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专业词汇
 
航空词汇(1)
发布时间:2011-7-17 11:22:00||  点击:14347次||  文章分类:专业词汇||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)



  
  轮档挡好-- Chocks in
  地面电源设备接好--Ground power connected
  收到-- Roger
  现在关闭发动机--Shutting down engines
  准备牵引-- Ready for pushback
  所有舱门已关好--All doors checked closed
  松刹车-- Brakes off
  松刹车-- Release parking brakes
  刹车已松-- Brakes off
  刹车已松-- parking brake Released
  可以牵引 --Clear for pushback
  23号跑道起飞--Runway( or face)two three
  05号跑道起飞--Runway( or face)zero five
  牵引完成 --Pushback complete
  刹车 --Brakes on
  刹车 --Set parking brake
  刹车刹好 --Brakes on
  刹车刹好-- Parking brake set
  准备启动1(或2)号发动机--Start number one(or two)
  可以启动1(或2)号发动机--Clear number one(or two)
  已经供气(如需气源车)--Pressure on
  启动结束 --Start complete
  断开地面设备-- Disconnect ground equipment
  插销移开 --Ping Removed
  稍等 --Standby
  稍等启动-- Standby for start
  稍等推出-- Standby for pushback
  在左(或右)方打手势--Hand signal on the left(or right)
  aircraft crew, air crew 机组, 机务人员
  pilot 驾驶员, 机长
  co-pilot, second pilot 副驾驶员
  navigator 领航员
  steward 男服务员
  stewardess, hostess 空中小姐
  radio operator 报务员
  
  Bairliner 班机
  monoplane 单翼飞机
  glider 滑翔机
  trainer aircraft 教练机
  passenger plane 客机
  propeller-driven aircraft 螺旋桨飞机
  jet (aircraft) 喷射飞机
  amphibian 水陆两用飞机
  seaplane, hydroplane 水上飞机
  turbofan jet 涡轮风扇飞机
  turboprop 涡轮螺旋桨飞机
  turbojet 涡轮喷射飞机
  transport plane 运输机
  helicopter 直升机
  supersonic 超音速
  hypersonic 高超音速
  transonic 跨音速
  subsonic 亚音速
  Airbus 空中客车
  Boeing 波音
  Concord 协和
  Ilyusin 依柳辛
  McDonald-Douglas 麦道
  Trident 三叉戟
  Tupolev 图波列夫
  
  hatch 舱口
  aeroengine, air engine 航空发动机
  navigation light 航行灯
  fuselage, body 机身
  nose 机头
  wing 机翼
  aileron 副翼
  wing flap 襟翼
  tail plane 水平尾翼
  starboard wing 右翼
  port wing 左翼
  pilot"s cockpit 驾驶舱
  parachute 降落伞
  passenger cabin 客舱
  propeller 螺旋桨
  pressurized cabin 密封舱
  undercarriage 起落架
  undercarriage wheel 起落架轮
  elevator 升降舵
  radio navigation device 无线电导航设备
  radio directive device 无线电定向设备
  luggage compartment 行李舱
  (fuel) tank 油箱
  auxiliary (fuel) tank 副油箱
  main (fuel) tank 主油箱
  autopilot 自动驾驶仪
  
  ground crew 地勤人员
  airport 航空港, 民航机场
  airfield, aerodrome, airdrome 机场
  airport beacon 机场灯标
  airport meteorological station 机场气象站
  main airport building, terminal building 机场主楼
  emergency landing runway, forced landing runway 紧急着陆跑道
  taxiway 滑行跑道
  runway 跑道
  omnirange radio beacon 全向式无线电航空信标
  fuel depot 燃料库
  control tower 塔台
  tarmac 停机坪
  radio beacon 无线电信标
  
