instrction Code. A widely used high-level computer programming language.
American paper term for the specified sheet size used to define Basis weight. Different papers have different basic sizes.
(1) In America, the weight in pounds per ream of paper cut to basic size. (2) With ISO range of papers, it is the weight of paper in grams per square meter. Also called Substance.
Set of progressive proofs not in accordance with the actual printing sequence, but showing every possible colour combination of the four process colours. See Progressive Proofs.
Non-standard size of any material or format.
See Half title.
Method of computer processing where input data is collected into batches before processing, as distinct from Real tine processing.
Broken or damaged type, blocks or plates.
Number of computer bits transmitted per second over a data communications channel.
A code for the transmission of data in which five bits represent one character. Baudot code was conceived by Emile Baudot, an early Grench telegraphic engineer, and is used in many teleprinter systems.
Hydromter for industrial use, invented by the French chemist Antoine Baume, to determine the specific gravity (relative density) of liquidss.
Short for before Christ. Usually set in small caps and after the figures(e.g. 150 BC).
(1) In English typographic term, it is that part of a piece of type which accommodates the descender of those lower case letters h,j,p,q and y. ALso called Descender space. (2) In American typographic term, it is the sloping part between the type face and the shoulder of a type. It has exactly the same meaning as the English typographic term Bevel.
(1) On flat bed letterpress printing machine, strip of type-high metal placed outside, the live matter of the forme to even up the printing pressure and prevent the ink rollers from slurring the forme. (2) On rotary printing presses, metal rims beside the gears on which the printing cylinder rides. The bearers make rolling contact for proper meshing of the driving gears when pressure was applied.
Machine to confer by mechanical means on pulps in aqueous suspension the qualities necessary to make paper or board of the required characteristics. Also called Dutch engine. See Hollander.
Paper for which the pulp has been made more or less waterproof by the addition of rosin size and alum to the stock in the beater. Alse called Engine-sized paper.
See Bed plate.
Process of sizing paper by application of sizing materials in the beater, or to the furnish prionr to sheet formation, as distinguished from surface sizing or tub sizing.
Mechanical treatment of fibrous materials in a beater or refiner to make the fibres suitably frayed out but not cut short much of them. These are properties necessary for the manufacture of a definite quality of paper or board.
Flat part or table of a letterpress printing machine on which the forme is loked for printing. Also called Type bed.
Metallic plate in which bronze or steel knives are fitted, set dirrctly underneath the beater roll of the hollander. Pulp fibres are creshed between the bars of teh roll and the knives of the bed plate. Also called Beater plate.
A TTS code first used to ring a bell to announce an incoming tape transmission; now used as a flag or precedence code.
The folding portions which unite the lens and image plane of process cameras.
The front part or nick side of type.
A method of mechanically transferring dots or texture pattrens to produce tonal value in line drawings. Named after Benjamin Day, who invented the method in 1897. The pattern so used is also called Benday tint which is now better known as Screen tint.
Clear, colourless, flammable volatile spirit. It is narotic and toxic, obtained when soft coal is heated in the absence of air, used as a medium for carrying gravure inks.
The sloping surface of a type running up from the shoulder to the face. See Beard.
gears which connect two shafts at right angles.
A thin, opaque, high-tensile strength book paper used where low bulk is essential; for bibles, directory, dictionary, encyclopedias, etc. Basis weights normally range from 14 to 30 pounds. Another term for such a quality is India paper.
List of books and articles realting to a written work, usually given at the end of the work. Each item in the list may include details of author, title, publisher, etc.
Characterised by having two different components, or by having only two alternatives or values available; sometimes used synonymously with Binary system.
The digits used in the binary number system; i.e.: a 0 or a 1.
A numbering system written in base 2 notation (i.e. using only the digits 1 and 0). For example, the binary numbers 1010 and 101011 is 10 and 43 is decimal respectively.
(1) Device for holding loose-leaf sheets. (2) Person who does bindery work. (3) Adhesive agent in an ink, usually a varnish or resin. Also called Binding agent.
Place where binding is carried out.
The process of fastening printed sheets together and securing them in a cover.
Board used in the covers of a case-bound book. Usually good quality and single-ply.
A contraction of binary digit. Used as a unit of measurement for informations. A bit (1 or 0 ) is the smallest unit os information that a computer can hold. The value represents a simple two-way choice, such as yes or no, on or off ,positive or negative ,something or nothing. Any bi-conditional device, such as a memory core, is able to store a single bit.
Stage in the process of etching a metal block or plate with acid. Each application of the acid increases the depth of the etch and is called a "bite".
