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中华人民共和国合同法(中英文对照)
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  (1999年3月15日第九届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过 )
  (Adopted and Promulgated by the Second Session of the Ninth National People’s Congress on March 15, 1999.)
  
  总  则
  GENERAL PRINCIPLES
  
  第一章 一般规定
  Chapter One: General Provisions
  
  
  第一条 为了保护合同当事人的合法权益,维护社会经济秩序,促进社会主义现代化建设,制定本法。
  Article 1 Purpose
  This Law is formulated in order to protect the lawful rights and interests of contract parties, to safeguard social and economic order, and to promote socialist modernization.
  
  第二条 本法所称合同是平等主体的自然人、法人、其他组织之间设立、变更、终止民事权利义务关系的协议。婚姻、收养、监护等有关身份关系的协议,适用其他法律的规定。
  Article 2 Definition of Contract; Exclusions
  For purposes of this Law, a contract is an agreement between natural persons, legal persons or other organizations with equal standing, for the purpose of establishing, altering, or discharging a relationship of civil rights and obligations.
  An agreement concerning any personal relationship such as marriage, adoption, guardianship, etc. shall be governed by other applicable laws.
  
  第三条 合同当事人的法律地位平等,一方不得将自己的意志强加给另一方。
  Article 3 Equal Standing of Parties
  Contract parties enjoy equal legal standing and neither party may impose its will on the other party.
  
  第四条 当事人依法享有自愿订立合同的权利,任何单位和个人不得非法干预。
  Article 4 Right to Enter into Contract Voluntarily
  A party is entitled to enter into a contract voluntarily under the law, and no entity or individual may unlawfully interfere with such right.
  
  第五条 当事人应当遵循公平原则确定各方的权利和义务。
  Article 5 Fairness
  The parties shall abide by the principle of fairness in prescribing their respective rights and obligations.
  
  第六条 当事人行使权利、履行义务应当遵循诚实信用原则。
  Article 6 Good Faith
  The parties shall abide by the principle of good faith in exercising their rights and performing their obligations.
  
  第七条 当事人订立、履行合同,应当遵守法律、行政法规,尊重社会公德,不得扰乱社会经济秩序,损害社会公共利益。
  Article 7 Legality
  In concluding or performing a contract, the parties shall abide by the relevant laws and administrative regulations, as well as observe social ethics, and may not disrupt social and  economic order or harm the public interests.
  
  第八条 依法成立的合同,对当事人具有法律约束力。当事人应当按照约定履行自己的义务,不得擅自变更或者解除合同。依法成立的合同,受法律保护。
  Article 8 Binding Effect; Legal Protection
  A lawfully formed contract is legally binding on the parties. The parties shall perform their respective obligations in accordance with the contract, and neither party may arbitrarily amend or terminate the contract. A lawfully formed contract is protected by law.
  第二章 合同的订立
  Chapter Two: Formation of Contracts
  第九条 当事人订立合同,应当具有相应的民事权利能力和民事行为能力。当事人依法可以委托代理人订立合同。
  Article 9 Capacity; Contract through Agent
  In entering into a contract, the parties shall have the appropriate capacities for civil rights and civil acts.A party may appoint an agent to enter into a contract on its behalf under the law.
  
  第十条 当事人订立合同,有书面形式、口头形式和其他形式。法律、行政法规规定采用书面形式的,应当采用书面形式。当事人约定采用书面形式的,应当采用书面形式。
  Article 10 Forms of Contract; Writing Requirement
  A contract may be made in a writing, in an oral conversation, as well as in any other form. A contract shall be in writing if a relevant law or administrative regulation so requires. A contract shall be in writing if the parties have so agreed.
  
  第十一条 书面形式是指合同书、信件和数据电文(包括电报、电传、传真、电子数据交换和电子邮件)等可以有形地表现所载内容的形式。
  Article 11 Definition of Writing
  A writing means a memorandum of contract, letter or electronic message (including telegram, telex, facsimile, electronic data exchange and electronic mail), etc. which is capable of expressing its contents in a tangible form.
  
  第十二条 合同的内容由当事人约定,一般包括以下条款:
  (一)当事人的名称或者姓名和住所;
  (二)标的;
  (三)数量;
  (四)质量;
  (五)价款或者报酬;
  (六)履行期限、地点和方式;
  (七)违约责任;
  (八)解决争议的方法。
  当事人可以参照各类合同的示范文本订立合同。
  Article 12 Terms of Contract
  The terms of a contract shall be prescribed by the parties, and generally include the following:
  (i) names of the parties and the domiciles thereof;
  (ii) subject matter;
  (iii) quantity;
  (iv) quality;
  (v) price or remuneration;
  (vi) time, place and method of performance;
  (vii) liabilities for breach of contract;
  (viii) method of dispute resolution.
  The parties may enter into a contract by referencing a model contract for the relevant contract category.
  
  第十三条 当事人订立合同,采取要约、承诺方式。
  Article 13 Offer-Acceptance
  A contract is concluded by the exchange of an offer and an acceptance.
  
  第十四条 要约是希望和他人订立合同的意思表示,该意思表示应当符合下列规定:
  (一)内容具体确定;
  (二)表明经受要约人承诺,要约人即受该意思表示约束。
  Article 14 Definition of Offer
  An offer is a party’s manifestation of intention to enter into a contract with the other party, which shall comply with the following:
  (i) Its terms are specific and definite;
  (ii) It indicates that upon acceptance by the offeree, the offeror will be bound thereby.
  
  第十五条 要约邀请是希望他人向自己发出要约的意思表示。寄送的价目表、拍卖公告、招标公告、招股说明书、商业广告等为要约邀请。商业广告的内容符合要约规定的,视为要约。
  Article 15 Invitation to Offer
  An invitation to offer is a party’s manifestation of intention to invite the other party to make an offer thereto. A delivered price list, announcement of auction, call for tender, prospectus, or commercial advertisement, etc. is an invitation to offer.
  A commercial advertisement is deemed an offer if its contents meet the requirements of an offer.
  
  第十六条 要约到达受要约人时生效。采用数据电文形式订立合同,收件人指定特定系统接收数据电文的,该数据电文进入该特定系统的时间,视为到达时间;未指定特定系统的,该数据电文进入收件人的任何系统的首次时间,视为到达时间。
  Article 16 Effectiveness of Offer, Offer through Electronic Message
  An offer becomes effective when it reaches the offeree. When a contract is concluded by the exchange of electronic messages, if the recipient of an electronic message has designated a specific system to receive it, the time when the electronic message enters into such specific system is deemed its time of arrival; if no specific system has been designated, the time when the electronic message first enters   into any of the recipient’s systems is deemed its time of arrival.
  
  第十七条 要约可以撤回。撤回要约的通知应当在要约到达受要约人之前或者与要约同时到达受要约人。
  Article 17 Withdrawal of Offer
  An offer may be withdrawn. The notice of withdrawal shall reach the offeree before or at the same time as the offer.
  
  第十八条 要约可以撤销。撤销要约的通知应当在受要约人发出承诺通知之前到达受要约人。
  Article 18 Revocation of Offer
  An offer may be revoked. The notice of revocation shall reach the offeree before it has dispatched a notice of acceptance.
  
  第十九条 有下列情形之一的,要约不得撤销:
  (一)要约人确定了承诺期限或者以其他形式明示要约不可撤销;
  (二)受要约人有理由认为要约是不可撤销的,并已经为履行合同作了准备工作。
  Article 19 Irrevocable Offer
  An offer may not be revoked:
  (i) if it expressly indicates, whether by stating a fixed time for acceptance or otherwise, that it is irrevocable;
  (ii) if the offeree has reason to regard the offer as irrevocable, and has undertaken preparation for performance.
  
  第二十条 有下列情形之一的,要约失效:
  (一)拒绝要约的通知到达要约人;
  (二)要约人依法撤销要约;
  (三)承诺期限届满,受要约人未作出承诺;
  (四)受要约人对要约的内容作出实质性变更。
  Article 20 Extinguishment of Offer
  An offer is extinguished in any of the following circumstances:
  (i) The notice of rejection reaches the offeror;
  (ii) The offeror lawfully revokes the offer;
  (iii) The offeree fails to dispatch its acceptance at the end of the period for acceptance;
  (iv) The offeree makes a material change to the terms of the offer.
  
  第二十一条 承诺是受要约人同意要约的意思表示。
  Article 21 Definition of Acceptance
  An acceptance is the offeree’s manifestation of intention to assent to an offer.
  