  boarding check 登机牌
  plane ticket 飞机票
  flight, flying 飞行
  bumpy flight 不平稳的飞行
  smooth flight 平稳的飞行
  ramp 扶梯
  altitude, height 高度
  air route, air line 航线
  extra flight 加班
  economy class, tourist class 经济座
  non-stop flight 连续飞行
  climbing, to gain height 爬升
  circling 盘旋
  forced landing 迫降
  connecting flight 衔接航班
  speed, velocity 速度
  ceiling 上升限度
  cruising speed 巡航速度
  top speed 最高速度
  first class 头等
  night service 夜航
  airsick 晕机
  direct flight, straight flight 直飞
  landing 着陆
  to rock, to toss, to bump 颠簸
  to taxi along 滑行
  to lose height, to fly low 降低
  to take off, take-off 起飞
  to board a plane, get into a plane 上飞机
  to get off a plane, alight from a plane 下飞机
  to face the wind 迎风
  ATA章节目录
  AIRFRAME SYSTEMS ________________
  AIR CONDITIONING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
  AUTOFLIGHT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
  COMMUNICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
  ELECTRICAL POWER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
  EQUIPMENT/FURNISHINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
  FIRE PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
  FLIGHT CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
  FUEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
  HYDRAULIC POWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
  ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
  INDICATING/RECORDING SYSTEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
  LANDING GEAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
  LIGHTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
  NAVIGATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
  OXYGEN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
  PNEUMATIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
  WATER AND WASTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
  AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
  STRUCTURE _________
  DOORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
  WINDOWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
  POWER PLANT ___________
  POWER PLANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
  ENGINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
  ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
  IGNITION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
  AIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
  ENGINE CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
  ENGINE INDICATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
  EXHAUST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
  OIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
  STARTING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
  缩写 ABBREVIATION LIST
  A
  A/C air conditioning 空气调节
  A/G air/ground
  A/L autoland 自动落地
  A/P autopilot 自动驾驶
  A/S airspeed 空速
  A/T autothrottle自动油门, adjustment/test 调整/测试
  ABNORM abnormal 不正常的
  AC alternating current 【电】交流电
  ACARS ARINC Communications Addressing and Reporting System
  ACCEL acceleration, accelerate 使增速
  ACM air cycle machine 空气循环机
  ADC air data computer 大气资料电脑
  ADF automatic direction finder 自动方位寻找器
  ADI attitude director indicator 姿态指示器
  ADP air driven pump, air driven hydraulic pump 气动液压泵
  ADV advance 推进
  AFCS automatic flight control system 飞控系统
  AGL above ground level 地标位
  AI anti-ice 防冰
  AIDS aircraft integrated data system 整合资料系统
  AIL aileron 副翼
  ALT altitude 高度
  ALTM altimeter 高度计
  ALTN alternate 交替的
  ALTNT alternate 交替的
  AMB ambient 环绕的
  AMM Airplane Maintenance Manual 修护手册
  ANN announcement 通告
  ANNUNC annunciator 通告器
  ANT antenna 天线
  AOA angle of attack 功角
  APB auxiliary power breaker 辅助的动力断电器
  APD approach progress display 接近行进显示
  APL airplane 飞机
  APPR approach 接近
  APPROX approximately 近乎
  APU auxiliary power unit 辅助的动力单元
  ARINC Aeronautical航空学的Radio Incorporated【美】有限责任的
  ARINC IO ARINC I/O error
  ARNC STP ARINC I/O UART data strip error 通用非同步收发传输器
  ASA autoland status annunciator 自动落地状况通告器
  ASP audio selector panel 音频选择面板
  ASYM asymmetrical 非对称的
  ATC air traffic control 空中交通管制
  ATC/DABS air traffic control/discrete address beacon system
  ATT attitude 姿态
  ATTND attendant 服务员
  AUTO automatic 自动装置的
  AUX auxiliary 辅助的
  AVM airborne vibration monitor 空中震动监视器
  B
  B/CRS back course 回程
  BARO barometric 气压计的
  BAT battery 电池;蓄电池
  BFO beat扑动frequency oscillator 频率振汤器
  BITE built-in test equipment 装备自我测试
  BK brake 煞住(车)
  BKGRD background (干扰录音或无线电广播的)杂音
  BPCU bus power control unit 汇流排电力控制单元
  BRKR breaker 断电器
  BRT bright 发亮的
  BTB bus tie束缚breaker 汇流排联系断电器
  BTL bottle 瓶子
  C
  C/B circuit breaker 【电】断路器,断路开关
  C center 中央
  CADC central air data computer 中央大气资料电脑
  CAPT captain (飞机的)机长
  CB circuit breaker 【电】断路器,断路开关
  CCA central control actuator 中央控制致动器
  CCW counterclockwise 逆时针方向的
  CDU control display unit 控制显示器
  CH channel 频道
  CHAN channel 频道
  CHG change 改变
  CHR chronograph 记时器
  CHRGR charger 充电器
  CK check 检查
  CKT circuit 【电】电路;回路
  CL close 关闭;盖上;合上
  CLB climb 倾斜向上
  CLR clear 变乾净;变清楚
  CLSD closed 关闭的;封闭的;闭合的
  CMD command 命令
  CMPTR computer 电脑
  CNX cancelled 取消,废除;中止
  COL column 圆柱 (报纸的)栏,段
  COMM communication 通讯
  COMP compressor 压缩机
  COMPT compartment 隔间
  CON continuous 连续的,不断的
  COND condition 状态
  CONFG configuration 结构;表面配置
  CONFIG configuration 结构
  CONN connection 连接
  CONT control 控制
  CP control panel 控制面板
  CPCS cabin pressure control system 舱压控制系统
  CPS cycles per second 每秒循环
  CRS course 方向
  CRT cathode阴极ray射线 tube 阴极射线管
  CRZ cruise 巡航
  CSEU control system electronics unit 控制系统电子元件
  CT current电流transFORMer变压器
  CTN caution 注意
  CTR center 中央
  CU control unit 控制元件
  CUST customer 顾客;买主
  CW clockwise 顺时针方向的
  CWS control wheel steering掌舵
  D
  DA drift漂移angle
  DADC digital air data computer 数位化大气资料电脑
  DC direct直系的,指挥current
  DEC decrease减少, decrement减少率
  DECEL decelerate 降低速度
  DECR decrease 减少
  DEG degree 度数
  DEPR depressurize 洩压; 压下
  DEPT departure 离开;出发
  DEST destination 目标, 目的地
  DET detector 探测器
  DETNT detent (机械上的)止动装置;棘爪
  DEV deviation 误差;偏航
  DFDR digital flight data recorder
  DG directional方向的gyro回转仪罗盘
  DH decision决定height高度,海拔
  DIFF differential 依差别而定的;鉴别性的
  DIR direct 指挥
  DISC disconnect 使分离,分开,断开
  DISCH discharge 释放,排出(液体,气体等)
  DISCONT discontinued 停止,中断
  DISENG disengage 解开,解除;使脱离
  DISP dispatch 派遣
  DIST distance 距离;路程
  DK deck (船的) 舱面,甲板
  DME distance measuring equipment 测距仪
  DMU data management unit 资料管理单元
  DN down 向下
  DPCT differential protection current transFORMer【电】变压器
  DR door 门
  DSCRT IO discrete分离I/O error
  DSPLY display 显示
  DSPY display 显示
  E
  EADI electronic attitude director indicator 数位化姿态指示器
  ECON economy 节约, 经济
  ECS environmental control system 环控系统
  EDP engine driven pump, engine hydraulic pump 引擎液压泵
  EEC electronic engine control 引擎电控
  EFDARS expanded flight data acquisition and reporting system
  EFI electronic flight instruments 电子化飞行仪表
  EFIS electronic flight instrument system
  EGT exhaust gas temperature 排气尾温
  EHSI electronic horizontal situation indicator 水平状况方位指示器
  EICAS engine indicating and crew alerting system引擎状况警告指示
  ELEC electrical 与电有关的,电气科学的
  ELEV elevation 高度;海拔
  EMER emergency 紧急情况
  ENG engage啮合,接合, engine
  ENT entrance入口,门口, entry
  ENTMT entertainment 娱乐
  EPC external power contactor 外电源接触器
  EPR engine pressure ratio 推力比
  EPRL engine pressure ratio limit 推力比范围
  EQUIP equipment 装备
  ERR error 错误
  ESS essential 必需品
  EVAC evacuation 撤空;排泄物
  EVBC engine vane and bleed control 引擎放气控制
  EXH exhaust 排出;排气
  EXT external 外部的
  EXTIN extinguish, extinguished 灭火器
  EXTING extinguishing 熄灭
  F
  F/D flight director 飞行引向器
  F/F fuel flow 燃油流量
  F/O first officer
  FAA Federal美国联邦 Aviation Administration行政机构
  FCC flight control computer 飞行控制电脑
  FCEU flight controls electronic unit 飞控电子单元
  FCU fuel control unit 燃油控制器
  FDR feeder 餵食器
  FIM Fault Isolation Manual 故障隔离手册
  FL flow 流量
  FL/CH flight level change
  FLD field(飞机)场,;(广阔的一大片)地(知识)领域;专业;(活动)范畴
  FLT flight (飞机的)班次
  FLUOR fluorescent 发亮的
  FMC flight management computer 飞行管理电脑
  FMS flight management system 飞行管理系统
  FREQ frequency 频率
  FRM Fault Reporting Manual 错误报告手册
  FSEU flap/slat electronic unit 副翼电控单元
  FT feet复, foot单 英尺
  FWD forward 前面的
  G
  G/S glide slope, ground slope 下滑坡度
  GA go-around 重飞
  GB generator breaker 发电机断电器
  GCB generator circuit breaker 发电机断路器
  GCR generator control relay 发电机控制继电器
  GCU generator control unit 发电机控制组件
  GEN generator 发电机
  GHR ground handling relay 地面操作继电器
  GND ground 地面
  GP group 团体
  GPWS ground proximity warning system 地面接近警告
  GR gear 齿轮;传动装置; (飞机的)起落架
  GRD ground 地面
  GS ground speed 地速
  GSSR ground service select relay 地面勤务选择继电器
  GSTR ground service transfer relay 地面勤务转换继电器
  GW gross总量weight 总重
  H
  H/L high/low 高/低
  HDG heading 【航】航向
  HF high frequency 高频
  HORIZ horizontal 水平
  HP high pressure 高压
  HSI horizontal situation indicator 水平状况方位指示器
  HTR heater 加热器
  HYD hydraulic 液压的
  I
  IAS indicated airspeed 指示空速
  IDENT identification 识别;鉴定
  IDG integrated drive generator
  IGN ignition 点火,发火;点火开关
  ILLUM illuminate, illuminated 被照明的;发光的
  ILS instrument landing system 仪降
  IMP imperial (度量衡)英制的
  IN in, input 输入
  INBD inboard 内侧的
  INC incorporated结合的, increase增大, increment增加
  INCR increase 增加
  IND indicator 指示器
  INFC interface 分界面
  INFLT inflight 飞行过程中的
  INHIB inhibit 抑制 禁止
  INIT initiation 入门;开始实施
  INOP inoperative 不活动的
  INPH interphone 对讲机
  INST instrument 仪器;仪表
  INT interphone 对讲机
  INTLK interlock 连结
  INTPH interphone 对讲机
  INTMT intermittent 时断时续的;周期性的
  IP intermediate pressure 中间的压力
  IRS inertial reference system 惯性参考系统
  IRU inertial惯性的reference unit 惯性参考组件
  ISLN isolation 隔离
  ISOL isolation 隔离
  IVSI instantaneous瞬时的vertical speed indicator 垂直速度指示器
  M
  MCDP maintenance control display panel 修护控制显示面板
  MCP mode control panel 模式控制面板
  MCU modular模件concept观念 unit
  MDA minimum decision altitude 最小判断高度
  MIC microphone 扩音器;麦克风
  MIN minimum 最小量,最小数;最低限度
  MM Maintenance Manual 修护手册
  MOD module 组件;单元
  MON monitor 监视器;监控器
  MOT motion (机械的)装置,运转
  MPU magnetic pickup 检波器
  MSG message 信息
  MSTR master 主要的;总的
  MSU mode selector unit 模式选择组件
  MTG miles to go 英里
  MU management unit 管理组件
  MUX multiplexer 多路传输
  N
  N/A not applicable 可应用的
  NAC nacelle 引擎舱;气球吊篮
  NAV navigation 导航
  NCD no computed data 无法计算资料
  NEG negative 否定的; 反面的【电】负的,阴极的【数】负的
  NEUT neutral 中立的
  NLG nose landing gear 鼻轮起落架
  NO. number 数,数字
  NORM normal 正常的,正规的,标准的
  NRM normal 正常的,正规的,标准的
  NVMEM RD non-volatile memory read error 故障读错误排除才能消除
  NVMEM WR non-volatile memory write error 故障写错误排除才能消除
  O
  02 oxygen 氧气
  OBS observer 观察员
  OK okay 对,很好地
  OPR operate 运转
  OPT option 选择权
  OPRN operation 操作
  OUT output 输出
  OUTBD outboard 外部的
  OVHD overhead 头顶(船舱)顶板
  OVHT overheat 过热
  OVRD override 权力高於;优先於; 越过
  OXY oxygen 氧气
  P
  P/RST press to reset 压下清除故障
  P/S pitot皮托管(流速计);皮托静压管/static 静态的
  PA passenger address 客舱广播
  PASS passenger 旅客
  PCA power control actuator 电控致动器
  PCT percentage 百分比
  PDI pictorial deviation indicator 偏航图表示
  PES passenger entertainment娱乐system
  PLA power level angle
  PLT pilot (飞机等的)驾驶员,飞行员
  PMG permananet magnet generator 永磁发电机
  PNEU pneumatic 气动
  PNL panel 【电】配电盘;控电板
  POR point of regulation调节
  POS position, positive (电池的)阳极【数】正的
  PPOS present当前的 出席的 position
  PRESS pressure 压力
  PRG FLOW program flow error 流量程序错误
  PRIM primary 首要的,主要的
  PROC procedure 程序;手续;步骤
  PROG MEM ROM memory error 唯读记忆体错误
  PROJ projector 投射器
  PROT protection 保护,防护;
  PS pitot static 皮托管(流速计);皮托静压管
  PSI pounds per square inch 每平方寸上的压力磅数
  PSS passenger service system 客服系统
  PSU passenger service unit 客服组件
  PTT push to talk 发话
  PTU power transfer unit 动力传送组件
  PWR power 动力
  Q
  QAD quick-attach-detach 快拆卸;使分离
  QTS quarts 一夸脱的容器
  QTY quantity 数量
  R
  R/T rate of turn 回转速率
  R/W MEM RAM memory error 随机存取记忆体错误
  R right 右边的
  RA radio altimeter, radio altitude 雷达高度
  RAT ram air turbine 冲压驱动
  RCVR reciever 接受
  RDMI radio distance magnetic indicator 磁场距离指示
  REC recorder 记录器
  RECIRC recirculate 再循环
  REF reference 参考
  REFRIG refrigeration 冷冻
  REG regulator 调节器
  REL release 释放,解放
  REP representative 代表性的,典型的
  REQ required 必须的
  RES reserve 储备
  RESSTART power interrupt restart error 动力中断重新起动错误
  REV reverse 倒退,使倒转
  RF right front 右前
  RH right hand 右手
  RLSE release 释放,解放
  RLY relay 【电】继电器
  RLY/SW relay/switch
  RMI radio magnetic indicator 磁场方位指示
  RMT OUT high-speed ARINC output error 汇流排输出错误
  RN right nose
  ROT rotation 旋转
  RPM revolutions循环,(一)周期回转,旋转per minute
  RPTG reporting 报导
  RR right rear 後方
  RST reset 重新设定
  RTO rejected丢弃takeoff起飞
  RUD rudder (飞机的)方向舵
  RW right wing 右翼
  RWY runway (机场的)跑道
  S
  SAM stabilizer trim/elevator asymmetry limit module尾舵飞操组件
  SAT static air temperature 静压空气温度
  SEC second 第二次
  SEI standby engine indicator 紧急直接引擎指示
  SEL select 选择
  SELCAL selective calling 飞航呼叫
  SERV service 服务
  SG signal generator 信号产生器
  SLCTD selected 选择
  SLCTR selector 选择器
  SOV shut off valve 关断阀
  SP speed 速度
  SPD speed 速度
  SPD BK speed brake 速煞
  SQL squelch 压扁
  SSB single side band
  STA station 驻地(各种机构的)站,所,
  STAB stabilizer 安定装置;安定翼
  STBY standby 备用
  STS system status 系统状况
  SURF surface 表面
  SW switch 开关
  SWITCH IN switch input error
  SYNC synchronous 同步的
  SYS system 系统
  SYST system 系统
  T
  T/R thrust reverser 反推力器
  T.O. takeoff 起飞
  TACH tachometer 转速计
  TAI thermal热的anti-ice
  TAS true airspeed 真空速
  TAT total air temperature 总温
  TCC turbine case cooling 涡轮(机)冷却
  TE trailing edge 後缘(飞机的)襟翼,阻力板
  TEMP temperature 温度,气温
  TFR transfer 转换
  THR thrust 推力
  THROT throttle 节流阀
  THRSH threshold 门槛
  THRT thrust 推力
  THRU through 穿过;通过 遍及,在...各处;在...之间,在...之中
  TIE bus tie系,拴,捆,扎 汇流排联系
  TLA thrust lever angle 推力杆角度
  TMC thrust management computer 推力管理电脑
  TMS thrust management system 推力管理系统
  TMSP thrust mode select panel 推力选择面板
  TO TO/takeoff 起飞
  TOL tolerance 【机】公差,容限
  TR transFORMer【电】变压器 rectifier【电】整流器
  TRP thrust rating panel 推力等级面板
  TUNE tuner (频率))调整器;【无】调谐器
  TURB turbine 涡轮(机)
  TURBL turbulent, turbulence【气】湍流;(气体等的)紊流
  U
  UBR utility有多种用途的;通用的bus relay 汇流排继电器
  UPR upper
  USB upper side band 【机】传送带 (无线电的)波段,频带
  V
  V/NAV vertical navigation 【经】纵向联合的 导航
  V/S vertical speed 垂直的速率
  VERT vertical 垂直的
  VERT SPD vertical speed 垂直的速率
  VFY verify 验证
  VG vertical gyro 垂直回转仪罗盘
  VHF very high frequency 超高频无线电
  VIB vibration 震动
  VLD valid 合法的;有效的
  VLV valve 【机】阀,活门
  VOL volume 量;额
  VOLT voltage 电压;伏特数
  VOR VHF omni range receiver 方向无线识标
  VOX voice 声音
  VTR video tape reproducer (录音,录影的)播放装置
  W
  W/D wiring线路diagram图解
  W/W wheel well 轮舱
  WARN warning 警告;警报
  WG wing 机翼
  WHL wheel 轮子 ; 变换方向
  WHLS wheels 车轮
  WPT waypoint 位子点
  WSHLD windshield 挡风玻璃
  WX weather 天气
  WXR weather 气象雷达
  X
  X-CH cross channel 交叉频道
  X-CHAN cross channel 交叉频道
  XDCR transducer 变换器
  XMISSION transmission 传送
  XMIT transmit 发射
  XMTR transmitter 发射机
  XPNDR transponder 询答机
  Y
  Y/D yaw damper 阻尼器
  Air Glossary(航空缩略语)
  
  A
  AAC - Army Air Corps
  
  AAIB - Air Accident Investigation Branch of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions.
  
  aae - above aerodrome elevation. Also see aal.
  
  aal - above aerodrome level. Also see aae.
  
  ab initio - elementary flying training, literally "from the beginning",.
  
  abm abeam - an aircraft is abeam a point when that point is at ninety degrees left or right of the aircraft"s track, but term usually used to indicate a general position rather than a specific point.
  
  a/c - aircraft.
  
