知识与资讯
专业词汇
 
世界银行业务词典(7)
发布时间:2011-7-18 10:43:00||  点击:5679次||  文章分类:专业词汇||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)


sustainability
  可持续性
  sustainable development
  Economic growth conducted in an environment- ally
  responsible manner.
  可持续发展
  用对环境负责的方式取得的经济增长。
  sustainable forestry
  Forestry which aims at replacing trees that have been
  cut down.
  可持续林业
  采伐后_____及时更新的林业。
  sustainable level of lending - SLL
  可持续的贷款水平(简称SLL)
  sustainable net national product - SNNP
  A measure of a country's economic performance, it
  differs from GNP and GDP in that investments to
  maintain the integrity of the environment are
  excluded from the computation as is income
  generated from harvesting a resource stock over and
  beyond its capacity to be replenished. It therefore
  differs from GNP in that it can be used to
  demonstrate to policymakers the monetary value
  (loss) associated with policies that allow
  unsustainable use of a country's resources.
  可持续的国民生产净值(简写为SNNP)
  是衡量一个国家经济业绩的标准。与国民生产总
  值和国内生产总值的不同之处在于,它在计算中
  扣除了用于保持环境完整性的投资和从过度地、
  超过其再生能力地使用资源中获取的收入。因
  此,与国民生产总值不同,它可以用来向决策者
  显示,由于允许采取不可持续性地使用一国资源
  的政策所带来的有关以货币计值的损失。
  sustained growth
  持续增长
  swap
  A spot purchase of foreign exchange (currency
  swaps), fixed or floating rate funds (interest rate
  swaps) or assets (asset swaps) with simultaneous
  forward sale or vice versa. Pase financiero is an
  Argentinian system, related to the swap system,
  whereby persons or institutions making capital
  investments are given an “exchange guarantee,”
  which guarantees that the funds can be reexchanged
  at a predetermined exchange rate on a specific date.
  swap;debt-for-health swaps; Global Swap
  Authority; interest (rate)swap]
  掉期,置换
  即购买即期外汇(货币掉期)、固定或浮动利率
  基金(利率掉期)或资产(资产掉期),同时在
  远期市场作期货销售,或者作相反的交易。Pase
  financiero是阿根庭与置换有关的一种制度,在个
  人或机构作资本投资时可以得到一项“外汇担
  保”,使该项投资资金可以按预先确定的汇率在
  某一特定的日期重新换回外汇。
  亦见currrency swap;debt-equity swap;
  debt-for-health swaps; Global Swap Authority;
  interest (rate)swap
  swap, to [finance]
  To carry out a swap transaction.
  置换,掉期[金融]
  进行掉期交易。
  swap market
  掉期、置换市场
  亦见currency swap; interest (rate) swap
  sweat equity
  A share or interest in a building obtained as a result
  of contributing labor to its construction and/or
  maintenance.
  血汗产权
  由于对建筑物的施工和(或)维修作出贡献了劳
  力,因而对该建筑物拥有的股份或权益。
  swing fuel*
  替代燃料
  swing producer
  In oil production, a country that varies its production
  to ensure that a previously agreed cartel price
  remains fixed. In practice, OPEC uses Saudi Arabia
  as the swing producer to keep a certain fixed price.
  摆动生产国
  指在石油生产中,石油生产国通过调整产量来保
  持以前达成的卡特尔价格不变。在实践中,石油
  输出国组织用沙特阿拉伯作为摆动生产国来保
  持某一固定的价格。
  swing space
  Temporary space used to provide office space for
  staff whose current offices are being remodeled or
  demolished but for whom new office space is not yet
  available.
  临时办公室
  在原办公室进行改造或拆除而新的办公室尚未
  274
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  就绪前,供工作人员办公的临时空间。
  switching equipment [telephone]
  交换台设备[电话]
  switching policies
  政策转变
  switching value [sensitivity analysis]
  The value that reverses the ranking of two alternative
  projects. For example, Farm A will produce
  beef with high technology equipment and few
  workers, while Farm B will consist of a
  low-technology operation employing many farm
  workers. Up to a weight of 1.5 on income going to
  the poor, Farm A has a higher rate of return.
  However, if a weight greater than 1.5 is given, Farm
  B will have a higher rate of return. The switching
  value, therefore, is 1.5.
  转换值[敏感性分析]
  指能逆转两个可以相互替代的项目的排列次序
  的值。例如,A农场用高技术设备和少数农业工
  人生产牛肉,而B农场用较低的操作技术并雇用
  许多农业工人。对分配给穷人的收入用一个低于
  1.5的值进行加权,A农场将有较高的收益率。但
  是如果用一个大于1.5的数值进行加权,B农场将
  有较高的收益率。因此,1.5为这种情况下的转换
  值。
  syndicate [banking]
  A group of bankers and/or brokers who underwrite
  and distribute a new issue of securities or a large
  block of an outstanding issue. By extension, can also
  refer to a group of banks or securities firms who are
  involved in a Eurocredit or Eurobond issue.