  
  第二十二条 承诺应当以通知的方式作出,但根据交易习惯或者要约表明可以通过行为作出承诺的除外。
  Article 22 Mode of Acceptance; Acceptance by Conduct
  An acceptance shall be manifested by notification, except where it may be manifested by conduct in accordance with the relevant usage or as indicated in the offer.
  
  第二十三条 承诺应当在要约确定的期限内到达要约人。要约没有确定承诺期限的,承诺应当依照下列规定到达:
  (一)要约以对话方式作出的,应当即时作出承诺,但当事人另有约定的除外;
  (二)要约以非对话方式作出的,承诺应当在合理期限内到达。
  Article 23 Timely Dispatch of Acceptance
  An acceptance shall reach the offeror within the period prescribed in the offer.
  Where the offer does not prescribe a period for acceptance, the acceptance shall reach the offeror as follows:
  (i) Where the offer is made orally, the acceptance shall be dispatched immediately, unless otherwise agreed by the parties;
  (ii) Where the offer is made in a non-oral manner, the acceptance shall reach the offeror within a reasonable time.
  
  
  第二十四条 要约以信件或者电报作出的,承诺期限自信件载明的日期或者电报交发之日开始计算。信件未载明日期的,自投寄该信件的邮戳日期开始计算。要约以电话、传真等快速通讯方式作出的,承诺期限自要约到达受要约人时开始计算。
  Article 24 Commencement of the Period for Acceptance
  Where an offer is made by a letter or a telegram, the period for acceptance commences on the date shown on the letter or the date on which the telegram is handed in for dispatch. If the letter does not specify a date, the period commences on the posting date stamped on the envelope. Where the offer is made through an instantaneous communication device such as telephone or facsimile, etc., the period for acceptance commences once the offer reaches the offeree.
  
  第二十五条 承诺生效时合同成立。
  Article 25 Contract Formed upon Effectiveness of Acceptance
  A contract is formed once the acceptance becomes effective.
  
  第二十六条 承诺通知到达要约人时生效。承诺不需要通知的,根据交易习惯或者要约的要求作出承诺的行为时生效。采用数据电文形式订立合同的,承诺到达的时间适用本法第十六条第二款的规定。
  Article 26 Effectiveness of Acceptance
  A notice of acceptance becomes effective once it reaches the offeror. Where the acceptance does not require notification, it becomes effective once an act of acceptance is performed in accordance with the relevant usage or as required by the offer. Where a contract is concluded by the exchange of electronic messages, the time of arrival of the acceptance shall be governed by Paragraph 2 of Article 16 hereof.
  
  第二十七条 承诺可以撤回。撤回承诺的通知应当在承诺通知到达要约人之前或者与承诺通知同时到达要约人。
  Article 27 Withdrawal of Acceptance
  An acceptance may be withdrawn. The notice of withdrawal shall reach the offeror before or at the same time as the acceptance.
  
  第二十八条 受要约人超过承诺期限发出承诺的,除要约人及时通知受要约人该承诺有效的以外,为新要约。
  Article 28 Late Acceptance
  An acceptance dispatched by the offeree after expiration of the period for acceptance constitutes a new offer, unless the offeror timely advises the offeree that the acceptance is valid.
  
  第二十九条 受要约人在承诺期限内发出承诺,按照通常情形能够及时到达要约人,但因其他原因承诺到达要约人时超过承诺期限的,除要约人及时通知受要约人因承诺超过期限不接受该承诺的以外,该承诺有效。
  Article 29 Delayed Transmission of Acceptance
  If the offeree dispatched its acceptance within the period for acceptance, and the acceptance, which would otherwise have reached the offeror in due time under normal circumstances, reaches the offeror after expiration of the period for acceptance due to any other reason, the acceptance is valid, unless the offeror timely advises the offeree that the acceptance has been rejected on grounds of the delay.
  
  第三十条 承诺的内容应当与要约的内容一致。受要约人对要约的内容作出实质性变更的,为新要约。有关合同标的、数量、质量、价款或者报酬、履行期限、履行地点和方式、违约责任和解决争议方法等的变更,是对要约内容的实质性变更。
  Article 30 Acceptance Containing Material Change
  The terms of the acceptance shall be identical to those of the offer. A purported acceptance dispatched by the offeree which materially alters the terms of the offer constitutes a new offer. A change in the subject matter, quantity, quality, price or remuneration, time, place and method of performance, liabilities for breach of contract or method of dispute resolution is a material change to the terms of the offer.
  
  第三十一条 承诺对要约的内容作出非实质性变更的,除要约人及时表示反对或者要约表明承诺不得对要约的内容作出任何变更的以外,该承诺有效,合同的内容以承诺的内容为准。
  Article 31 Acceptance Containing Non-material Changes
  An acceptance containing nonmaterial changes to the terms of the offer is nevertheless valid and the terms thereof prevail as the terms of the contract, unless the offeror timely objects to such changes or the offer indicated that acceptance may not contain any change to the terms thereof.
  
  第三十二条 当事人采用合同书形式订立合同的,自双方当事人签字或者盖章时合同成立。
  Article 32 Time of Formation in Case of Memorandum of Contract
  Where the parties enter into a contract by a memorandum of contract, the contract is formed when it is signed or sealed by the parties.
  
  第三十三条 当事人采用信件、数据电文等形式订立合同的,可以在合同成立之前要求签订确认书。签订确认书时合同成立。
  Article 33 Time of Formation in Case of Letters or Electronic Messages; Confirmation Letter
  Where the parties enter into a contract by the exchange of letters or electronic messages, one party may require execution of a confirmation letter before the contract is formed. The contract is formed upon execution of the confirmation letter.
  
  第三十四条 承诺生效的地点为合同成立的地点。采用数据电文形式订立合同的,收件人的主营业地为合同成立的地点;没有主营业地的,其经常居住地为合同成立的地点。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。
  Article 34 Place of Formation; Electronic Messages
  The place where the acceptance becomes effective is the place of formation of a contract.
  Where a contract is concluded by the exchange of electronic messages, the recipient’s main place of business is the place of formation of the contract; if the recipient does not have a main place of business; its habitual residence is the place of formation of the contract. If the parties have agreed otherwise, such agreement prevails.
  
  第三十五条 当事人采用合同书形式订立合同的,双方当事人签字或者盖章的地点为合同成立的地点。
  Article 35 Place of Formation in Case of Memorandum of Contract
  Where a contract is concluded by a memorandum of contract, its place of formation is the place where the parties sign or seal the contract.
  
  第三十六条 法律、行政法规规定或者当事人约定采用书面形式订立合同,当事人未采用书面形式但一方已经履行主要义务,对方接受的,该合同成立。
  Article 36 Effect of Failure to Conclude Contract in Writing
  Where a contract is to be concluded by a writing as required by the relevant law or administrative regulation or as agreed by the parties, if the parties failed to conclude the contract in writing but one party has performed its main obligation and the other party has accepted the performance, the contract is formed.
  
  第三十七条 采用合同书形式订立合同,在签字或者盖章之前,当事人一方已经履行主要义务,对方接受的,该合同成立。
  Article 37 Effect of Failure to Sign in Case of Memorandum of Contract
  Where a contract is to be concluded by a memorandum of contract, if prior to signing or sealing of the contract, one party has performed its main obligation and the other party has accepted the performance, the contract is formed.
  
  第三十八条 国家根据需要下达指令性任务或者国家订货任务的,有关法人、其他组织之间应当依照有关法律、行政法规规定的权利和义务订立合同。
  Article 38 Contract under State Mandatory Plan
  Where the state has, in light of its requirements, issued a mandatory plan or state purchase order, the relevant legal persons and other organizations shall enter into a contract based on the rights and obligations of the parties prescribed by the relevant laws and administrative regulations.
  
  第三十九条 采用格式条款订立合同的,提供格式条款的一方应当遵循公平原则确定当事人之间的权利和义务,并采取合理的方式提请对方注意免除或者限制其责任的条款,按照对方的要求,对该条款予以说明。格式条款是当事人为了重复使用而预先拟定,并在订立合同时未与对方协商的条款。
  Article 39 Standard Terms; Duty to Call Attention
  Where a contract is concluded by way of standard terms, the party supplying the standard terms shall abide by the principle of fairness in prescribing the rights and obligations of the parties and shall, in a reasonable manner, call the other party’s attention to the provision(s) whereby such party’s liabilities are excluded or limited, and shall explain such provision(s) upon request by the other party.
  Standard terms are contract provisions which were prepared in advance by a party for repeated use, and which are not negotiated with the other party in the course of concluding the contract.
  