  ACARS - Aircraft Communication Adressing and Reporting System.
  
  AC - alternating current.
  
  ACC - Area Control Centre. And ACZ Aerodrome Control Zone. See ATZ below.
  
  ACMS - aircraft condition monitoring system.
  
  ACR - aerodrome control radar.
  
  accelerate-stop distance - calculated distance required for an aircraft to accelerate to V1 (which see), reject take-off and brake safely to a halt.
  
  A/D - aerodrome.
  
  AD - Airworthiness Directive, issued by airworthiness authorities to correct a defect found in an aircraft type after certification. Compliance is mandatory and may be required immediately and before further flight, within a specified period of time or number of flying hours, or when next due for routine maintenance.
  
  ADA - Advisory aispace - Advisory Area or Advisory Route.
  
  ADC - air data computer.
  
  ADELT - automatically deployable emergency locator transmitter.
  
  ADF - automatic direction finder/finding. Radio compass which gives a relative bearing to the non-directional radio beacon to which it is tuned.
  
  ADI - attitude deviation indicator. An advanced type of artificial horizon, part of a flight director system providing pitch and roll inFORMation and commands.
  
  ADIZ - Air Defence Identification Zone. An area of airspace extending upwards from the surface, usually along a national boundary, within which identification of all aircraft is required in the interests of national security.
  
  ADR - Accident Data Recorder.
  
  ADS - Automatic Dependence Surveillance.
  
  ADT - Approved Departure Time.
  
  AEF - Aerodromes Environmental Federation.
  
  AEW - Airborne early warning
  
  Aerad - UK-published flight guide and navigational chart system.
  
  aerodrome/airport elevation - highest point of an aerodrome"s usable runway(s) expressed in feet above mean sea level (amsl).
  
  AFB - air force base, usually U.S. or Canadian.
  
  AFCS - automatic flight control system, an advanced autopilot. Also IFCS, integrated flight control system.
  
  AFDS - Autopilot and flight director system.
  
  AFI - assistant flying instructor. Also AFIC, assistant flying instructor course, FIC, flying instructor course.
  
  AFIS - Aerodrome Flight InFORMation Service, providing inFORMation to, but not control of, aircraft using that aerodrome.
  
  AFIS(O)- Aerodrome Flight InFORMation Service (Officer)
  
  AFS - Aerodrome Fire Service.
  
  AFS - Aeronautical Fixed Service - telephone/teleprinter network, includes AFTN.
  
  AFS - auto flight system.
  
  AFTN - Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications Network. A ground- based teleprinter network transmitting flight plans, weather inFORMation etc.
  
  AGO - air-to-ground operator
  
  A/G - air-to-ground.
  
  agl - above ground level.
  
  AHRS - attitude-heading reference system. A sensor deriving aircraft attitude and heading inFORMation from gyros and accelerometers.
  
  AIAA - area of intense aerial activity, usually military.
  
  AIC - Aeronautical InFORMation Circular. Bulletins issued at intervals by the CAA relating to matters of airworthiness, administration, operating procedures, safety etc. AICs are colour-coded according to subject, e.g. safety circulars are pink, thus "Pink 12" issued in December 1990.
  
  AIDS - Airborne integrated data system.
  
  AIP - Aeronautical InFORMation Publication. The UK Air Pilot, statutory bible of aeronautical inFORMation published by the CAA.
  
  Airep - FORM for reporting position and Met conditions in flight.
  
  Airmet - CAA"s telephone aviation weather service, covering Southern, Northern and Scottish regions of the UK. Also Metdial and Metplan, privately-operated aviation weather services. For full details see Pilot, February 1991.
  
  AIS - Aeronautical InFORMation Service. CAA unit based at London-Heathrow Airport, providing flight-planning services and inFORMation for pilots. Publishes AICs, above.
  
  AIZ - Aerodrome InFORMation Zone. See ATZ below.
  
  ALERFA - alert phase of search-and-rescue procedure.
  
  alt - altitude. Height above sea level.
  
  alternate - aerodrome specified on a flight plan to which an aircraft chooses to divert if a landing at its intended destination is not possible (for reasons of poor weather, for example).
  
  altimeter setting - barometric pressure reading in millibars, hectopascals or (in USA) inches of mercury (Hg) used to set a pressure altimeter"s sub-scale to QFE or QNH .
  
  AM - Amplitude modulation.
  
  AME - authorized medical examiner. A doctor approved by the CAA (or foreign licensing authority) to conduct examinations for the issue or renewal of aircrew medical certificates.
  
  amsl - above mean sea level (sometimes asl in USA).
  
  anhedral - sloping down from root to tip. Opposite: dihedral.
  
  ANO - Air Navigation Order. Statutory legal instrument defining the laws of air navigation, pilot licensing etc, in the UK. Other aviation legislation includes the Rules of the Air and Air Traffic regulations and the Air Navigation (General) Regulations
  
  AoA - angle of attack. Also alpha, thus "high alpha", high angle of attack.
  
  AOA - Airport Operators" Association.
  
  AOC - Air Operator"s Certificate, issued by the CAA and required by aircraft operators flying scheduled or charter public transport flights, including cargo, air-taxi and pleasure-flying work. Also Air Officer Commanding in RAF parlance.
  
  AoE - airport of entry (usually in USA).
  
  AOG - aircraft on ground, a term used to denote urgency when requesting spares or service from suppliers or manufacturers, meaning that the aircraft cannot fly again until the parts have been supplied.
  
  AOPA - Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association.
  
  A/P - airport or autopilot.
  
  A & P - Airframe and Powerplant Mechanic (USA).
  
  APA - Aerodromes Protection Agency, the federation of associations for the advancement of British general aviation facilities.
  
  APHAZ - Aircraft Proximity Hazards Assessment Panel, which investigates near-miss reports filed by air traffic controllers (see also JAWG).
  
  APP - Approach (control).
  
  APU - auxiliary power unit. Large transport aircraft and some business jets have an APU, typically a small turbine, to provide power for engine-starting and for running systems when on the ground, obviating the need for external power or ground power unit, GPU.
  
  ARB - Airworthiness Review Board.
  
  ARCAL - aircraft radio control of aerodrome lighting.
  
  Aresti - key shorthand notation system devised by Spaniard José L Aresti whereby aerobatic display routines or competition sequences can be drawn up on paper like a musical score. Now largely superseded by the simpler FAI Aerobatic Catalogue system.
  
  ARINC - Aeronautical Radio Incorporated. A non-profit corporation owned by airlines to set standards for airline avionics and provide communications services.
  
  ARP - aerodrome reference point.
  
  articulated rotor - blades can flap, drag and feather.
  
  ARV - air recreational vehicle.
  
  ASDA - accelerate-stop distance available.
  
  ASI - airspeed indicator, a flight instrument which measures the speed of an aircraft through the air.
  
  ASR - altimeter setting region, a geographical area for which the lowest value of QNH is forecast hourly and relayed by air traffic control centres. Also airport surveillance radar and air-sea rescue.
  
  ASTOVL - advanced short take-off and vertical landing.
  
  ATA - actual time of arrival. Also Air Training Association.
  
  ATC - air traffic control.
  
  ATCA - air traffic control assistant
  
  ATC(C) - air traffic control centre;
  
  ATCO - air traffic control officer..
  
  ATIS - automatic terminal inFORMation service, a continuous recorded broadcast of routine non-control airport inFORMation, usually at large airports.
  
  ATPL - Air Transport Pilot"s Licence, needed to act as pilot-in- command of a commercial air transport aircraft exceeding 20,000 kg all-up weight.
  
  ATO - assisted take-off e.g. J(et) or (R)ocket assisted.
  
  ATS - air traffic service. Also ATSU, ATS Unit.
  
  ATSORA - air traffic services outside regulated airspace.
  
  ATC(U) - air traffic control unit.
  
  ATZ - Aerodrome Traffic Zone. An area of protected airspace surrounding an aerodrome bounded by a circle of 2 nm or 2.5 nm radius (depending on runway length) centred on the mid-point of the longest runway. Permission is required for entry into and movement in an ATZ.
  
  AUW - all-up weight, a term for the total loaded weight of an aircraft, made up of empty weight plus useful load; maximum auw is the maximum allowable weight, including fuel and payload, specified in an aircraft"s Certificate of Airworthiness. Sometimes referred to (in USA especially) as gross weight and maximum gross weight respectively. Also MTWA, maximum total weight authorised; BOW Basic operating weight, the weight of an aircraft with all equipment, lubricants, fuel and operating crew, but without payload; MLW, maximum landing weight, above which fuel must be burned off or jettisoned before landing or there may be risk of structural damage.
  
  avgas - aviation gasoline, usually followed by the octane rating. Used by piston-engined aircraft. Also LL, low lead.
  
  avtur - aviation turbine fuel (kerosene). Used by turboprops and jets.
  
  AWR - airborne weather radar.
  
  Awy - airway.
  
  B
  BA - British Airways
  
  BAA - British Airports Authority.
  
  BAeA - British Aerobatic Association.
  
  BALPA - British Airline Pilots Association.
  
  base leg - The crosswind segment of an aerodrome circuit bringing the aircraft from the downwind leg to final approach
  
  BAUA - Business Aircraft Users Association.
  
  BCAR - British Civil Air Requirements. Airworthiness standards laid down by the CAA for certification of aircraft on the UK Civil Aircraft Register.
  
  BCP - break cloud procedure.
  
  BCPL - Basic Commercial Pilot"s Licence, the minimum qualification necessary in the UK to receive payment for acting as a pilot. Also CPL, Commercial Pilot"s Licence, and SCPL, Senior Commercial Pilot"s Licence (no longer issued).
  
  beta mode - manually-controlled mode for CS propellers on turboprop aircraft enabling reverse pitch to be selected for braking or to aid ground manoeuvring.
  
  BFR - Biennial Flight Review (USA). Holders of U.S. FAA Private Pilot Licences must undergo a flight check with an FAA-approved examiner every two years. No UK equivalent.
  
  BGA - British Gliding Association.
  
  BHAB - British Helicopter Advisory Board.
  
  bhp - brake horsepower.
  
  BHPA - British Hang-Gliding and Paragliding Association.
  
  Bleed air - Hot compressed air taken from turbine engines.
  
  BMAA - British Microlight Aircraft Association.
  
  Bottlang - Loose-leaf Euopean airfields manual for VFR operations.
  
  BRG - bearing, the horizontal direction to or from any point expressed in degrees of the compass.
  
  BWPA - British Women Pilots Association.
  
  C
  C - Celsius (temperature) or compass.
  
  CAA - Civil Aviation Authority.
  
  CAD/CAM - computer-aided design/manufacture.
  
  CAAFU - Civil Aviation Authority Flying Unit, based at Stansted Airport, which perFORMs such tasks as navaid checking and calibration and also examines candidates for instrument ratings and commercial pilot"s licences.
  
  CANP - Civil Aviation Notification Procedure. A voluntary system whereby civil operators notify their intention to fly at low level (at or below 1,000 feet agl, when crop-spraying or powerline inspecting for example), aimed at avoiding conflict with low-flying military aircraft.
  
  CAP - Civil Air Publication. InFORMation booklets issued by the CAA, e.g. CAP 53 The Private Pilot Licence.
  
  CAS - calibrated airspeed -- indicated airspeed corrected for air density and compressibility.
  
  casevac - casualty evacuation.
  
  CAT - clear-air turbulence. Also CATegory when referring to certain instrument landing systems which require special aircraft instrumentation, certification and pilot qualification beyond those needed for standard instrument approaches (e.g. a CAT IIIC ILS permits operation down to the surface of the runway without external visual reference, true zero-zero operation).
  