A display whose image is a representation of bits in an area of RAM called the screen buffer. With such a display, each dot, or pixel, on the screen corresponds, or is "mapped," to a bit in the screen buffer.
Movement both from left to right and right to left in a line printing machine, thus increing output. (Conventional printing machines only move left to right).
Lithographic plate where the printing image area base is usually brass or copper, and the non-printing area is usually stainless steel or chromium. Used for printing long runs.
A type style based upon a style of handwriting popular in the fifteenth century. Also called Gothic.
One of the four printing plates in a subtractive colour process which is to be printed in black ink to give correct neutral tones and detail.
Method of ensuring sections of a publication are gathered in the correct sequence. The spine of each section is printed with a rectangle or short thick rule called collation mark. The position of the mark on each section is such that when the sine of the complete publication is viewed, the marks form a stepped pattern.
Machine for blade coating.
Paper coating method where a surplus of coating is applied to the web and then levelled and controlled by a flexible steel blade.
Paper defect where there is a hair-like indentation in a coated surface running in grain direction. Caused by a particle lodged behind the blade during coating.
Paper defect which is similar to a blade scratch but larger and caused by a larger particle.
A rubber-surfaced sheet clamped around the cylinder of an offset litho printing press which transfers the printing image from plate to substrate.
In an offset printing press, the cylinder around which the blanket is clamped.
Blanket thickness gauge
An instrument for measuring the thickness of a blanket.
A solvent used for cleaning ink from the offset blanket.
A configuration of offset prisses where two blanket cylinders act as opposing impression cylinders printing both sides of the sheet or web simultaneously.
(1) Chemical process on photographic materials, which converts the black metallic silver image into a colourless silver complex. Usually the first stage in toning and intensification processes, and an important stage in most colour chemical developing systems. (2) Chemical process on paper-making to whiten the pulp.
Area of colours or photographs that extend biyond the cut edge of a page. the bleed allowance beyond the trimmed size is usually 3 mm or 1/8 inch.
The extraction from a lithographic ink, by the water, of some colourant which is not sufficiently insoluble in water. Also refer to the phenomenon that the colourant in an ink being soluble in the solverns during varnishing or laminating.
A term specificly used in bookbinding to indicate book cases or covers that are blocked, stamped or embossed without the use of ik or foil.
A general term to describe the process of making a recess image on paper or board using an un-inked block. Called Blind Stamping in America.
A general term for the process of raising an image using an un-inked block or die on paper or board. See Embossing.
Typesetting keyboard that does not provide a visual record or a hard copy of the keying.
An image on a lithographic plate which does not accept ink. Also called Blinding.
See Blind blocking.
See Blind image.
Ink which will blister when heated to a certain temperature. Used for blister printing.
(1) Packaging method for small retail goods, toys, etc. A pre-shaped hollow case of clear plastic is heat sealed to enclose goods onto a backing board which have been printed and coated with blister pack solution. (2) A sheet of plastic holding bubbles of air which form a cushion of protection for packing fragile materials.
Printing using blister ink to give a relief image after heating. Used for decoration and for printing braille.
Paper defect usually occurring during heatset drying of coated papers where clearly defined bubbles form on both sides of the sheet. It is caused by the moisture in the paper trapped under coating layer. When heated, it expands rather then evaporate to form bubbles.
(1) A relief printing surface for letterpress. It may be wood-cuts, electros, or stereos, but more commonly refer to an etched copper or zinc plate, from which an illustration or text is printed. (2) Computer term for a group of information which can be singled out as a unit for processing.
A diagram of a system, instrument, computer, or program in which selected portions are represented by annotated boxesand interconnecting lines.
(1) To make an impression on paper or board from a block which are heated and a foil is used. Called Hot stamping in America. (2) A serious fault where stack of printed sheets stick together by the ink or varnish due to incomplete drying.
The operation of eliminating undesirable backgrounds and portions of negatives by opaquing or masking the image. See Dropout.
A grade of highly absorbent papers for absorbing ink after writing.
A photographic enlargement of copy such as photography, artwork or type.
A print on vinyl plastic sheet of a basic design containing all elements with register marks. It is coloured blue and used as a guide for film assembly of process colour sets to register.
One of the four pronting plates in a subtractive colour process which is to be printed in cyan ink.
Contact dyeline proof made on paper from stripped-up film. Used for general checking purposes especially imposition. The name comes from the colour used when the process was invented. Many colours are now avaiable, the print may be black, red or brown; one or two sided; negative or positive. Also called Diazo print, Ozalid print or Dyelines in UK. Called Brownline, Browns or VaNDYKES in US.