  第四十条 格式条款具有本法第五十二条和第五十三条规定情形的,或者提供格式条款一方免除其责任、加重对方责任、排除对方主要权利的,该条款无效。
  Article 40 Invalidity of Certain Standard Terms
  A standard term is invalid if it falls into any of the circumstances set forth in Article 52 and Article 53 hereof, or if it excludes the liabilities of the party supplying such term, increases the liabilities of the other party, or deprives the other party of any of its material rights.
  
  第四十一条 对格式条款的理解发生争议的,应当按照通常理解予以解释。对格式条款有两种以上解释的,应当作出不利于提供格式条款一方的解释。格式条款和非格式条款不一致的,应当采用非格式条款。
  Article 41 Dispute Concerning Construction of Standard Term
  In case of any dispute concerning the construction of a standard term, such term shall be interpreted in accordance with common sense. If the standard term is subject to two or          more interpretations, it shall be interpreted against the party supplying it. If a discrepancy exists between the standard term and a non-standard term, the non-standard term prevails.
  
  第四十二条 当事人在订立合同过程中有下列情形之一,给对方造成损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任:
  (一)假借订立合同,恶意进行磋商;
  (二)故意隐瞒与订立合同有关的重要事实或者提供虚假情况;
  (三)有其他违背诚实信用原则的行为。
  Article 42 Pre-contract Liabilities
  Where in the course of concluding a contract, a party engaged in any of the following conducts, thereby causing loss to the other party, it shall be liable for damages:
  (i) negotiating in bad faith under the pretext of concluding a contract;
  (ii) intentionally concealing a material fact relating to the conclusion of the contract or supplying false information;
  (iii) any other conduct which violates the principle of good faith.
  
  第四十三条 当事人在订立合同过程中知悉的商业秘密,无论合同是否成立,不得泄露或者不正当地使用。泄露或者不正当地使用该商业秘密给对方造成损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。
  Article 43 Trade Secrets; Liability for Disclosure or Improper Use
  A party may not disclose or improperly use any trade secret which it became aware of in the course of negotiating a contract, regardless of whether a contract is formed. If the party disclosed or improperly used such trade secret, thereby causing loss to the other party, it shall be liable for damages.
   第三章 合同的效力
  Chapter Three: Validity of Contracts
  
  
  第四十四条 依法成立的合同,自成立时生效。法律、行政法规规定应当办理批准、登记等手续生效的,依照其规定。
  Article 44 Effectiveness of Contract
  A lawfully formed contract becomes effective upon its formation.
  Where effectiveness of a contract is subject to any procedure such as approval or registration, etc. as required by a relevant law or administrative regulation, such provision applies.
  
  第四十五条 当事人对合同的效力可以约定附条件。附生效条件的合同,自条件成就时生效。附解除条件的合同,自条件成就时失效。当事人为自己的利益不正当地阻止条件成就的,视为条件已成就;不正当地促成条件成就的,视为条件不成就。
  Article 45 Conditions Precedent; Conditions Subsequent; Improper Impairment or Facilitation
  The parties may prescribe that effectiveness of a contract be subject to certain conditions. A contract subject to a condition precedent becomes effective once such condition is        satisfied. A contract subject to a condition subsequent is extinguished once such condition is satisfied.
  Where in order to further its own interests, a party improperly impaired the satisfaction of a condition, the condition is deemed to have been satisfied; where a party improperly facilitated the satisfaction of a condition, the condition is deemed not to have been satisfied.
  
  第四十六条 当事人对合同的效力可以约定附期限。附生效期限的合同,自期限届至时生效。附终止期限的合同,自期限届满时失效。
  Article 46 Contract Term
  The parties may prescribe a term for a contract. A contract subject to a time of commencement becomes effective at such time. A contract subject to a time of expiration is extinguished at such time.
  
  第四十七条 限制民事行为能力人订立的合同,经法定代理人追认后,该合同有效,但纯获利益的合同或者与其年龄、智力、精神健康状况相适应而订立的合同,不必经法定代理人追认。相对人可以催告法定代理人在一个月内予以追认。法定代理人未作表示的,视为拒绝追认。合同被追认之前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。撤销应当以通知的方式作出。
  Article 47 Contract by Person with Limited Capacity
  A contract concluded by a person with limited capacity for civil act is valid upon ratification by the legal agent thereof, provided that a contract from which such person accrues benefits only or the conclusion of which is appropriate for his age, intelligence or mental health does not require ratification by his legal agent.
  The other party may demand that the legal agent ratify the contract within one month. If the legal agent fails to manifest his intention, he is deemed to have declined to ratify the contract. Prior to ratification of the contract, the other party in good faith is entitled to cancel the    contract. Cancellation shall be effected by notification.
  
  第四十八条 行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后以被代理人名义订立的合同,未经被代理人追认,对被代理人不发生效力,由行为人承担责任。相对人可以催告被代理人在一个月内予以追认。被代理人未作表示的,视为拒绝追认。合同被追认之前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。撤销应当以通知的方式作出。
  Article 48 Contract by Unauthorized Agent
  Absent ratification by the principal, a contract concluded on his behalf by a person who lacked agency authority, who acted beyond his agency authority or whose agency authority was extinguished is not binding upon the principal unless ratified by him, and the person performing such act is liable.
  The other party may demand that the principal ratify the contract within one month. Where the principal fails to manifest his intention, he is deemed to have declined to ratify the contract. Prior to ratification of the contract, the other party in good faith is entitled to cancel the contract. Cancellation shall be effected by notification.
  
  第四十九条 行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后以被代理人名义订立合同,相对人有理由相信行为人有代理权的,该代理行为有效。
  Article 49 Contract by Person with Apparent Agency Authority
  Where the person lacking agency authority, acting beyond his agency authority, or whose agency authority was extinguished concluded a contract in the name of the principal, if it was reasonable for the other party to believe that the person performing the act had agency authority, such act of agency is valid.
  
  
  
  第五十条 法人或者其他组织的法定代表人、负责人超越权限订立的合同,除相对人知道或者应当知道其超越权限的以外,该代表行为有效。
  Article 50 Contract Executed by Legal Representative
  Where the legal representative or the person-in-charge of a legal person or an organization of any other nature entered into a contract acting beyond his scope of authority, unless the other party knew or should have known that he was acting beyond his scope of authority, such act of representation is valid.
  
  第五十一条 无处分权的人处分他人财产,经权利人追认或者无处分权的人订立合同后取得处分权的,该合同有效。
  Article 51 Unauthorized Disposal of Property through Contract
  Where a piece of property belonging to another person was disposed of by a person without the power to do so, such contract is nevertheless valid once the person with the power         to its disposal has ratified the contract, or if the person lacking the power to dispose of it when the contract was concluded has subsequently acquired such power.
  
  第五十二条 有下列情形之一的,合同无效:
  (一)一方以欺诈、胁迫的手段订立合同,损害国家利益;
  (二)恶意串通,损害国家、集体或者第三人利益;
  (三)以合法形式掩盖非法目的;
  (四)损害社会公共利益;
  (五)违反法律、行政法规的强制性规定。
  Article 52 Invalidating Circumstances
  A contract is invalid in any of the following circumstances:
  (i) One party induced conclusion of the contract through fraud or duress, thereby harming the interests of the state;
  (ii) The parties colluded in bad faith, thereby harming the interests of the state, the collective or any third party;
  (iii) The parties intended to conceal an illegal purpose under the guise of a legitimate transaction;
  (iv) The contract harms public interests;
  (v) The contract violates a mandatory provision of any law or administrative regulation.
  
  第五十三条 合同中的下列免责条款无效:
  (一)造成对方人身伤害的;
  (二)因故意或者重大过失造成对方财产损失的。
  Article 53 Invalidity of Certain Exculpatory Provisions
  The following exculpatory provisions in a contract are invalid:
  (i) excluding one party’s liability for personal injury caused to the other party;
  (ii) excluding one party’s liability for property loss caused to the other party by its intentional misconduct or gross negligence.
  