  CAVOK - pronounced CAV-okay (ceiling and visibility OK), visibility at least ten kilometres, with no cloud below 5,000 feet, with no Cbs, precipitation, thunderstorms, shallow fog or low drifting snow.
  
  CAVU - ceiling and visibility unlimited. Cloudless (or scattered cloud) conditions with visibility in excess of ten kilometres.
  
  CCF - Combined Cadet Force
  
  CDI - course deviation indicator. The vertical needle of a VOR indicator which shows the aircraft"s position relative to the selected VOR radial.
  
  CDU - control display unit.
  
  ceiling - height above ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 20,000 feet which covers more than half of the sky. An aircraft"s service ceiling is the density altitude at which its maximum rate of climb is no greater than 100 feet per minute. Its absolute ceiling is the highest altitude at which it can maintain level flight.
  
  CFI - chief flying instructor (certified flying instructor in USA).
  
  CFS - Central Flying School (RAF)
  
  CG - centre of gravity
  
  CH - compass heading.
  
  Check "A" - a thorough pre-flight inspection - the first of the day.
  
  CHIRP - Confidential Human Factors Incident Reporting system, whereby professional pilots and ATC staff may report in confidence incidents arising from human errors for analysis by the CHIRP Charitable Trust at Farnborough.
  
  CHT - cylinder head temperature (gauge). A device which, by means of a probe(s) gives a cockpit readout of the temperature of one or more of an aircraft engine"s cylinder heads.
  
  circuit - pattern around which aircraft fly when arriving at an airfield, usually rectangular in UK but not necessarily elsewhere. The circuit (known as the pattern in USA) is aligned with the active runway and may be either left- or right-handed. Dead side is the opposite side of the circuit pattern in operation from which arriving aircraft join for landing. See also final(s).
  
  C/L - centre-line (of a runway, for example).
  
  clamped - colloquialism referring to an airport closed to air traffic by bad weather
  
  clean - flaps, slats and undercarriage retracted and on military aircraft no external missiles etc.
  
  clearance - authorization from air traffic control to proceed as requested or instructed. Used for ground and air manoeuvring, thus "cleared for take-off", "cleared flight-planned route", "cleared to descend" etc.
  
  Clouds - commonly-used abbreviations for cloud types:
  
  AC = altocumulus
  AS = altostratus
  CB = cumulonimbus
  CC = cirrocumulus
  CI = cirrus
  CS = cirrostratus
  CU = cumulus
  NS = nimbo stratus
  SC = stratocumulus
  ST = stratus
  C of A - Certificate of Airworthiness issued by the CAA indicating that an aircraft meets the Authority"s airworthiness standards. Cs of A are issued to individual aircraft, and also to generic aircraft types (Type Certification in the USA) when the first example of a type is registered. Cs of A on individual aircraft are granted in several categories, e.g. Private, Public Transport, Aerial Work etc. and much be renewed at intervals. Permits to Fly are authorisations granted to specialist aircraft and are accordingly restricted in the kinds of operation for which they may be used.
  
  C of E - Certificate of Experience, valid for private pilot licence holders for thirteen months, and renewed by flight test or evidence of completing the minimum required flying experience in the preceding thirteen-month period. Also C of T, certificate of test.
  
  C of G - centre of gravity. The point on an aircraft through which the entire aircraft"s weight may be assumed to act (i.e. around which the aircraft, if suspended, would balance). C of G limits are the most forward and rearward positions of the C of G permitted for safe operation. An aircraft loaded outside its C of G limits can be difficult or impossible to control.
  
  C of P - centre of pressure, the point through which the total effect of lift may be said to act on an aeroplane.
  
  Com(m)(s) - communication(s)
  
  CPL - Commercial Pilot"s Licence
  
  CR or C/R - counter-rotating. Usually in general aviation referring to twin-engined aircraft with "handed" engines whose propellers turn in opposite directions to eliminate propeller torque effect.
  
  CRM - cockpit resources management
  
  crosswind (leg) - portion of an aerodrome circuit flown before downwind
  
  CRP - compulsory reporting point.
  
  CRT - cathode ray tube (like a television). Used in flight deck displays of new-generation airliners, business aircraft and military jets instead of conventional instruments. See also EFIS,.
  
  critical altitude - the highest density altitude at which it is possible to maintain the maximum continuous rated power or manifold pressure of an aero engine.
  
  critical engine - the engine on a multi-engined aircraft whose failure would most seriously effect perFORMance or handling of the aircraft, through asymmetric effects or loss of power to systems such as hydraulics.
  
  CRS course - the intended direction of flight in the horizontal plane expressed in degrees of the compass.
  
  c/s - call sign.
  
  CS - constant-speed (propeller). A variable-pitch propeller which maintains constant rpm by automatically changing blade angle. Also CSU, constant-speed unit.
  
  CTA - Control Area. An area of controlled airspace extending upwards from specified limit agl.
  
  CTR - Control Zone. An area of controlled airspace extending upwards from ground level to a specified upper limit.
  
  CVR - cockpit voice recorder. A tape recorder installed on the flight decks of commercial transport aircraft and helicopters and some business aeroplanes to record crew conversation, RT transmissions and cockpit background noises (e.g. trim-wheel operation, flap motor running) in case required for incident or accident investigation.
  
  CW - carrier wave or continuous wave.
  
  CWR - colour weather radar.
  
  CZ - Control Zone (USA).
  
  CZI - compressor zone inspection.
  
  D
  DA - Danger Area.
  
  DAAIS - Danger Area Activity InFORMation Service.
  
  DACS - Danger Area Crossing Service.
  
  DADC - Digital air data computer (DADS - /system).
  
  D & D - Distress & Diversion Cells at Air Traffic Control Centres. RAF units which provide a 24-hour listening watch on VHF and UHF emergency frequencies and can locate and assist pilots who are lost or in emergency situations.
  
  dB - decibel(s) - a unit of sound
  
  DC - direct current
  
  DCT - direct
  
  dead side - opposite side of an airfield circuit pattern from which aircraft join for landing
  
  deadstick - descent and landing with engine(s) shut down and propeller(s) stopped.
  
  Decca - hyperbolic area navigation system, originally developed for maritime use, based on signals received from a chain of master and slave ground stations located in northern Europe.
  
  DEEC - digital electronic engine control
  
  density altitude - pressure altitude corrected for air temperature.
  
  derated - engine"s potential power deliberately limited, lengthening likely life.
  
  DETRESFA - distress phase of search-and-rescue operation.
  
  DF - direction-finding. A DF bearing can be provided by airfields or other facilities such as D & D cells (above) having suitable direction-finding equipment to locate an aircraft.
  
  DG - Directional gyro
  
  DGAC - Direction Général à l"Aviation Civile
  
  DH - decision height. The height on a precision approach at which a pilot must have the runway approach lights in sight to continue the descent, or if not, must initiate a go-around.
  
  DHFS - UK Defence Helicopter Flying School at RAF Shawbury
  
  DI - direction indicator. A gyro instrument which indicates the magnetic heading of an aircraft. The DI, also known as the directional gyro (DG), is free of the turning errors associated with magnetic compasses but is prone to precession (wander) and must be reset against the magnetic compass at intervals. ALSO -
  DI - is also used to refer to the daily inspection -- a thorough pre-flight check of an aircraft prior to the first flight of the day.
  
  dihedral - sloping up from root to tip. Opposite: anhedral.
  
  DIN(S) - digital interial navigation (system).
  
  DME - distance-measuring equipment. A combination of ground and airborne equipment which gives a continuous slant range distance-from-station readout by measuring time-lapse of a signal transmitted by the aircraft to the station and responded back. DMEs can also provide groundspeed and time-to-station readouts by differentiation.
  
  Doppler - Doppler effect (or shift) is the change in frequency of light, radio or sound waves when source and receiver are in relative motion.
  
  DoT - Department of Transport.
  
  downwind - The segment of an aerodrome circuit paralleling the active runway and flown on a reciprocal heading
  
  DP - dew point
  
  DR - dead (deduced) reckoning. Plotting position by calculating the effect of speed, course, time and wind against last known position.
  
  dry - when referring to aircraft hire charges means "without fuel", as opposed to wet, with fuel.
  
  DZ - dropping zone, for parachuting etc.
  
  E
  EAA - Experimental Aircraft Association, the American homebuilders" organisation.
  
  EADI - electronic attitude director indicator. An ADI with CRT cockpit display FORMing part of an EFIS, below.
  
  EAS - equivalent airspeed.
  
  EAT - estimated (or expected) approach time.
  
  EBAA - European Business Aircraft Association.
  
  ECAC - European Civil Aviation Conference.
  
  ECOGAS - European Council of General Aviation Support.
  
  ECU - environmental control unit.
  
  ED - emergency distance.
  
  EET - estimated elapsed time.
  
  EFAS - electronic flash approach light system.
  
  EFATO - engine failure at (or after) take-off.
  
  EFIS - electronic flight instrument system, in which multi- function CRT displays replace traditional instruments for providing flight, navigation and aircraft systems inFORMation, FORMing a so-called "glass cockpit". Now common in commercial transports, corporate aircraft and helicopters, military fighters and some GA piston singles and twins.
  
  EGT - exhaust gas temperature (gauge). A device which provides a cockpit readout of the exhaust gas temperature of an aircraft"s (piston) engine(s), enabling the pilot to lean the mixture for maximum fuel efficiency.
  
  EHSI - electronic horizontal situation indicator. CRT-based HSI FORMing part of an EFIS.
  
  EICAS - engine indication and crew alerting system. CRT display which monitors engine perFORMance and alerts the crew to system or airframe failure. Found in new-generation transports and business jets.
  
  EICMS - engine in-flight monitoring system
  
  ELT - emergency locator transmitter. A small radio transmitter fixed to an aircraft"s structure which is automatically activated by impact or water immersion and transmits a code on emergency frequencies enabling SAR satellites or search units equipped with DF to locate the crash or ditching site. Carriage mandatory in the USA, but not in UK. Sometimes styled ADELT, automatically deployable ELT, or ELB, emergency locator beacon.
  
  empty weight - weight of the basic aeroplane including all fixed equipment, plus unusable fuel, oil, hydraulic and other fluids.
  
  encoding altimeter - an altimeter which gives a digital output to the transponder (which see) for automatic transmission of the aircraft"s pressure altitude to ATC.
  
  EOBT - estimated off-blocks time.
  
  EP - Elementary pilot rating of the British Hang Gliding and Paragliding Association
  
  EPNdB - effective perceived noise decibel. Unit of measurement of aircraft noise levels.
  
  ER - extended range.
  
  eshp - equivalent shaft horsepower.
  
  ETA - estimated time of arrival. Also ;
  
  ETD - estimated time of departure
  
  ETE - estimated time en route.
  
  ETOPS - extended-range twin operations, usually long over-water flights by airliners.
  
  ETPS - Empire Test Pilots School, based at the Aircraft & Armament Experimental Establishment, Boscombe Down.
  
  Eurocontrol - organisation, headquartered in The Netherlands, comprising Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands and UK for coordinating en route air traffic control in Europe.
  
  F
  FAA - Federal Aviation Administration, USA, equivalent of UK"s CAA.
  
  FAA - Fleet Air Arm, of UK"s Royal Navy.
  
  FADEC - full-authority digital engine control.
  
  FAF - final approach fix, the point at which a published instrument approach begins.
  
  FAI - Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, the international body for verification of aeronautical record attempts and sporting regulations.
  
  FAR - Federal Aviation Regulations (USA).
  
  FARA - FORMula Air Racing Association.
  
  FBL - fly by light i.e. control via optical fibres
  
  FBO - fixed-base operator, American term for commercial operators supplying fuel, maintenance, aircraft sales, rental, flight training, handling and other GA services at an airport. (So-called because the first FBOs were early barnstormers who chose to settle at one field.)
  