The photoprint method used to duplicate mechanical and architectural drawings in the same size, shouing white lines on a blue background.
Short note by the publisher or author describing and recommending a book and introducing the author. It is usually printed on the jacket flaps.
A general term for paper above 220 g/sq.m in UK. In US, it refers to paper thicker than one hundredth of an inch. The term includes numerous grades; some of one furnish throughout, others made from comnining several plys of same or different furnishes. Boards may be uncoated or coated one or both sides. Some types of board are: Bristol board, Chip board, Cloth centered board, Duplex board, Grey board, Ivory board, Mill board, Paste board, and Straw board, etc. See Card.
(1) The distance between the front and the back of a piece of type. Same as type size. See Body size. (2) The main section of a book, brochure, article, or other text material. Also called Body matter. (3) General ink-making term describing the property of ther ink such as a stout body or soft body.
Copy for the body matter.
See Base paper.
In typography, body size equals type size plus leading. It is the amount of space required for the Film advance or Paper feed in phototypesetting.
See Base paper.
Type style used in the main text of a book, article, or other printed piece.
Typographic term for a geavier than standard weight of a type face.
Any folded edge of a section other than the binding fold.
Range of heavier substance printing and weiting papers often used for letterheads, invoices, etc. Usual range is from 63 g/sq.m to 120 g/sq.m.
Bool at the binding stage after gathering, sreing and gluing but before other operations for adding the covers.
Protective weap-round to a book, usually made of paper. Also called Jacket, Dust jacket.
Uncoated paper with characteristics good for book printing but also used more generally for other purposes.
A book having not many pages, commonly bound in paper covers. Also called Brochure, Pamphlet.
Production of books.
To intiate operation of a ciputer with the bootstrap program.
The instructions that provide niwly started computer with the basicinformation it needs to begin operation, or to begin reading the rest of its program from an input device. The bootstrap may be entered by the computer operator or be permanently stored in read-only memory.
Decorative design usually edging the page or type.
Border zone theory
A theory to explain why dot gain in fine screen is more seerious than in coarse screen. The concept is that dot gain always occurs in border xones of equal width around the dots. The width of this broadened border xone is independent of the size of the dots. For a single dot, the gain on coarse screen is greater than fine screen because the coarse screen dot is larger and has a longer border zone. But within a unit area, fine screen has many small dots while coarse screen has less, therefore, the sum of circumfereces of small dots in fine screen is much greater than the sum os circumferences of large dots in coarse screen. That is why fine screen has a greater dot gain than coarse screen.
A book in which the boards of the cover have first been attached to the book, the covering of leather, cloth, or other material being then affixed to the boards. Bound bookl being entirely hand made, are more expensive to produce and much stronger than cased books. See Full bound, Half bound and quarter bound.
The binding together of many copies of printed publications such as magazines into one single copy.
Typographical descriptive term for the loop in a letter that enclose a counter as in a "g" or "p".
Typographical term meaning rules which enclosed type matter as a frame.
A headline or title within a box.
The space at head of each column in a ruled table where heading is to be inserted.
Form of bracket,mainly used to group many items under a heading other than for mathematics.
Pairs of marks used for enclosing words, figures,etc.These are Parentheses,Square brackets, Angle brackets and Brace.
A form of blind embossing to produce raised round marks which blind people can read by touching.
(1) Alloy of copper with tin or zinc.
(2) A cut die made from metal used for blocking.
Small hand roller for applying ink to type when proofing.
Break for colour
American term meaning to colour separate the mechanical into printing colours.
Paper term for measurement of the limiting length of a uniformly wide strip of paper where the strip held by one end breaks due to its own weight.
The quality of paper by specifying its breaking length in metre.
(1) Measure of a paper's reflectance with a blue light of wavelength 457 nm.This is a standard which readily detect the yellowing of paper. See Whiteness.
(2) Photographic term for the light reflected by the copy. Measured in cd/sq.cm.Also called Luminance.
The original bristol board, made in Bristol, England was a pasted basted board made of rag content paper. Now, generally refer to good quality paperboard with smooth finish.
A band of light wave or sound wave with a wide range of frequencies.
A filter that transmits a range of light waves.see Narrowband filter.
(1) Any sheet in its basic size, i.e.not folded or cut.
(2) In newspapers,it refers to a large format such as Hong Kong's daily and evening newspapers. Also called Broadside in America. see Tabloid.
America term. see Broadsheet.
From the French, meaning something stitched together.see Booklet.
Defective paper discarded during manufacture and usually re-pulped. Usually marked xxx. see Retree.