  第五十四条 下列合同,当事人一方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构变更或者撤销:
  (一)因重大误解订立的;
  (二)在订立合同时显失公平的。
    一方以欺诈、胁迫的手段或者乘人之危,使对方在违背真实意思的情况下订立的合同,受损害方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构变更或者撤销。
    当事人请求变更的,人民法院或者仲裁机构不得撤销。
  Article 54 Contract Subject to Amendment or Cancellation
  Either of the parties may petition the People’s Court or an arbitration institution for amendment or cancellation of a contract if:
  (i) the contract was concluded due to a material mistake;
  (ii) the contract was grossly unconscionable at the time of its conclusion.
  If a party induced the other party to enter into a contract against its true intention by fraud or duress, or by taking advantage of the other party’s hardship, the aggrieved party is entitled to petition the People’s Court or an arbitration institution for amendment or cancellation of the contract.
  Where a party petitions for amendment of the contract, the People’s Court or arbitration institution may not cancel the contract instead.
  
  第五十五条 有下列情形之一的,撤销权消灭:
  (一)具有撤销权的当事人自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内没有行使撤销权;
  (二)具有撤销权的当事人知道撤销事由后明确表示或者以自己的行为放弃撤销权。
  Article 55 Extinguishment of Cancellation Right
  A party’s cancellation right is extinguished in any of the following circumstances:
  (i) It fails to exercise the cancellation right within one year, commencing on the date when the party knew or should have known the cause for the cancellation;
  (ii) Upon becoming aware of the cause for cancellation, it waives the cancellation right by express statement or by conduct.
  
  
  第五十六条 无效的合同或者被撤销的合同自始没有法律约束力。合同部分无效,不影响其他部分效力的,其他部分仍然有效。
  Article 56 Effect of Invalidation or Cancellation; Partial Invalidation or Cancellation
  An invalid or canceled contract is not legally binding ab initio. Where a contract is partially invalid, and the validity of the remaining provisions thereof is not affected as a result, the remaining provisions are nevertheless valid.
  
  第五十七条 合同无效、被撤销或者终止的,不影响合同中独立存在的有关解决争议方法的条款的效力。
  Article 57 Independence of Dispute Resolution Provision
  The invalidation, cancellation or discharge of a contract does not impair the validity of the contract provision concerning the method of dispute resolution, which exists independently in the contract.
  
  第五十八条 合同无效或者被撤销后,因该合同取得的财产,应当予以返还;不能返还或者没有必要返还的,应当折价补偿。有过错的一方应当赔偿对方因此所受到的损失,双方都有过错的,应当各自承担相应的责任。
  Article 58 Remedies in Case of Invalidation or Cancellation
  After a contract was invalidated or canceled, the parties shall make restitution of any property acquired thereunder; where restitution in kind is not possible or necessary,  allowance shall be made in money based on the value of the property. The party at fault shall indemnify the other party for its loss sustained as a result. Where both parties were at  fault, the parties shall bear their respective liabilities accordingly.
  
  第五十九条 当事人恶意串通,损害国家、集体或者第三人利益的,因此取得的财产收归国家所有或者返还集体、第三人。
  Article 59 Remedies in Case of Collusion in Bad Faith
  Where the parties colluded in bad faith, thereby harming the interests of the state, the collective or a third person, any property acquired as a result shall be turned over to the state or be returned to the collective or the third person.
  
  第四章 合同的履行
  Chapter Four: Performance of Contracts
  
  
  第六十条 当事人应当按照约定全面履行自己的义务。当事人应当遵循诚实信用原则,根据合同的性质、目的和交易习惯履行通知、协助、保密等义务。
  Article 60 Full Performance; Performance in Good Faith
  The parties shall fully perform their respective obligations in accordance with the contract. The parties shall abide by the principle of good faith, and perform obligations such as notification, assistance, and confidentiality, etc. in light of the nature and purpose of the contract and in accordance with the relevant usage.
  
  第六十一条 合同生效后,当事人就质量、价款或者报酬、履行地点等内容没有约定或者约定不明确的,可以协议补充;不能达成补充协议的,按照合同有关条款或者交易习惯确定。
  Article 61 Indeterminate Terms; Supplementary Agreement
  If a term such as quality, price or remuneration, or place of performance etc. was not prescribed or clearly prescribed, after the contract has taken effect, the parties may      supplement it through agreement; if the parties fail to reach a supplementary agreement, such term shall be determined in accordance with the relevant provisions of the contract or in accordance with the relevant usage.
  
  第六十二条 当事人就有关合同内容约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,适用下列规定:
  (一)质量要求不明确的,按照国家标准、行业标准履行;没有国家标准、行业标准的,按照通常标准或者符合合同目的的特定标准履行。
  (二)价款或者报酬不明确的,按照订立合同时履行地的市场价格履行;依法应当执行政府定价或者政府指导价的,按照规定履行。
  (三)履行地点不明确,给付货币的,在接受货币一方所在地履行;交付不动产的,在不动产所在地履行;其他标的,在履行义务一方所在地履行。
  (四)履行期限不明确的,债务人可以随时履行,债权人也可以随时要求履行,但应当给对方必要的准备时间。
  (五)履行方式不明确的,按照有利于实现合同目的的方式履行。
  (六)履行费用的负担不明确的,由履行义务一方负担。
  Article 62 Gap Filling
  Where a relevant term of the contract was not clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, one of the following provisions applies:
  (i) If quality requirement was not clearly prescribed, performance shall be in accordance with the state standard or industry standard; absent any state or industry standard, performance shall be in accordance with the customary standard or any particular standard consistent with the purpose of the contract;
  (ii) If price or remuneration was not clearly prescribed, performance shall be in accordance with the prevailing market price at the place of performance at the time the contract was concluded, and if adoption of a price mandated by the government or based on government issued pricing guidelines is required by law, such requirement applies;
  (iii) Where the place of performance was not clearly prescribed, if the obligation is payment of money, performance shall be at the place where the payee is located; if the obligation is delivery of immovable property, performance shall be at the place where the immovable property is located; for any other subject matter, performance shall be at the place where the obligor is located;
  (iv) If the time of performance was not clearly prescribed, the obligor may perform, and the obligee may require performance, at any time, provided that the other party shall be given the time required for preparation;
  (v) If the method of performance was not clearly prescribed, performance shall be rendered in a manner which is conducive to realizing the purpose of the contract;
  (vi) If the party responsible for the expenses of performance was not clearly prescribed, the obligor shall bear the expenses.
  
  第六十三条 执行政府定价或者政府指导价的,在合同约定的交付期限内政府价格调整时,按照交付时的价格计价。逾期交付标的物的,遇价格上涨时,按照原价格执行;价格下降时,按照新价格执行。逾期提取标的物或者逾期付款的,遇价格上涨时,按照新价格执行;价格下降时,按照原价格执行。
  Article 63 Performance at Government Mandated Price
  Where a contract is to be implemented at a price mandated by the government or based on government issued pricing guidelines, if the government adjusts the price during the prescribed period of delivery, the contract price shall be the price at the time of delivery. Where a party delays in delivering the subject matter, the original price applies if the price has increased, and the new price applies if the price has decreased. Where a party delays in taking delivery or making payment, the new price applies if the price has increased, and the original price applies if the price has decreased.
  
  第六十四条 当事人约定由债务人向第三人履行债务的,债务人未向第三人履行债务或者履行债务不符合约定,应当向债权人承担违约责任。
  Article 64 Performance toward a Third Person
  Where the parties prescribed that the obligor render performance to a third person, if the obligor fails to render its performance to the third person, or rendered non-conforming performance, it shall be liable to the obligee for breach of contract.
  
  第六十五条 当事人约定由第三人向债权人履行债务的,第三人不履行债务或者履行债务不符合约定,债务人应当向债权人承担违约责任。
  Article 65 Performance by a Third Person
  Where the parties prescribed that a third person render performance to the obligee, if the third person fails to perform or rendered non-conforming performance, the obligor shall be liable to the obligee for breach of contract.
  
  第六十六条 当事人互负债务,没有先后履行顺序的,应当同时履行。一方在对方履行之前有权拒绝其履行要求。一方在对方履行债务不符合约定时,有权拒绝其相应的履行要求。
  Article 66 Simultaneous Performance
  Where the parties owe performance toward each other and there is no order of performance, the parties shall perform simultaneously. Prior to performance by the other party, one party is entitled to reject its requirement for performance. If the other party rendered non-conforming performance, one party is entitled to reject its corresponding requirement for performance.
  