  FBW - fly-by-wire. Aircraft control systems in which pilots" control inputs are transmitted to control surfaces electronically or via fibre optics rather than by mechanical linkage. Also see FBL.
  
  FCL - Flight Crew Licensing (Division), a CAA department handling all aspects of private and professional pilot, flight engineer and navigator licensing.
  
  FCS - flight control system.
  
  fcst - forecast.
  
  FDR - flight data recorder, popularly known as a "black box" (actually painted bright orange), by which various parameters of an aircraft"s flight perFORMance are recorded for analysis in the event of an incident or accident.
  
  feather - (of a propeller) - to set the angle of CS or VP propeller edge-on to the airflow to minimise drag and rotation following engine failure on multi-engined aircraft. Also applies to motor gliders which have feathering propellers to enhance engine-off soaring perFORMance.
  
  final(s) - final approach. The part of a landing sequence or aerodrome circuit procedure in which the aircraft has made its final turn and is inbound to the active runway. Downwind is the segment of the circuit paralleling the runway and flown on a reciprocal heading. Base leg is the crosswind segment bringing the aircraft from the downwind leg to final approach. The leg before downwind is called the Crosswind leg.
  
  FIC - Flight InFORMation Centre.
  
  FIR - Flight InFORMation Region. UK airspace is divided into two FIRs, London and Scottish.
  
  FIS - Flight InFORMation Service, providing a variety of services and inFORMation (but not control) to air traffic in the two FIRs above.
  
  FJ - fast jet.
  
  FL - flight level, a level of constant atmospheric pressure shown by an altimeter set to a standard 1013.2 millibars, expressed in rounds hundreds of feet, thus FL330 is 33,000 feet.
  
  flag - warning signal incorporated in certain navigation and flight instruments indicating that the instrument is not operating satisfactorily or that the strength of signals being received from ground stations is below acceptable limits.
  
  flat rating - throttling or other restriction of engine power ouput (usually in turboprops and turboshafts) at sea level to enable it to give constant predictable power at higher operating altitudes.
  
  flameout - combustion failure in a turbine engine resulting in power loss.
  
  FLG - flashing.
  
  flicker effect - nausea, dizziness or vertigo which can be brought on by flickering at certain frequencies of a bright light source such as sunlight or strobe when viewed through a rotating propeller or rotor blades.
  
  FLIR - forward-looking infra-red.
  
  FLM - foot-launched microlight.
  
  FLPA - foot-launched powered aircraft, e.g. powered parachutes.
  
  FM - frequency modulation.
  
  FMC/S - flight management computer/system
  
  FMGC - flight management guidance computer.
  
  F, MS - flight management system.
  
  FMU - flight management unit.
  
  FOD - foreign object damage, usually to turbine engines through ingestion of runway debris etc.
  
  FPL - filed flight plan.
  
  fpm - feet per minute, a measure of an aircraft"s rate of climb or descent. Similarly m/s or mps, metres per second.
  
  FSS - Flight Service Station (USA).
  
  FTO - flying training organisation.
  
  FTS - Flying Training School (RAF)
  
  ft/min - feet per minute
  
  G
  g - the acceleration force of gravity, normally 1g on earth. Zero g (0g) is weightlessness, as experienced by orbiting astronauts. g is expressed as positive (\) and negative (-) values. During a normal loop a pilot experiences positive g, tending to force him down in his seat. In an outside loop, with the pilot"s head on the outside of the vertical circle, negative g forces him up against his straps. Aircraft structural load limits are expressed in positive and negative values, the positive limit usually greater than negative, except in specialist aerobatic types.
  
  g-loc - g-induced loss of consciousness. Pilot blackouts caused by excessive g or by too-rapid onset of g-forces. Experienced mostly by pilots of high-perFORMance military jets and competition aerobatic aircraft, has led to fatal crashes.
  
  GA - general aviation, all flying other than airlines and the military.
  
  GAAC - General Aviation Awareness Campaign.
  
  GAFOR - General Aviation Visual Flight Forecast. Met briefing service in operation in France, Germany, the Netherlands and some other European countries.
  
  gall imp/U.S. - gallons, imperial or USA. One imp gall = 1.201 U.S. gall.
  
  GAMA - General Aviation Manufacturers Association, an American trade organisation.
  
  GAMTA - General Aviation Manufacturers & Traders Association, UK.
  
  GAPAN - Guild of Air Pilots and Air Navigators.
  
  GASCo - General Aviation Safety Council
  
  GASIL - General Aviation Safety InFORMation Leaflet. Monthly safety and accident prevention bulletin for pilots and engineers published by the CAA.
  
  GCA - ground-controlled approach. A landing approach in which a ground controller gives verbal guidance in azimuth and elevation to a pilot using precision approach radar (PAR) to monitor the aircraft"s approach path. Still used by the military, but defunct in civil aviation.
  
  GFT - General Flying Test, taken by student pilots to qualify for the PPL, and also by candidates for the BCPL and CPL. Also NFT, navigation flight test, which is part of the practical examination for the PPL.
  
  Glonass - Russian equivalent of GPS/Navstar satellite navigation system.
  
  glove - non-movable part of a variable geometry wing.
  
  gnd - ground
  
  GNSS - Global Navigation Satellite Systems.
  
  go-around to climb away from a runway after making an approach, either to make a further attempt at landing or to divert to an alternate airport (FORMerly "overshoot").
  
  Goxio - VHF direction-finding (France)
  
  GP - glidepath
  
  gph - gallons per hour, an expression of fuel consumption or fuel flow (FF) in either imperial or U.S. gallons. Usually lb/hr for turbine-powered aircraft.
  
  GPS - Global Positioning System (Navstar). A U.S. developed satellite-based high-precision navigation system, intended primarily for military use but now in widespread use by commercial and private operators, though with reduced accuracy compared with military versions.
  
  GPWS - ground proximity warning system. A radar-based flight- deck system to give pilots audible warning by means of horns, hooters, taped or synthetic voices of terrain close beneath an aircraft"s flight path.
  
  GRADU - gradual (term used in Met reports).
  
  GRP - glassfibre-reinforced plastic; also CFRP, carbon-fibre reinforced plastic. Composite materials seeing increasing use in entire airframes for GA aircraft (e.g. Beech Starship) and for components for helicopters, airliners and military aircraft.
  
  GS - glideslope. The vertical guidance part of an instrument landing system which establishes a safe glidepath (usually three degrees) to a runway.
  
  G/S - groundspeed. The speed an aircraft makes over the ground, a product of its airspeed and wind speed.
  
  H
  H24 - continuous round-the-clock operation. Also HJ operates during day; HN operates during night; HO operates during times to meet operational requirements, and HX no specific operational hours.
  
  HAA - Historic Aircraft Association.
  
  HAI - Helicopter Association International.
  
  half-mill(ion) - 1:500,000 scale ICAO aeronautical chart.
  
  Hdg - heading. The direction in which an aircraft"s nose points in flight in the horizontal plane, expressed in compass degrees.
  
  Heavy - suffix used in RT callsigns to indicate that the aircraft is a large transport, alerting controllers and following aircraft to the possibility of wake turbulence .
  
  Hectopascal (hPa) - unit of pressure measurement, equivalent to one millibar (which see), now the ICAO-standard for altimeter setting.
  
  HEMS - helicopter emergency medical services.
  
  Hertz - standard radio equivalent of frequency in cycles per second. See also kHz and MHz.
  
  HF - high-frequency band, used for long-range radio communications in the 3-30 MHz range.
  
  Hg - inches of mercury, a unit of pressure measurement.
  
  HIAL - high intensity approach lighting.
  
  HIGE - hover in ground effect. Also see HOGE.
  
  HIRF - high intensity radiated (electromagnetic) fields.
  
  HIRL - high intensity runway lighting.
  
  HISL - high intensity strobe light.
  
  holding pattern - racetrack-shaped manoeuvre which keeps aircraft within a specified airspace while awaiting further clearance from air traffic control.
  
  HOCAC - hands on cyclic and collective - see HOTAS below.
  
  HOGE - hover out of ground effect. Also see HIGE.
  
  hot-and-high - airfield conditions of high altitude and high ambient temperatures that can severely limit aircraft perFORMance. See also density altitude.
  
  HOTAS - hands on throttle and stick. Ergonomic cockpit design technology, originally developed for military combat aircraft, enabling a pilot to fly the aircraft and manage all navigation, weapons and other systems from control column/throttle lever hand grips.
  
  HOTCC - hands on throttle, collective & cyclic - see HOTAS above.
  
  hp - horsepower.
  
  HRA - Highlands Restricted Area
  
  hrs - hours
  
  HSD - horizontal situation display.
  
  HSI - horizontal situation indicator. A cockpit navigation display, usually part of a flight-director system, which combines navigation and heading.
  
  HUD - head-up display. A method of projecting instrument readouts or data which enables a pilot to see them while looking through the aircraft"s windscreen. Mostly used on military aircraft, but now in service on some commercial airliners.
  
  Hz - Hertz.
  
  I
  IAOPA - International Council of Aircraft Owners and Pilots Associations
  
  IAS - indicated airspeed. An aircraft"s speed through the air as indicated by the ASI, without correction for position error, altitude or outside air temperature. Also see CAS, RAS and TAS.
  
  IATA - International Air Transport Association.
  
  i/c - intercom
  
  ICAO - International Civil Aviation Organisation.
  
  IF - instrument flying. Also intermediate frequency.
  
  IFF - identification friend or foe.
  
  IFR - instrument flight rules prescribed for the operation of aircraft in instrument meteorological conditions (see below). Flight in most controlled airspace in the UK is conducted under IFR or Special VFR. Also used by military to denote in-flight refuelling.
  
  IGE - in ground effect. Helicopter perFORMance with an earth surface immediately below. Also OGE, out of ground effect. Helicopters can hover at a greater maximum altitude IGE (above a mountain slope, for example) than they can in free air, OGE.
  
  IGS - instrument guidance system.
  
  ILS - instrument landing system. The approach aid employing two radio beams to provide pilots with vertical and horizontal guidance during the landing approach. The localiser provides azimuth guidance, while the glide-slope defines the correct vertical descent profile. Marker beacons and high intensity runways lights are also part of the ILS.
  
  IMC - instrument meteorological conditions: weather below VMC minima, see below. Also associated rating used in conjunction with UK PPL.
  
  INCERFA - uncertainty phase of search-and-rescue procedure.
  
  INS - inertial navigation system. A gyroscope-based system which senses acceleration and deceleration and computes an aircraft"s position in latitude and longitude with great accuracy. Used mostly by long-haul airliners, military aircraft and sophisticated business jets. Also IRS, inertial reference system.
  
  INTER - intermittent or fluctuating, term used in Met reports.
  
  IR - Instrument Rating
  
  IRAN - Inspect and repair as necessary
  
  IRE - Instrument Rating Examiner
  
  IRT - Instrument Rating Test
  
  ISA - International Standard Atmosphere -- a set of standard conditions or temperature and pressure which serve as a basis for comparison. ISA = pressure 1013.2 millibars, temperature 15 degrees C. Aircraft perFORMance figures quoted by manufacturers are often based on such a "standard day".
  
  ITT - inter-turbine temperature. Also TGT, turbine gas temperature TIT, turbine inlet temperature.
  
  IWR - Instrument weather rating. Proposed by the JAA as a replacement for the UK"s unique IMC rating
  
  J
  JAA - Joint Aviation Authority.
  
  JAR - Joint Aviation Requirements, being drawn up by eighteen European states, aimed at unifying airworthiness, flight crew licensing and other criteria among signatory nations.
  
  JAWG - Joint Airmiss Working Group. A civilian/military committee which reviews and reports on all airmisses which occur in UK airspace.
  
  JEFTS - Joint Elementary Flying Training Squadron based at RAF Barkston Heath, Lincolnshire
  
  Jeppesen - U.S.-developed navigational/approach chart system with worldwide coverage, similar to British Aerad system.
  
  JPATS - Joint Primary Aircraft Training System. A USAF/U.S. Navy programme to select a common aircraft design as a basic pilot trainer for the two services, due to be decided next year.
  
  K
  kg - kilogram(s)
  
  kHz - kilohertz, the frequency of a radio carrier wave measured in thousands of cycles per second. 1 kHz = 1,000 Hertz.
  
  KIAS - knots indicated airspeed.
  
  km - kilomrtre(s)
  
  knot (kt) - one nautical mile per hour (never one knot per hour), the standard unit of aviation speed measurement. One knot equals 1.1515 mph; one nautical mile equals 6,080 feet.
  
  kV- kilovolt
  
  kW - kilowatt.
  
  L
  LARS - Lower Airspace Radar Advisory service, available to all aircraft flying in uncontrolled UK airspace from 3,000 feet amsl to FL95. See also MMARS, RAS and RIS, below.
  
  LAMS - Light Aircraft Maintenance Schedule, the CAA-approved schedule for fixed-wing light aircraft below 2,730 kg auw whose Cs of A are valid for three years subject to compliance with LAMS.
  
  lat - latitude.
  
  LATCC - London Area & Terminal Control Centre at West Drayton, near Heathrow.
  
  lb - pound(s)
  
  lbf - engine thrust in pounds force
  
  LCD - liquid crystal display
  
  lczt - (ILS) localizer (USA)
  
  l/d ratio - lift /drag ratio, a measurement of the efficiency of a wing aerofoil section
  
  LDA - landing distance available.
  
  LED - light emitting diode
  
  LF - low-frequency radio waves with frequencies in the 30-300 kHz band.
  
  LITAS - low-intensity two-colour approach system.
  
  LLTV - low light level television.
  
  LLZ - localizer ((USA).
  
  LOC - localiser. The azimuth guidance portion of an instrument landing system.
  
  locator - medium-frequency non-directional radio beacon used as an aid to establishing yourself on final approach during an instrument landing procedure..
  
  LOFT - Line-orientated flying training. Usually on large jet simulators to prepare newly-qualified commercial pilots for multi-crew airline operations
  
  LOM - Locator outer marker
  
  lon(g) - longitude
  
  Loran - low-frequency hyperbolic radio long-range navigation system which measures time difference between reception of synchronised signals transmitted from ground transmitters. Loran-C, operates in the 100-110 kHz frequency band with an operating range of 600-1,500 nm independent of line-of-sight, and is becoming very popular among GA aircraft operators in the USA.
  
  M
  M or mag - magnetic
  
  Mach number - ratio of true airspeed to the speed of sound. Mach 1 is the speed of sound at sea level, ISA, approximately 1,100 feet per second or 760 mph.
  
  MAP - missed approach point. The point on a published ILS approach expressed in time or distance from the final approach fix, or as an altitude on the glideslope, at which the missed approach procedure must be initiated if the runway or approach lights are not clearly in sight.
  
  marker beacons (mkrs) - part of an instrument landing system using 75 MHz transmitters emitting fan-shaped or elliptical signal patterns vertically upwards, defining specific points along the glideslope. The outer marker OM is situated at or near the glideslope intercept altitude of the ILS localiser, the middle marker (MM) defines a point on the glideslope at or near decision height (DH). Markers provide aural and visual indications on a cockpit marker beacon receiver.
  
  MATZ - military aerodrome traffic zone. An area of protected airspace surrounding certain military airfields which normally extends for a five nautical mile radius around the airfield and upwards from the surface to 3,000 feet above aerodrome level. A "stub" projection protects the final approach path to the main runway outwards from the MATZ boundary, enclosing an area two nautical miles either side of the extended runway centreline and upwards from 1,000 feet above the surface to 3,000 feet above aerodrome elevation. Although recognition of a MATZ is not mandatory for civil aircraft, all MATZ aerodromes offer a penetration service to civil traffic during operational hours.
  
  Mayday - international radio distress call (from the French, m"aidez -- help me). It signifies imminent danger to life requiring immediate assistance.
  
  mb - millibar.
  
  MCC - Multi-crew co-operation
  
  MCU - management control unit
  
  MDA - minimum descent altitude. The lowest altitude, in feet amsl, to which descent is authorised on final approach during a non-precision instrument landing (i.e. where no glideslope guidance is given) without visual reference to the runway.
  
  MDH - minimum descent height, agl.
  
  MEDA - military emergency diversion airfield.
  
  medevac - medical evacuation
  
  Met - meteorology, weather.
  
  METAR - coded aerodrome Met report. Also SPECI, special civil aviation weather report, and TAF, terminal aerodrome forecast of weather expected.
  
  MF - medium frequency. Radio waves with frequencies in the 300- 3,000 kHz range.
  
  MFA - military flying area
  
  MFD - multi-function display. An EFIS CRT offering selectable displays of weather radar, navigation maps, checklists and data other than primary flight inFORMation.
  
  MH - magnetic heading
  
  MHz - Megahertz, the frequency of radio carrier waves measured in millions of cycles per second.
  
  minimums - weather condition requirements for a particular mode of flight (e.g. for VFR operation, IFR take-offs and landings).
  
  MLS - microwave landing system. A microwave-based instrument approach system intended to replace ILS in the 1990s and claimed to offer a number of advantages such as the ability to fly segmented and curved precision approaches.
  
  MLW - maximum landing weight. Weight of an aircraft above whivh fuel must be burned off or jettisoned before landing or there may be risk of structual damage
  
  mm - millimetre"s
  
  MMARS - Military Middle Airspace Radar Service, available to military and civil aircraft operating in UK airspace between FL100 and FL245.
  
  MOA - military operations area.
  
  MoD - UK"s Ministry of Defence
  
  mod - modification to an aircraft or equipment
  
  mogas - car fuel, approved for use in some light aircraft subject to certain conditions.
  
  MPA - man-powered aircraft
  
  mph - miles per hour
  
  MPI - major periodic inspection
  
  MSA - minimum sector altitude or minimum safe altitude.
  
  msl - mean sea level
  
  MTBF - mean time between failures. Also MTTR, mean time to repair
  
  MTMA - military terminal control area.
  
  MTOW - maximum take-off weight. The maximum allowable weight, including fuel and payload, specified in an aircraft"s Certificate of Airworthiness , sometime referred to (in USA especially) as maximum gross weight.
  
  MTWA - maximum total weight authorised.
  
  
  
  N
  
  
  
  NAS - Naval Air Station (USA)
  
  NATS - National Air Traffic Services. A division of the CAA providing UK air traffic control.
  
  Nav - navigation.
  
  Navaid - navigation aid.
  
  Nav/Com - navigation and communication.
  
  NBAA - National Business Aircraft Association, USA.
  
  NDB - non-directional beacon. A medium-frequency navigational aid which transmits non-directional signals, superimposed with a Morse code identifier and received by an aircraft"s ADF.
  
  NFT - navigation flight test
  
  nm - nautical mile(s).
  
  NOE - nap of earth. Low flying, usually by the military, using contour-flying techniques and terrain-masking to avoid being seen.
  
  NORDO - no radio (used on flight plan FORM).
  
  NOSIG - no significant change, term used on Met reports.
  
  NOTAM - Notices to Airmen, issued by the CAA (and equivalent authorities elsewhere) to inFORM pilots of new or changed aeronautical facilities, services, procedures or hazards, temporary or permanent. Also SNOWTAM
  
  NOTAR - no tail rotor. A system patented by McDonnell Douglas for maintaining directional control of helicopters without use of an anti-torque tail rotor.
  
  NPRM - Notice of Proposed Rule-Making (USA). Advance publication by the FAA of proposed changes or additions to Federal Air Regulations.
  
  NTSB - National Transportation Safety Board. U.S. equivalent of UK"s AAIB.
  
  nvg - night vision goggles.
  
  NVQ - National Vocational Qualification. A Government-recognised qualification, the cost of training for which can be set against tax.
  
  O
  OASC - Officers and Aircrew Selection Centre at RAF Cranwell
  
  OAT - outside air temperature. The temperature of the air outside an aircraft measured by a probe with a cockpit gauge readout. OAT affects the measurement of indicated airspeed and its value is needed to calculate true airspeed. At high speeds kinetic heating demands correction to the indicated OAT for true outside air temperature.
  
  OATS - Oxford Air Training School, a large commercial pilot training school at Oxford Airport, UK.
  
  obst - obstruction.
  
  OBS - omni-bearing selector, part of a VOR used to select the radial from a VOR.
  
  OCH - obstacle clearance height. The lowest height above the elevation of the runway threshold or above aerodrome elevation used to establish compliance with obstacle clearance criteria in an instrument approach. Also OCA, obstacle clearance altitude, and OCL, obstacle clearance limit.
  
  OCU - Operational Conversion Unit.
  
  OEI - One engine inoperative
  
  OEM - original equipment manufacturer.
  
  OGE - Out of ground effect
  
  okta - a measurement of cloud cover. One okta means one-eighth of the sky is covered.
  
  Omega - high accuracy, very-low frequency (VLF) long-range navigation system of the hyperbolic type, covering the entire earth down to the surface from eight ground-based transmitters. Used principally by airliners, military aircraft and intercontinental business aircraft.
  
  ops - Operations
  
  o/r - on request.
  
  o/t - other times.
  
  OTU - Operational Training Unit.
  
  
  
  P
  
  
  
  P1 - Pilot-n-command
  
  P2 - co-pilot
  
  Pan - international radio call signalling urgency.
  
  PAPI - precision approach path indicator, a system of coloured lights installed at the approach end of a runway which provides visual guidance to the correct glidepath. A successor to VASI, below.
  
  PAR - precision approach radar. Primary radar equipment showing an air traffic controller the height, track and range of an aircraft on final approach, enabling him to guide it to a landing.
  
  pax - passengers.
  
  PED - portable electronic devices.
  
  Permit to Fly - Authorisation granted to aircraft such as homebuilds, vintage aeroplanes, warbirds and some simple "classic" light aircraft which are not required to meet the standards demanded for a full C of A, and are accordingly restricted in the kinds of operation for which they may be used.
  
  PF - Pilot flying. The "handling pilot" in multi-crew operation.
  
  PFA - Popular Flying Association, the UK homebuilt and antique aircraft organisation.
  
  PFD - primary flight display
  
  PHG - powered hang-glider
  
  PIC - pilot-in-command (also styled P1).
  
  PIG - Pilots InFORMation Guide
  
  pinch-hitter - U.S. term for safety-pilot, usually unlicensed but having sufficient training to be competent to land an aircraft in an emergency. Frequently the partner of the PIC
  
  PINS - Pipeline Inspection Notification System.
  
  PIO - pilot-induced oscillation. An undulating flight path brought about by over-controlling.
  
  PLN - flight-plan.
  
  PMS - perFORMance management system.
  
  PNF - Pilot not flying. The "non-handling" pilot in multi-crew operation
  
  PNR - point of no return.
  
  POB - (number of) persons on board. Also SOB, souls on board.
  
  POC - proof-of-concept.
  
  POH - pilot"s operating handbook, an aircraft"s "owner"s manual".
  
  Pooley"s - annually-published flight guide to United Kingdom and Ireland, named after its creator and publisher Bob Pooley.
  
  PPG - powered paraglider.
  
  PPL - Private Pilot"s Licence.
  
  PPL(H) - Private Pilot"s Licence for helicopters,
  
  PPL(SLMG) - Private Pilot"s Licence for self-launched motor gliders.
  
  PPO - prior permission only. Certain airfields or events require advance notification (by telephone, for example) of your intended arrival.
  
  PROB - probability percentage, term used in Met reports.
  
  procedure turn - manoeuvre which reverses the direction of an aircraft"s flight during an instrument approach procedure to enable it to intercept the final approach course.
  