  第六十七条 当事人互负债务,有先后履行顺序,先履行一方未履行的,后履行一方有权拒绝其履行要求。先履行一方履行债务不符合约定的,后履行一方有权拒绝其相应的履行要求。
  Article 67 Consecutive Performance
  Where the parties owe performance toward each other and there is an order of performance, prior to performance by the party required to perform first, the party who is to perform subsequently is entitled to reject its requirement for performance. If the party required to perform first rendered non-conforming performance, the party who is to perform subsequently is entitled to reject its corresponding requirement for performance.
  
  第六十八条 应当先履行债务的当事人,有确切证据证明对方有下列情形之一的,可以中止履行:
  (一)经营状况严重恶化;
  (二)转移财产、抽逃资金,以逃避债务;
  (三)丧失商业信誉;
  (四)有丧失或者可能丧失履行债务能力的其他情形。
  当事人没有确切证据中止履行的,应当承担违约责任。
  Article 68 Right to Suspend Performance
  The party required to perform first may suspend its performance if it has conclusive evidence establishing that the other party is in any of the following circumstances:
  (i) Its business has seriously deteriorated;
  (ii) It has engaged in transfer of assets or withdrawal of funds for the purpose of evading debts;
  (iii) It has lost its business creditworthiness;
  (iv) It is in any other circumstance which will or may cause it to lose its ability to perform.
  Where a party suspends performance without conclusive evidence, it shall be liable for breach of contract.
  
  第六十九条 当事人依照本法第六十八条的规定中止履行的,应当及时通知对方。对方提供适当担保时,应当恢复履行。中止履行后,对方在合理期限内未恢复履行能力并且未提供适当担保的,中止履行的一方可以解除合同。
  Article 69 Notification upon Suspension of Performance; Termination
  If a party suspends its performance in accordance with Article 68 hereof, it shall timely notify the other party. If the other party provides appropriate assurance for its performance, the party shall resume performance. After performance was suspended, if the other party fails to regain its ability to perform and fails to provide appropriate assurance within a reasonable time, the suspending party may terminate the contract.
  
  第七十条 债权人分立、合并或者变更住所没有通知债务人,致使履行债务发生困难的,债务人可以中止履行或者将标的物提存。
  Article 70 Difficulty in Rendering Performance Due to Combination
  Where after effecting combination, division, or change of domicile, the obligee failed to notify the obligor, thereby making it difficult to render performance, the obligor may suspend its performance or place the subject matter in escrow.
  
  第七十一条 债权人可以拒绝债务人提前履行债务,但提前履行不损害债权人利益的除外。债务人提前履行债务给债权人增加的费用,由债务人负担。
  Article 71 Right to Reject Early Performance; Exception
  The obligee may reject the obligor’s early performance, except where such early performance does not harm the obligee’s interests.
  Any additional expense incurred by the obligee due to the obligor’s early performance shall be borne by the obligor.
  
  第七十二条 债权人可以拒绝债务人部分履行债务,但部分履行不损害债权人利益的除外。债务人部分履行债务给债权人增加的费用,由债务人负担。
  Article 72 Right to Reject Partial Performance; Exception
  An obligee may reject the obligor’s partial performance, except where such partial performance does not harm the obligee’s interests.
  Any additional expense incurred by the obligee due to the obligor’s partial performance shall be borne by the obligor.
  
  第七十三条 因债务人怠于行使其到期债权,对债权人造成损害的,债权人可以向人民法院请求以自己的名义代位行使债务人的债权,但该债权专属于债务人自身的除外。代位权的行使范围以债权人的债权为限。债权人行使代位权的必要费用,由债务人负担。
  Article 73 Subrogation; Limitation
  Where the obligor delayed in exercising its creditor’s right against a third person that was due, thereby harming the obligee, the obligee may petition the People’s Court for subrogation, except where such creditor’s right is exclusively personal to the obligor. The scope of subrogation is limited to the extent of the obligee’s right to performance. The necessary expenses for subrogation by the obligee shall be borne by the obligor.
  
  第七十四条 因债务人放弃其到期债权或者无偿转让财产,对债权人造成损害的,债权人可以请求人民法院撤销债务人的行为。债务人以明显不合理的低价转让财产,对债权人造成损害,并且受让人知道该情形的,债权人也可以请求人民法院撤销债务人的行为。撤销权的行使范围以债权人的债权为限。债权人行使撤销权的必要费用,由债务人负担。
  Article 74 Obligee’s Right to Cancel Manifestly Unreasonable Act by Obligor
  Where the obligor waived its creditor’s right against a third person that was due or assigned its property without reward, thereby harming the obligee, the obligee may petition the People’s Court for cancellation of the obligor’s act. Where the obligor assigned its property at a low price which is manifestly unreasonable, thereby harming the obligee, and the      assignee was aware of the situation, the obligee may also petition the People’s Court for cancellation of the obligor’s act.
  The scope of cancellation right is limited to the extent of the obligee’s right to performance. The necessary expenses for the obligee’s exercise of its cancellation right shall be borne by the obligor.
  
  第七十五条 撤销权自债权人知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内行使。自债务人的行为发生之日起五年内没有行使撤销权的,该撤销权消灭。
  Article 75 Time Limit for Exercising Obligee’s Cancellation Right
  The obligee’s cancellation right shall be exercised within one year, commencing on the date when it became, or should have become, aware of the cause for cancellation. Such cancellation right is extinguished if not exercised within five years, commencing on the date of occurrence of the obligor’s act.
  
  第七十六条 合同生效后,当事人不得因姓名、名称的变更或者法定代表人、负责人、承办人的变动而不履行合同义务。
  Article 76 A Party’s Internal Change Not Excuse for Nonperformance
  Once a contract becomes effective, a party may not refuse to perform its obligations thereunder on grounds of any change in its name or change of its legal representative, person in charge, or the person handling the contract.
  第五章 合同的变更和转让
  Chapter Five: Amendment and Assignment of Contracts
  第七十七条 当事人协商一致,可以变更合同。法律、行政法规规定变更合同应当办理批准、登记等手续的,依照其规定。
  
  Article 77 Amendment; Amendment Subject to Approval
  A contract may be amended if the parties have so agreed.
  Where amendment to the contract is subject to any procedure such as approval or registration, etc. as required by a relevant law or administrative regulation, such provision pplies.
  第七十八条 当事人对合同变更的内容约定不明确的,推定为未变更。
  Article 78 Ambiguous Amendment Not Effective
  A contract term is construed not to have been amended if the parties failed to clearly prescribe the terms of the amendment.
  
  第七十九条 债权人可以将合同的权利全部或者部分转让给第三人,但有下列情形之一的除外:
  (一)根据合同性质不得转让;
  (二)按照当事人约定不得转让;
  (三)依照法律规定不得转让。
  Article 79 Assignment of Rights; Exceptions
  The obligee may assign its rights under a contract in whole or in part to a third person, except where such assignment is prohibited:
  (i) in light of the nature of the contract;
  (ii) by agreement between the parties;
  (iii) by law.
  
  第八十条 债权人转让权利的,应当通知债务人。未经通知,该转让对债务人不发生效力。债权人转让权利的通知不得撤销,但经受让人同意的除外。
  Article 80 Duty to Notify When Assigning Rights; Revocation of Assignment Subject to Assignee’s Consent
  Where the obligee assigns its rights, it shall notify the obligor. Such assignment is not binding upon the obligor if notice was not given.
  A notice of assignment of rights given by the obligee may not be revoked, except with the consent of the assignee.
  
  
  第八十一条 债权人转让权利的,受让人取得与债权有关的从权利,但该从权利专属于债权人自身的除外。
  Article 81 Assumption of Incidental Right in Case of Assignment
  Where the obligee assigns a right, the assignee shall assume any incidental right associated with the obligee’s right, except where such incidental right is exclusively personal to the obligee.
  
  
  第八十二条 债务人接到债权转让通知后,债务人对让与人的抗辩,可以向受让人主张。
  Article 82 Assigned Rights Subject to Accrued Defenses of Obligor
  Upon receipt of the notice of assignment of the obligee’s right, the obligor may, in respect of the assignee, avail itself of any defense it has against the assignor.
  
  第八十三条 债务人接到债权转让通知时,债务人对让与人享有债权,并且债务人的债权先于转让的债权到期或者同时到期的,债务人可以向受让人主张抵销。
  Article 83 Availability of Set-off to Obligor
  Upon receipt of the notice of assignment of the obligee’s right, if the obligor has any right to performance by the assignor which is due before or at the same time as the assigned obligee’s right, the obligor may avail itself of any set-off against the assignee.
  