  PPR - prior permission required
  
  psi - pounds per square inch, a measurement of pressure.
  
  PTT - press-to-transmit (switch) on an aircraft"s control wheel or stick enabling the pilot to make RT transmission "hands on" via a headset microphone.
  
  Purple Airspace - special temporary airways created for flights by certain members of the royal family, notified by NOTAM.
  
  Q
  QFI - Qualified Flying Instructor.
  
  QHI - Qualified helicopter instructor.
  
  Quadrantal Rule - system of cruising altitudes used in UK uncontrolled airspace below FL250.
  
  Quarter-million - 1:250,000 scale ICAO aeronautical chart
  
  Q-code - code system developed when air-to-ground communication was by wireless telegraphy, enabling many routine phrases and questions to be reduced to three letters. Now largely redundant, except these:
  
  QDM magnetic bearing to a direction-finding station.
  QDR magnetic bearing from the station.
  QFE atmospheric pressure at aerodrome elevation. With its sub-scale set to the aerodrome QFE an altimeter will indicate height above that airfield.
  QFU magnetic orientation of runway in use.
  QNE reading in feet on an altimeter set to 1013.2 millibars (standard pressure) when the aircraft is at aerodrome elevation.
  QNH altitude above mean sea level based on local station pressure.
  QSI change of frequency (use of QSY is officially discouraged in the UK but it is still in use in some other countries)
  QTE true line of position from a direction-finding station.
  QUJ true bearing
  R
  RAC - Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services section of the AIP
  
  rabbit lights - colloquialism for sequentially flashing lead-in runway approach lights.
  
  RAeS - Royal Aeronautical Society
  
  RAF - Royal Air Force
  
  ramp weight - maximum permissible weight of an aircraft, which exceeds maximum take-off weight by an allowance for fuel burned during engine-start and taxi.
  
  RAPID - change expected to take place in thirty minutes or less, term used in mer reports.
  
  RAS (1) - rectified airspeed. Indicated airspeed corrected for instrument position error.
  
  RAS (2) - Radar Advisory Service. Provided outside regulated airspace to notify pilots of conflicting traffic and to advise suitable avoiding action. Under RAS controllers aim to achieve a minimum separation of five miles or 5,000 feet against unknown conflicting traffic
  
  Rating - add-on qualification to a pilot"s licence, e.g. Night Rating, Multi-engine Rating, Instrument Rating, Seaplane Rating etc. Individual Type Ratings are necessary to fly aircraft over 12,500 pounds MTWA.
  
  RCL - runway centre-line.
  
  RBI - relative bearing indicator, displaying inFORMation from the ADF.
  
  RDO - radio.
  
  RIS - Radar InFORMation Service. Provided to notify pilots of conflicting traffic outside regulated airspace, but offering no avoiding action.
  
  RMI - radio magnetic indicator. A navigation aid which combines DI, VOR and/or ADF display and will indicate bearings to stations, together with aircraft heading.
  
  RMK - remark(s).
  
  RMU - radio management unit.
  
  Rnav - area navigation. A system of radio navigation which permits direct point-to-point off-airways navigation by means of an on-board computer creating phantom VOR/DME transmitters termed waypoints.
  
  RON - remain over night (night-stop).
  
  root - inner end of wing where it meets fuselage.
  
  rpm - revolutions per minute.
  
  r/t or RT - radio telephony. Voice communications, as opposed to WT, wireless telegraphy
  
  RTF - radio telephony.
  
  RVR - runway visual range, a horizontal measurement of visibility along a runway.
  
  rwy - runway.
  
  Rx - receiver.
  
  S
  SACP - (CAA) Standing Advisory Committee on Pilot Licensing.
  
  SAR - search-and-rescue. Also Sarsat, SAR satellite.
  
  SAS - stability augmentation system. An automatic flight control system employed in many helicopters and some fixed-wing aircraft to enhance their stability and handling qualities.
  
  SATCO - senior air traffic control officer
  
  satcoms - satellite communications, now being introduced on intercontinental airliners and business jets for (non- operational) air-to-ground voice communications via ground relay stations.
  
  SB - Service Bulletin. Advisory notices issued by aircraft, engine and equipment manufacturers alerting owners and engineers to faults or problems requiring preventitive or remedial maintenance or modification. Often termed "mandatory", but do not have the legal force of Airworthiness Directives (which see).
  
  SBAC - Society of British Aerospace Companies. The UK aerospace manufacturers" trade association.
  
  SDAU - Safety Data Analysis Unit of the CAA.
  
  "second pilot" - unofficial term used to describe short (usually 8-10 hours) flying courses designed to enable non-pilot light aircraft passengers to take control and land in an emergency such as pilot incapacitation. Also standby or safety pilot and pinch-hitter (U.S.)
  
  Sectional - (U.S.) VFR navigation chart, equivalent to our 1:500,000 or "half-million".
  
  Semi-circular - system of cruising altitudes.
  
  SELCAL - selective calling. A high-frequency system enabling air traffic control to alert a particular aircraft, by means of flashing light or aural signal in the cockpit, for receipt of a message without the crew having to maintain a listening watch. Used on long-haul over-ocean airline routes and by intercontinental bizjets.
  
  sfc - specific fuel consumption of an engine, expressed in pounds of fuel consumed for each unit of power (hp, shp, lb/st) produced. Also surface.
  
  short final - radio call made from aircraft calling later than final position, or on final approach from a shortened circuit, or at 2nm from threshold on a straight-in approach.
  
  shp - shaft horsepower.
  
  SID - standard instrument departure. A standard IFR departure route enabling air traffic controllers to issue abbreviated clearances and thus speed the flow of traffic.
  
  SIGMET - warning of severe weather conditions (active thunderstorms, hail, severe turbulence, icing etc.) issued my Met offices.
  
  sl - sea level.
  
  SLA - small light aircraft
  
  SLMG - self-launching motor glider
  
  SMOH - since major overhaul. Term used in aircraft for sale advertisements where engine hours are quoted (see TBO). Also STOH, TTSN, TTAF/E
  
  SMR - surface movement radar.
  
  SNOWTAM - a NOTAM concerning runway conditions in snow.
  
  SOB - souls on board, the number of persons on board an aircraft. Also POB.
  
  socked-in - A colloquialism referring to an airport closed to air traffic by bad weather, similarly clamped.
  
  SOP - standard operating procedure.
  
  specific range - measure of an aircraft"s fuel efficiency, expressed as nautical miles flown per pound of fuel burned (nm/lb)
  
  SPL - Student Pilot"s Licence. No longer issued in the UK, where a CAA medical certificate serves as an SPL.
  
  squawk - to transmit an assigned code via a transponder (see SSR below).
  
  SR - sunrise.
  
  SRG - Safety Regulation Group of the CAA
  
  SRZ - Special Rules Zone. An area of protected airspace surrounding an airfield and extending from the surface upwards to a specific level which affords safety to air traffic movements in the vicinity of airfields whose traffic level does not warrant the establishment of a Control Zone. Also SRA, Special Rules Area. extending vertically and horizontally from a level above the surface, but not necessarily terminating at the same upper level as the SRZ.
  
  SRA - Surveillance Radar Approach. Also Special Rules Area.
  
  SRE - Surveillance Radar Element of a GCA.
  
  SS - sunset.
  
  SSB - single sideband. Reduction of bandwith by transmitting only one sideband and suppressing the other, and usually also the carrier wave.
  
  SSR - secondary surveillance radar. A radar system comprising a ground-based transmitter/receiver which interrogates a compatible unit in the aircraft (see transponder), providing instant radar identification without having to manoeuvre. Assigned four-digit transponder codes are referred to as squawk codes.
  
  STAR - Standard Terminal Arrival Route, for inbound IFR traffic.
  
  STC - Supplemental Type Certificate. U.S. system for post-type certification approval of aircraft modifications such as re- engining, STOL kits, etc, where the full certification process is not deemed necessary. Also used by manufacturers to certify (often greatly changed) new models of old types under so-called "grandfather rights".
  
  STOH - since top overhaul
  
  STOL - short take-off and landing. Also VTOL, V/STOL,
  
  STOVL - short take-off, vertical landing.
  
  T
  T - true. Also TH, true heading, and TT, true track.
  
  TACAN - tactical air navigation system. An ultra-high frequency electronic navigation aid which provides suitably-equipped aircraft with a continuous indication of bearing and distance to the selected Tacan station. The distance element can be received by civilian DMF equipment, but otherwise Tacan is principally a military navaid.
  
  TAF - Terminal Area Forecast.
  
  TAS - true airspeed. Rectified airspeed corrected for altitude and outside air temperature.
  
  TBO - time between overhauls, an engine manufacturer"s recommended overhaul interval in hours, a rough and not guaranteed guide to life expectancy of an aero-engine before it will need overhaul.
  
  TCA - Terminal Control Area (USA).
  
  TCAS - traffic alert and collision avoidance system. U.S. developed radar-based airborne collision avoidance system operating independently of ground-based equipment. TCAS-I generates traffic advisories only, TCAS-II provides advisories and collision avoidance instructions in the vertical plane.
  
  TEMPO - temporarily, term used in Met reports.
  
  TET - turbine entry temperature.
  
  TGT - turbine gas temperarture.
  
  THR or thld - threshold.
  
  TMA - Terminal Control Area. An area of controlled airspace at the intersection of airways in the vicinity of control zones (CTRs) around major airports.
  
  TO - take-off (sometimes TKOF).
  
  TODA - take-off distance available. Also TODR, take-off distance required, and TORA, take-off run available.
  
  track - actual flight path of an aircraft over the ground.
  
  transponder - airborne receiver/transmitter portion of the SSR system which receives the interrogation signal from the ground and automatically replies according to mode and code selected. Modes A and B are used for identification, using a four-digit number allocated by air traffic control. Mode C gives automatic altitude readout from an encoding altimeter.
  
  transition altitude (TA) - altitude in the vicinity of an aerodrome at or below which the vertical position of an aircraft is controlled by reference to altitude, i.e. with the aerodrome QNH set on its altimeter. Above transition altitude QNE is set and flight levels used. Also transition level (TL) at which a descending aircraft changes from FL to QNH.
  
  trend - Met forecast for the next two hours, added to some METARs.
  
  TSO - Technical Standard Order. A standard established by the U.S. FAA for quality control in avionics, instruments and other airborne equipment. If it complies, equipment is said to be "TSO"d" and is more expensive than similar non-TSO"s equipment.
  
  TTAF/E - total time airframe/engine,
  
  TTSN - total time since new
  
  TVOR - terminal VOR. A low-powered VOR located at or near an airport and used as an approach aid.
  
  TWR - Tower (aerodrome control tower).
  
  TWY - taxiway.
  
  Tx - transmitter.
  
  tyro - Can be used as an r/t call prefix by inexperienced pilots in distress or urgency situations to ensure they are not passed instructions beyond their capabilities.
  
  U
  UAS - University Air Squadron.
  
  UDF - UHF direction finding.
  
  UFN - until further notice.
  
  UHF - ultra-high frequency. Radio frequencies in the 300-3,000 MHz band.
  
  UHMRA - Upper Heyford Mandatory Radio Area.
  
  UIR - Upper InFORMation Region, covering the same geographic areas as a FIR, but extending vertically upwards from 24,500 feet, within which certain additional operational rules apply. Also UIS, Upper InFORMation Service.
  
  Unicom - privately-operated advisory A/G radio service at uncontrolled airfields (USA). UNL - unlimited
  
  u/s - unserviceable (i.e not working) when applied to an aircraft or its equipment.
  u/s - unserviceable (i.e not working) when applied to an aircraft or its equipment.
  
  UTC - Co-ordinated Universal Time, FORMerly Greenwich Mean Time (see also Zulu).
  
  V
  V-speeds - designations for certain velocities relating to aircraft operation, thus:
  
  V1 decision speed, up to which it should be possible to abort a take-off and stop safely within the remaining runway length. After reaching V1 the take-off must be continued.
  Va design manoeuvring speed. The speed below which abrupt and extreme control movements are possible (though not advised) without exceeding the airframe"s limiting load factors.
  Vfe maximum flap extension speed (top of white arc on ASI).
  Vle maximum landing gear extended speed
  Vmca minimum control speed (air). The minimum speed at which control of a twin-engined aircraft can be maintained after failure of one engine.
  Vmo maximum operating speed. Also Mmo, Mach limit maximum operating speed.
  Vne never-exceed speed, "redline speed" denoted by a red radial on an ASI.
  Vno normal operating speed. The maximum structural cruising speed allowable for normal operating conditions (top of green arc on ASI).
  Vr rotation speed, at which to raise the nose for take-off.
  Vso stalling speed at MTWA, in landing configuration with flaps and landing gear down, at sea level, ISA conditions (bottom of white arc on ASI).
  Vx best angle of climb speed on all engines.
  Vxse best engine-out angle of climb speed.
  Vy best rate of climb speed on all engines.
  Vyse best engine-out rate of climb speed, "blueline speed" (blue radial on ASIs of light twins)
  VAL - visual approach and landing chart.
  
  var - variation (magnetic)
  
  VASI - visual approach slope indicator
  
  VASIS - visual approach slope indicator system. A coloured light system providing visual guidance to the glidepath of a runway.
  
  VDF - very-high frequency direction-finding, whereby an aircraft"s bearing from a ground receiving station may be determined from its RT transmissions.
  
  vdu - visual display unit.
  
  VFR - Visual Flight Rules. Prescribed for the operation of aircraft in visual meteorological conditions (VMC).VMC is generally defined as five miles visibility or more and 1,000 feet vertical and one nautical mile horizontal clearance from cloud, but variations apply to aircraft operating below 3,000 feet amsl. Special VFR (SVFR) clearances are granted at the discretion of ATC for VFR flight through some controlled airspace where IFR usually apply. Also CVFR, Controlled VFR Flight.
  
  VGS - Volunteer Gliding School (RAF Air Cadets)
  
  VHF - very high frequency. Radio frequencies in the 30-300 MHz band, used for most civil air-to-ground communication.
  
  vis - visibility.
  
  VLA - very light aircraft
  
  VLF - very low frequency. Radio frequencies in the 3-30 kHz band.
  
  VLF/Omega - worldwide system of long-range navigation using VLF radio transmission.
  
  VMC - Visual Meterorological Conditions. See VFR, above.
  
  Vnav - vertical navigation.
  
  Vne - never exceed airspeed
  
  Volmet - continuous recorded broadcasts of weather conditions at selected airfields.
  
  VOR - very high frequency omnidirectional range. A radio navigation aid operating in the 108-118 MHz band. A VOR ground station transmits a two-phase directional signal through 360ø. the aircraft"s VOR receiver enables a pilot to identify his radial or bearing from/to the ground station. VOR is the most commonly used radio navigation aid in private flying. Increased accuracy is available in Doppler VORs (DVOR) which have replaced some VOR is the UK system. Also VORTAC, combined VOR and TACAN, and VOT, VOR test facility.
  
  VP - variable-pitch (propeller), whose blade angle can be altered in flight either automatically or manually.
  
  Vr - Rotation speed
  
  VRP - visual reference point. (In the UK) Landmarks used for position reporting by aircraft operating VFR.
  
  VSI - vertical speed indicator. One of the primary flight instruments showing rate of climb or descent. Also IVSI, instantaneous VSI.
  
  V/STOL - vertical/short take-off and landing
  
  VTOL - vertical take-off and landing.
  
  VTR - vocational training relief. Tax releif granted by the Inland Revenue against the cost of certain commercial pilot training courses.
  
  W
  wake turbulence - wingtip vortices generated behind a wing producing lift. Behind a large heavy aircraft they can be powerful enough to roll or even break up a smaller aircraft.
  
  WAT - weight-and-temperature.
  
  w.e.f. - with effect from. Also w.i.e., with immediate effect.
  
  wet - when refering to aircraft hire charges means "fuel included"
  
  wind shear - localised change in wind speed and/or direction over a short distance, resulting in a tearing or shearing effect, usually at low altitude, that can cause a sudden loss of airspeed with occasionally disastrous results if encountered when taking-off or landing.
  
  WIP - work in progress.
  
  WP - waypoint.
  
  wt - weight
  
  Wx - weather.
  
  WX NIL - no significant weather, term used in Met reports.
  
  X
  XC - cross-country
  
  xmsn - transmission.
  
  xpdr - transponder.
  
  Y
  Z
  zero-fuel weight - maximum permissible weight of an aircraft beyond which an additional load must be in the FORM of fuel (i.e. max take-off weight less total usable fuel in applicable aircraft, which are so limited because of the wing-bending moments associated with near-empty wing fuel tanks).
  
  zero-timed - overhauling an aero-engine to "service limits" (not the same "good as new" or factory remanufactured).
  
  Zulu or Z - used worldwide for times of flight operations, FORMerly Greenwich Mean Time, now Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC).
  
  
  
  1179
  
  
  
  1179 - flight test to add a new aircraft type to a professional licence, actually the reference number of the test FORM used
  Main Facilities in the Airport
  机场主要设备
  
  
  aerodrome/airport 飞机场
  alternate airfield 备用机场
  control tower 管制塔台
  hangar 机库
  fuel farm 油库
  emergency service 急救站
  localizer 航向信标台/定位信标
  weather office 气象站
  runway 跑道
  taxiway 滑行道
  parking bay 停车位置
  maintenance area 维修区
  terminal departure building 机场大厦/候机楼
  international departure building 国际航班出港大厦
  seeing-off deck 送客台
  domestic departure lobby 国内线出港候机厅
  coffee shop 咖啡室
  special waiting room 特别休息室
  quarantine 检疫
  Customs 海关
  emigration control 出境检查
  snack bar 快餐部
  automatic door 自动出入门
  arrival lounge 到达大厅
  departure lounge 离港大厅
  transit lounge 过站大厅
  telephone/telegram/fax room 电话/电报/传真间
  stand-by ticket counter 补票处
  flight inFORMation board 航班显示板
  check-in counter 办理登机手续柜台
  transfer correspondence 中转柜台
  carousel 旋转行李传送带
  public address 广播室
  dispatch office 签派室
  police office 机场公安局(警察局)
  boby temperature scanner 体温检测仪
  medical centre 医疗中心
  escalator 自动扶梯
  elevator (升降式)电梯
  moving/automatic walkway 自动步道
  air bridge 登机廊桥
  airport fire service 机场消防队
  catering department 配餐供应部门
  duty-free shop 免税商店
  airtel/airport hotel 机场宾馆
  VIP room 贵宾室
  main lobby 主厅
  freight building/cargo centre 货运大厦/货运中心
  security centre 保安中心
  imports shop 进口商品店
  entrance 入口
  passenger route 旅客通道
  boarding gate No.18 第18号登机桥
  bosrding gate besides No.16 第16号以外登机桥
  inFORMation counter/office 问询处
  lavatory 卫生间
  international arrival building 国际航班到达大厦
  taxi stand 出租汽车站
  demestic connection counter 国内线联运柜台
  exit 出口
  hotel and limousine service 旅馆及机场交通服务处
  limousine stand 机场交通车站
  waiting room 休息室
  exchange and tax payment 兑换及付税
  Customs personnel 海关人员
  Customs inspection counter 海关检查柜台
  baggage claim area 行李认领区
  immigration control 入境检查
  plant quarantine 植物检疫
  animal quarantine 动物检疫
  connection counter 联运柜台
  arrival lobby 入境旅客休息室
  security counter 安检柜台
  security check station 安全检查站
  airport tax sales 机场税购买柜台
  passport control 护照检查柜台
  
  
  乘客与飞机工作人员
  
  international passenger 国际旅客
  domestic passenger 国内旅客
  connecting passenger 转机旅客
  transit passenger 过境旅客
  stand-by 候补旅客
  no-show 误机者
  unaccompanied passenger 无人陪伴儿童
  handicapped passenger 残疾旅客
  departing passenger 出港旅客
  arriving passenger 进港旅客
  flight crew 机组人员
  captain 机长
  pilot 飞行员
  copilot 副驾驶员
  flight engineer 飞行机械师
  stewardess/cabin attendant/air hostess 女乘务员/空中小姐
  steward 男乘务员
  purser/chief attendant 乘务长
  chief purser 主任乘务长
  air crew 空勤人员
  ground crew 地勤人员
  ground service staff 地面服务人员
  navigtor 领航员
  空地对话常用短语
  Dialogue:
  A: PIL: Ground crew ready for push back
   GND: Confirm brakes released
   PIL: Brakes released
   GND: Commencing pushback
  
   B: GND :Pushback competed confirm brakes set
   PIL: Engine start completed please.
   GND: Disconnecting, standby for visual signal at your left (right).
   PIL: Roger.
  
  C: PIL: Ready to start NO.1
   GND: Cleared number 1
  
  D: 驾:(向地面机务)准备推出,朝南。
   GND: confirm brakes recessed.
   驾:刹车松了。
  GND: commencing pushback.
  GND: pushback completed confirms brakes set.
  驾:刹车刹住了。
  E: PIL: Ground cockpit good morning, ready for push.
   GND: Good morning, confirm parking brakes released.
  PIL: Parking brakes released.
  GND: Thank you, commencing pushback
  PIL: Roger.
  GND: It‘s OK to start all engines during the push
  PIL: Staring sequence.
  GND: Approved to start engine, number 4321
  PIL: Number 4 coming.
  GND: NO .3
  PIL: NO. 3 approved.
  GND: NO. 2.
  PIL: NO. 2 approved.
  GND: Pushback completed confirm parking brakes set please
  PIL: Parking brakes set.
  GND: Thank you sir.
  PIL: start NO. 1
  GND: NO. 1 approved.
  PIL: All engines have been started checking everything normal disconnect interphone, Thank you good-bye sir.
  GND: Roger I disconnect the interphone, good-bye sir
  
  
  各航空公司进出通话程序:
  Arrive
  Ground:”chocks in position.
  Captain: Parking brake released
  
  Departure
  Captain: Your ground checks, please. “
  Ground : Ground check complete, preparing to push the airplane
  Captain: Parking brake is released.
  Ground: Commencing push back.
  Captain: Push back completed, please set parking break.
  Ground: Clear to start engines.
  Ground: Affirmative clear for engine star.
  Captain: All engines stared, clear to disconnect interphone and show me the disconnect interphone and show me the pin, good-bye
  Ground: Understand and all engines started please standby for the pin and hand signal, goodbye.
  
  
  法国航空公司通话程序:
  Captain: Ground FORM cockpit.
  Ground: Parking brake set
  Captain: Parking brake set
  Ground: Nose gear wheel chock on
  Captain: Nose gear wheel chock on
  
  Departure
  Ground: May we hook the tow bar to the aircraft
  Captain: OK for hooking
  Ground: Steering lock out pin on .
  Captain remove external power unit?
  Ground: OK for remove
  Captain: Please confirm doors closed, handles checked aircraft cleared.
  Ground: Doors closed handles checked aircraft cleared
  Captain: Brakes released .OK for push back
  Ground: Pushing back
  Captain: parking brake set. Remove tow bar checked.
  Ground: Tow bar removed.
  Captain: Aircraft cleared
  Ground: Aircraft cleared.
  Captain: Starting sequence NO3.4.2.1
  Ground: staring NO. 3
  Captain: OK staring NO. 3
  Ground: disconnect interphone, waiting for signal
  Captain: Out, wait for the signal .Goodbye.
  
  


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