  第八十四条 债务人将合同的义务全部或者部分转移给第三人的,应当经债权人同意。
  Article 84 Delegation of Obligations Subject to Consent by Obligee
  where the obligor delegates its obligations under a contract in whole or in part to a third person, such delegation is subject to consent by the obligee.
  
  第八十五条 债务人转移义务的,新债务人可以主张原债务人对债权人的抗辩。
  Article 85 Availability of Defenses to New Obligor
  Where the obligor has delegated an obligation, the new obligor may avail itself of any of the original obligor’s defenses against the obligee.
  
  第八十六条 债务人转移义务的,新债务人应当承担与主债务有关的从债务,但该从债务专属于原债务人自身的除外。
  Article 86 Assumption of Incidental Obligation in Case of Delegation
  Where the obligor delegates an obligation, the new obligor shall assume any incidental obligation associated with the main obligation, except where such incidental obligation is          exclusively personal to the original obligor.
  
  第八十七条 法律、行政法规规定转让权利或者转移义务应当办理批准、登记等手续的,依照其规定。
  Article 87 Assignment Subject to Approval
  Where the obligee’s assignment of a right or the obligor’s delegation of an obligation is subject to any procedure such as approval or registration, etc. as required by a relevant law or administrative regulation, such provision applies.
  
  第八十八条 当事人一方经对方同意,可以将自己在合同中的权利和义务一并转让给第三人。
  Article 88 Concurrent Assignment and Delegation
  Upon consent by the other party, one party may concurrently assign its rights and delegate its obligations under a contract to a third person.
  
  第八十九条 权利和义务一并转让的,适用本法第七十九条、第八十一条至第八十三条、第八十五条至第八十七条的规定。
  Article 89 Provisions Applicable to Concurrent Assignment
  Where a party concurrently assigns its rights and delegates its obligations, the provisions in Article 79, Articles 81 to 83, and Articles 85 to 87 apply.
  
  第九十条 当事人订立合同后合并的,由合并后的法人或者其他组织行使合同权利,履行合同义务。当事人订立合同后分立的,除债权人和债务人另有约定的以外,由分立的法人或者其他组织对合同的权利和义务享有连带债权,承担连带债务。
  Article 90 Effect of Combination or Division of Contract Party
  Where a party has effected combination after it entered into a contract, the legal person or organization of any other nature resulting from the combination assumes the rights and obligations thereunder. Where a party has effected division after it entered into a contract, unless otherwise agreed by the obligee and obligor thereunder, the legal persons or other organizations resulting from the division jointly and severally assume the rights and obligations thereunder.
  
  
  第六章 合同的权利义务终止
  Chapter Six: Discharge of Contractual Rights and Obligations
  
  
  第九十一条 有下列情形之一的,合同的权利义务终止:
  (一)债务已经按照约定履行;
  (二)合同解除;
  (三)债务相互抵销;
  (四)债务人依法将标的物提存;
  (五)债权人免除债务;
  (六)债权债务同归于一人;
  (七)法律规定或者当事人约定终止的其他情形。
  Article 91 Conditions for Discharge
  The rights and obligations under a contract are discharged in any of the following circumstances:
  (i) The obligations were performed in accordance with the contract;
  (ii) The contract was terminated;
  (iii) The obligations were set off against each other;
  (iv) The obligor placed the subject matter in escrow in accordance with the law;
  (v) The obligee released the obligor from performance;
  (vi) Both the obligee’s rights and obligor’s obligations were assumed by one party;
  (vii) Any other discharging circumstance provided by law or prescribed by the parties occurred.
  
  第九十二条 合同的权利义务终止后,当事人应当遵循诚实信用原则,根据交易习惯履行通知、协助、保密等义务。
  Article 92 Post-discharge Obligations
  Upon discharge of the rights and obligations under a contract, the parties shall abide by the principle of good faith and perform obligations such as notification, assistance and confidentiality, etc. in accordance with the relevant usage.
  
  第九十三条 当事人协商一致,可以解除合同。当事人可以约定一方解除合同的条件。解除合同的条件成就时,解除权人可以解除合同。
  Article 93 Termination by Agreement; Termination Right
  The parties may terminate a contract if they have so agreed.
  The parties may prescribe a condition under which one party is entitled to terminate the contract. Upon satisfaction of the condition for termination of the contract, the party with the termination right may terminate the contract.
  
  第九十四条 有下列情形之一的,当事人可以解除合同:
  (一)因不可抗力致使不能实现合同目的;
  (二)在履行期限届满之前,当事人一方明确表示或者以自己的行为表明不履行主要债务;
  (三)当事人一方迟延履行主要债务,经催告后在合理期限内仍未履行;
  (四)当事人一方迟延履行债务或者有其他违约行为致使不能实现合同目的;
  (五)法律规定的其他情形。
  Article 94 Legally Prescribed Conditions Giving Rise to Termination Right
  The parties may terminate a contract if:
  (i) force majeure frustrated the purpose of the contract;
  (ii) before the time of performance, the other party expressly stated or indicated by its conduct that it will not perform its main obligations;
  (iii) the other party delayed performance of its main obligations, and failed to perform within a reasonable time after receiving demand for performance;
  (iv) the other party delayed performance or otherwise breached the contract, thereby frustrating the purpose of the contract;
  (v) any other circumstance provided by law occurred.
  
  第九十五条 法律规定或者当事人约定解除权行使期限,期限届满当事人不行使的,该权利消灭。法律没有规定或者当事人没有约定解除权行使期限,经对方催告后在合理期限内不行使的,该权利消灭。
  Article 95 Time Limit for Termination; Extinguishment of Termination Right
  Where the law or the parties prescribe a period for exercising termination right, failure by a party to exercise it at the end of the period shall extinguish such right.
  Where neither the law nor the parties prescribe a period for exercising termination right, failure by a party to exercise it within a reasonable time after receiving demand from the other party shall extinguish such right.
  
  第九十六条 当事人一方依照本法第九十三条第二款、第九十四条的规定主张解除合同的,应当通知对方。合同自通知到达对方时解除。对方有异议的,可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构确认解除合同的效力。法律、行政法规规定解除合同应当办理批准、登记等手续的,依照其规定。
  Article 96 Termination by Notification; Termination Subject to Approval
  The party availing itself of termination of a contract in accordance with Paragraph 2 of Article 93 and Article 94 hereof shall notify the other party. The contract is terminated when the notice reaches the other party. If the other party objects to the termination, the terminating party may petition the People’s Court or an arbitration institution to affirm the validity of the termination.
  Where termination of a contract is subject to any procedure such as approval or registration, etc. as required by a relevant law or administrative regulation, such provision applies.
  
  第九十七条 合同解除后,尚未履行的,终止履行;已经履行的,根据履行情况和合同性质,当事人可以要求恢复原状、采取其他补救措施,并有权要求赔偿损失。
  Article 97 Remedies in Case of Termination
  Upon termination of a contract, a performance which has not been rendered is discharged; if a performance has been rendered, a party may, in light of the degree of performance and the nature of the contract, require the other party to restore the subject matter to its original condition or otherwise remedy the situation, and is entitled to claim damages.
  
  第九十八条 合同的权利义务终止,不影响合同中结算和清理条款的效力。
  Article 98 Settlement and Winding-up Provisions Not Affected by Discharge
  Discharge of contractual rights and obligations does not affect the validity of contract provisions concerning settlement of account and winding-up.
  
  第九十九条 当事人互负到期债务,该债务的标的物种类、品质相同的,任何一方可以将自己的债务与对方的债务抵销,但依照法律规定或者按照合同性质不得抵销的除外。当事人主张抵销的,应当通知对方。通知自到达对方时生效。抵销不得附条件或者附期限。
  Article 99 Set-off; Set-off Not Subject to Condition
  Where each party owes performance to the other party that is due, and the subject matters of the obligations are identical in type and quality, either party may set off its obligation  against the obligation of the other party, except where set-off is prohibited by law or in light of the nature of the contract.
  The party availing itself of set-off shall notify the other party. The notice becomes effective when it reaches the other party. Set-off may not be subject to any condition or time limit.
  
  第一百条 当事人互负债务,标的物种类、品质不相同的,经双方协商一致,也可以抵销。
  Article 100 Set-off Involving Non-identical Subject Matters
  Where each party owes performance to the other party that is due, and the subject matters of the obligations are not identical in type and quality, the parties may effect set-off by mutual agreement.
  
  第一百零一条 有下列情形之一,难以履行债务的,债务人可以将标的物提存:
  (一)债权人无正当理由拒绝受领;
  (二)债权人下落不明;
  (三)债权人死亡未确定继承人或者丧失民事行为能力未确定监护人;
  (四)法律规定的其他情形。标的物不适于提存或者提存费用过高的,债务人依法可以拍卖或者变卖标的物,提存所得的价款。
  Article 101 Conditions Giving Rise to Right to Place Subject Matter in Escrow
  Where any of the following circumstances makes it difficult to render performance, the obligor may place the subject matter in escrow:
  (i) The obligee refuses to take delivery of the subject matter without cause;
  (ii) The obligee cannot be located;
  (iii) The obligee is deceased or incapacitated, and his heir or guardian is not determined;
  (iv) Any other circumstance provided by law occurs.
  Where the subject matter is not fit for escrow, or the escrow expenses will be excessive, the obligor may auction or liquidate the subject matter and place the proceeds in, escrow.
  
  第一百零二条 标的物提存后,除债权人下落不明的以外,债务人应当及时通知债权人或者债权人的继承人、监护人。
  Article 102 Duty to Notify in Case of Escrow
  After placing the subject matter in escrow, the obligor shall timely notify the obligee or his heir or guardian, except where the obligee cannot be located.
  
  第一百零三条 标的物提存后,毁损、灭失的风险由债权人承担。提存期间,标的物的孳息归债权人所有。提存费用由债权人负担。
  Article 103 Risk of Loss; Fruits of Subject Matter Accrued during Escrow
  Once the subject matter is in escrow, the risk of its damage or loss is borne by the obligee. The fruits of the subject matter accrued during escrow belong to the obligee. Escrow expenses shall be borne by the obligee.
  
  第一百零四条 债权人可以随时领取提存物,但债权人对债务人负有到期债务的,在债权人未履行债务或者提供担保之前,提存部门根据债务人的要求应当拒绝其领取提存物。债权人领取提存物的权利,自提存之日起五年内不行使而消灭,提存物扣除提存费用后归国家所有。
  Article 104 Taking Delivery of Subject Matter in Escrow Conditional upon Performance; Time Limit The obligee may take delivery of the subject matter in escrow at any time, provided that if the obligee owes performance toward the obligor that is due, prior to the obligee’s  performance or provision of assurance, the escrow agent shall reject the obligee’s attempt to take delivery of the subject matter in escrow as required by the obligor. The right of the obligee to take delivery of the subject matter in escrow is extinguished if not exercised within five years, commencing on the date when the subject matter was placed in escrow. After deduction of escrow expenses, the subject matter in escrow shall be turned over to the state.
  
  第一百零五条 债权人免除债务人部分或者全部债务的,合同的权利义务部分或者全部终止。
  Article 105 Release
  Where the obligee released the obligor from performance in part or in whole, the rights and obligations under the contract are discharged in part or in whole.
  
  第一百零六条 债权和债务同归于一人的,合同的权利义务终止,但涉及第三人利益的除外。
  Article 106 Merger of Rights and Obligations
  If the same party assumed all the rights and obligations under a contract, the rights and obligations thereunder are discharged, except where the contract involves the interests of a third person.
  
  第七章 违约责任
  Chapter Seven: Liabilities for Breach of Contracts
  
  
  第一百零七条 当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定的,应当承担继续履行、采取补救措施或者赔偿损失等违约责任。
  Article 107 Types of Liabilities for Breach
  If a party fails to perform its obligations under a contract, or rendered non-conforming performance, it shall bear the liabilities for breach of contract by specific performance, cure of non-conforming performance or payment of damages, etc.
  
  第一百零八条 当事人一方明确表示或者以自己的行为表明不履行合同义务的,对方可以在履行期限届满之前要求其承担违约责任。
  Article 108 Anticipatory Breach
  Where one party expressly states or indicates by its conduct that it will not perform its obligations under a contract, the other party may hold it liable for breach of contract before the time of performance.
  
  第一百零九条 当事人一方未支付价款或者报酬的,对方可以要求其支付价款或者报酬。
  Article 109 Monetary Specific Performance
  If a party fails to pay the price or remuneration, the other party may require payment thereof.
  
  第一百一十条 当事人一方不履行非金钱债务或者履行非金钱债务不符合约定的,对方可以要求履行,但有下列情形之一的除外:(一)法律上或者事实上不能履行;(二)债务的标的不适于强制履行或者履行费用过高;(三)债权人在合理期限内未要求履行。
  Article 110 Non-monetary Specific Performance; Exceptions
  Where a party fails to perform, or rendered non-conforming performance of, a non-monetary obligation, the other party may require performance, except where:
  (i) performance is impossible in law or in fact;
  (ii) the subject matter of the obligation does not lend itself to enforcement by specific performance or the cost of performance is excessive;
  (iii) the obligee does not require performance within a reasonable time.
  
  第一百一十一条 质量不符合约定的,应当按照当事人的约定承担违约责任。对违约责任没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,受损害方根据标的的性质以及损失的大小,可以合理选择要求对方承担修理、更换、重作、退货、减少价款或者报酬等违约责任。
  Article 111 Liabilities in Case of Quality Non-compliance
  Where a performance does not meet the prescribed quality requirements, the breaching party shall be liable for breach in accordance with the contract. Where the liabilities for breach were not prescribed or clearly prescribed, and cannot be determined in accordance with Article 61 hereof, the aggrieved party may, by reasonable election in light of the nature of the subject matter and the degree of loss, require the other party to assume liabilities for breach by way of repair, replacement, remaking, acceptance of returned goods, or reduction in price or remuneration, etc.
  
  第一百一十二条 当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定的,在履行义务或者采取补救措施后,对方还有其他损失的,应当赔偿损失。
  Article 112 Liability for Damages Notwithstanding Subsequent
  Performance or Cure of Non-conforming Performance Where a party failed to perform or rendered non-conforming performance, if notwithstanding its subsequent performance or cure of non-conforming performance, the other party has sustained other loss, the breaching party shall pay damages.
  
  第一百一十三条 当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定,给对方造成损失的,损失赔偿额应当相当于因违约所造成的损失,包括合同履行后可以获得的利益,但不得超过违反合同一方订立合同时预见到或者应当预见到的因违反合同可能造成的损失。经营者对消费者提供商品或者服务有欺诈行为的,依照《中华人民共和国消费者权益保护法》的规定承担损害赔偿责任。
  Article 113 Calculation of Damages; Damages to Consumer
  Where a party failed to perform or rendered non-conforming performance, thereby causing loss to the other party, the amount of damages payable shall be equivalent to the other party’s loss resulting from the breach, including any benefit that may be accrued from performance of the contract, provided that the amount shall not exceed the likely loss resulting from the breach which was foreseen or should have been foreseen by the breaching party at the time of conclusion of the contract.
  Where a merchant engages in any fraudulent activity while supplying goods or services to a consumer, it is liable for damages in accordance with the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Protection of Consumer Rights.
  
  第一百一十四条 当事人可以约定一方违约时应当根据违约情况向对方支付一定数额的违约金,也可以约定因违约产生的损失赔偿额的计算方法。约定的违约金低于造成的损失的,当事人可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以增加;约定的违约金过分高于造成的损失的,当事人可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以适当减少。当事人就迟延履行约定违约金的,违约方支付违约金后,还应当履行债务。
  Article 114 Liquidated Damages; Adjustment; Continuing Performance
  Notwithstanding Payment of Liquidated Damages
  The parties may prescribe that if one party breaches the contract, it will pay a certain sum of liquidated damages to the other party in light of the degree of breach, or prescribe a method for calculation of damages for the loss resulting from a party’s breach. Where the amount of liquidated damages prescribed is below the loss resulting from the breach, a party may petition the People’s Court or an arbitration institution to increase the amount; where the amount of liquidated damages prescribed exceeds the loss resulting from the breach, a party may petition the People’s Court or an arbitration institution to decrease the amount as appropriate. Where the parties prescribed liquidated damages for delayed performance, the breaching party shall, in addition to payment of the liquidated damages, render performance.
  
  第一百一十五条 当事人可以依照《中华人民共和国担保法》约定一方向对方给付定金作为债权的担保。债务人履行债务后,定金应当抵作价款或者收回。给付定金的一方不履行约定的债务的,无权要求返还定金;收受定金的一方不履行约定的债务的,应当双倍返还定金。
  Article 115 Deposit
  The parties may prescribe that a party will give a deposit to the other party as assurance for the obligee’s right to performance in accordance with the Security Law of the People’s Republic of China. Upon performance by the obligor, the deposit shall be set off against the price or refunded to the obligor. If the party giving the deposit failed to perform its obligations under the contract, it is not entitled to claim refund of the deposit; where the party receiving the deposit failed to perform its obligations under the contract, it shall return to the other party twice the amount of the deposit.
  
  
  第一百一十六条 当事人既约定违约金,又约定定金的,一方违约时,对方可以选择适用违约金或者定金条款。
  Article 116 Election Between Deposit or Liquidated Damages Clauses
  If the parties prescribed payment of both liquidated damages and a deposit, in case of breach by a party, the other party may elect in alternative to apply the liquidated damages clause or the deposit clause.
  
  第一百一十七条 因不可抗力不能履行合同的,根据不可抗力的影响,部分或者全部免除责任,但法律另有规定的除外。当事人迟延履行后发生不可抗力的,不能免除责任。本法所称不可抗力,是指不能预见、不能避免并不能克服的客观情况。
  Article 117 Force Majeure
  A party who was unable to perform a contract due to force majeure is exempted from liability in part or in whole in light of the impact of the event of force majeure, except otherwise provided by law. Where an event of force majeure occurred after the party’s delay in performance, it is not exempted from liability.
  For purposes of this Law, force majeure means any objective circumstance which is unforeseeable, unavoidable and insurmountable.
  
  第一百一十八条 当事人一方因不可抗力不能履行合同的,应当及时通知对方,以减轻可能给对方造成的损失,并应当在合理期限内提供证明。
  Article 118 Duty to Notify in Case of Force Majeure
  If a party is unable to perform a contract due to force majeure, it shall timely notify the other party so as to mitigate the loss that may be caused to the other party, and shall provide proof of force majeure within a reasonable time.
  
  第一百一十九条 当事人一方违约后,对方应当采取适当措施防止损失的扩大;没有采取适当措施致使损失扩大的,不得就扩大的损失要求赔偿。当事人因防止损失扩大而支出的合理费用,由违约方承担。
  Article 119 Non-Breaching Party’s Duty to Mitigate Loss in Case of Breach
  Where a party breached the contract, the other party shall take the appropriate measures to prevent further loss; where the other party sustained further loss due to its failure to take the appropriate measures, it may not claim damages for such further loss. Any reasonable expense incurred by the other party in preventing further loss shall be borne by the breaching party.
  
  第一百二十条 当事人双方都违反合同的,应当各自承担相应的责任。
  Article 120 Bilateral Breach
  In case of bilateral breach, the parties shall assume their respective liabilities accordingly.
  
  第一百二十一条 当事人一方因第三人的原因造成违约的,应当向对方承担违约责任。当事人一方和第三人之间的纠纷,依照法律规定或者按照约定解决。
  Article 121 Breach Due to Act of Third Person
  Where a party’s breach was attributable to a third person, it shall nevertheless be liable to the other party for breach. 
  Any dispute between the party and such third person shall be resolved in accordance with the law or the agreement between the parties.
  
  第一百二十二条 因当事人一方的违约行为,侵害对方人身、财产权益的,受损害方有权选择依照本法要求其承担违约责任或者依照其他法律要求其承担侵权责任。
  Article 122 Election of Remedy in Tort or in Contract
  Where a party’s breach harmed the personal or property interests of the other party, the aggrieved party is entitled to elect to hold the party liable for breach of contract in accordance herewith, or hold the party liable for tort in accordance with any other relevant law.
  
  第八章 其他规定
  Chapter Eight: Other Provisions
  
  第一百二十三条 其他法律对合同另有规定的,依照其规定。
  Article 123 Applicability of Other Laws
  Where another law provides otherwise in respect of a certain contract, such provisions prevail.
  
  第一百二十四条 本法分则或者其他法律没有明文规定的合同,适用本法总则的规定,并可以参照本法分则或者其他法律最相类似的规定。
  Article 124 Applicability to Non-categorized Contracts
  Where there is no express provision in the Specific Provisions hereof or any other law concerning a certain contract, the provisions in the General Principles hereof apply, and reference may be made to the provisions in the Specific Provisions hereof or any other law applicable to a contract which is most similar to such contract.
  
  第一百二十五条 当事人对合同条款的理解有争议的,应当按照合同所使用的词句、合同的有关条款、合同的目的、交易习惯以及诚实信用原则,确定该条款的真实意思。合同文本采用两种以上文字订立并约定具有同等效力的,对各文本使用的词句推定具有相同含义。各文本使用的词句不一致的,应当根据合同的目的予以解释。
  Article 125 Contract Interpretation; Language Versions
  In case of any dispute between the parties concerning the construction of a contract term, the true meaning thereof shall be determined according to the words and sentences used in the contract, the relevant provisions and the purpose of the contract, and in accordance with the relevant usage and the principle of good faith.
  Where a contract was executed in two or more languages and it provides that all versions are equally authentic, the words and sentences in each version are construed to have the same meaning. In case of any discrepancy in the words or sentences used in the different language versions, they shall be interpreted in light of the purpose of the contract.
  
  第一百二十六条 涉外合同的当事人可以选择处理合同争议所适用的法律,但法律另有规定的除外。涉外合同的当事人没有选择的,适用与合同有最密切联系的国家的法律。在中华人民共和国境内履行的中外合资经营企业合同、中外合作经营企业合同、中外合作勘探开发自然资源合同,适用中华人民共和国法律。
  Article 126 Choice of Law in Foreign-related Contracts; Contracts Subject to Mandatory Application of Chinese Law
  Parties to a foreign related contract may select the applicable law for resolution of a contractual dispute, except otherwise provided by law. Where parties to the foreign related contract failed to select the applicable law, the contract shall be governed by the law of the country with the closest connection thereto.
  For a Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Contract, Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Contract, or a Contract for Sino-foreign Joint Exploration and Development of Natural Resources which is performed within the territory of the People’s Republic of China, the law of the People’s Republic of China applies.
  
  第一百二十七条 工商行政管理部门和其他有关行政主管部门在各自的职权范围内,依照法律、行政法规的规定,对利用合同危害国家利益、社会公共利益的违法行为,负责监督处理;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
  Article 127 Role of Regulatory Authorities
  Within the scope of their respective duties, the authority for the administration of industry and commerce and other relevant authorities shall, in accordance with the relevant laws and administrative regulations, be responsible for monitoring and dealing with any illegal act which, through the conclusion of a contract, harms the state interests or the public interests; where such act constitutes a crime, criminal liability shall be imposed in accordance with the law.
  
  第一百二十八条 当事人可以通过和解或者调解解决合同争议。当事人不愿和解、调解或者和解、调解不成的,可以根据仲裁协议向仲裁机构申请仲裁。涉外合同的当事人可以根据仲裁协议向中国仲裁机构或者其他仲裁机构申请仲裁。当事人没有订立仲裁协议或者仲裁协议无效的,可以向人民法院起诉。当事人应当履行发生法律效力的判决、仲裁裁决、调解书;拒不履行的,对方可以请求人民法院执行。
  Article 128 Dispute Resolution
  The parties may resolve a contractual dispute through settlement or mediation.
  Where the parties do not wish to, or are unable to, resolve such dispute through settlement or mediation, the dispute may be submitted to the relevant arbitration institution for arbitration in accordance with the arbitration agreement between the parties. Parties to a foreign related contract may apply to a Chinese arbitration institution or another arbitration institution for arbitration. Where the parties did not conclude an arbitration agreement, or the arbitration agreement is invalid, either party may bring a suit to the People’s Court. The parties shall perform any judgment, arbitral award or mediation agreement which has taken legal effect; if a party refuses to perform, the other party may apply to the People’s Court for enforcement.
  
  第一百二十九条 因国际货物买卖合同和技术进出口合同争议提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的期限为四年,自当事人知道或者应当知道其权利受到侵害之日起计算。因其他合同争议提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的期限,依照有关法律的规定。
  Article 129 Time Limit for Action
  For a dispute arising from a contract for the international sale of goods or a technology import or export contract, the time limit for bringing a suit or applying for arbitration is four years, commencing on the date when the party knew or should have known that its rights were harmed. For a dispute arising from any other type of contract, the time limit for bringing a suit or applying for arbitration shall be governed by the relevant law.


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