  辛迪加,银团,财团[银行业务]
  即一批银行和(或)证券经纪人,他们对一种新
  发行的证券或一批已发行的证券进行包销和分
  配。也可延伸为从事某项欧洲信贷或欧洲债券发
  行的银团或证券商集团。
  sydication*
  辛迪加组织,组成银团
  syndicate a loan, to
  To arrange for a loan using a syndicate.
  联合发放贷款
  使用辛迪加进行一笔贷款安排。
  syndicated loan
  Loan made by a syndicate.
  联合贷款,辛迪加贷款,银团贷款
  由一个辛迪加发放的贷款。
  synfuel; synthetic fuel
  合成燃料
  Sysmin (= Special financing facility for ACP and
  OCT mining products) [European Communities]
  对非洲、加勒比海和太平洋与协作的海外国家和
  地区矿产品的特别融资安排(贷款)[欧共体]
  system load factor [electricity]
  系统负荷系数[电力]
  Systemic Transformation Facility (STF)[IMF]
  Temporary facility to help member countries facing
  balance of payment difficulties.
  体制转型贷款(简写为STF)[国际货币基金组织]
  对面临国际收支困难的会员国提供帮助的临时
  性贷款。
  __
  275
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - T -
  tailing pond
  Pond containing waste matter from metal ore
  extraction.
  残渣池
  矿物提炼后,残渣滞留的水池。
  tailrace; spillway chute [hydroelectricity]
  泄水道[水利发电]
  take a straight equity position, to
  Investment in a standard, low-risk security.
  投资于可靠的证券
  指投资于一种标准的,低风险的证券。
  take-and-pay contract
  A guarantee to buy an agreed amount of a product or
  service provided it is delivered.
  一手交钱、一手交货合同
  一项保证购买议定数量产品或服务的合同,其条
  件是货到付钱。
  take-home pay
  实得工资
  taken over by
  被兼并
  take-off
  (经济)起飞,(动力)输出
  take-or-pay agreement, contract
  An unconditional guarantee to buy an agreed amount
  of a product or service whether or not it is delivered.
  或取或付协议(合同),照付不议协议(合同)
  指一项无条件购买一笔议定数量的产品或劳务
  的保证,不管其是否到货。
  take-out agreement; buy-back agreement
  返销协议;回购协议
  takeover bid
  An offer to acquire a controlling interest in a
  corporation.
  收购竞争,合并递价
  为获得在某一公司中的控制地位所作的递价。
  take over, to
  兼并
  take-up problems (of means-tested pension plans)
  参与问题(家计调查式养老金方案)
  tangible assets, property
  Material property that can be seen and touched as
  opposed to intangible property such as a patent.
  有形资产
  可以看得见摸得着的物质资产;相对于专利等无
  形资产而言。
  tanker
  油轮
  tap issue
  An issue of a security made available on an as
  required basis. Used primarily in the British market,
  where the British Government issues Treasury stock
  and seeks subscriptions. As the stock is rarely fully
  subscribed, the remainder is sold to Stock Exchange
  jobbers as demand requires.
  随时发行
  在有需求要求的情况下即可进行的证券发行。主
  要应用于英国证券市场。在英国,政府发行国家
  股并进行销售。由于国家股很少能全部卖罄,剩
  余部分就根据需求,卖给股票交易所的经纪人。
  target, to
  对准目标,集中于
  target contract
  目标合同
  target group
  目标群体
  target price
  目标价格
  target zone; reference zone
  A wide zone of exchange rates, perhaps plus or
  minus 10 per cent, within which a currency can
  freely move against other currencies. Suggested at
  the New York Plaza Agreement at the Group of Five
  meeting, 9/85 and proposed by the French Treasury
  2/86, as a way to reduce major currency swings.
  目标区,参考区
  一个较大的汇率浮动区间(约正负10%),其中
  一种货币相对于另一种货币可以自由地上下浮
  动。这是在1985年9月五国集团会议《纽约广场
  协定》中提出来的1986年2月法国财政部提议作
  为减少主要货币动荡的措施之一。
  276
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  targeted beneficiaries
  目标受益人
  targeted grant
  定向赠款
  见 categorical grant
  targeted interventions
  目标干预
  targeted programs
  目标规划
  targeting
  瞄准目标,集焦于
  tariff
  关税
  tariff barriers
  关税壁垒
  tariff escalation
  关税升级
  tariff item
  关税项目
  tariff jumping
  关税跳脱
  tariff line
  The most disaggregated level of classification of
  international trade flows. It is the production level
  where the tariff is applied.
  关税细目
  国际贸易最细级的分类,是在生产级别上实施的
  关税。
  tariff negotiations, round
  关税谈判,回合
  tariff peak
  最高关税税率
  tariff position
  关税类别
  tariff privatization
  Situation where the main domestic producer in a
  given market is also the main importer (or has very
  close links to the main foreign producer) and is
  therefore able to shield itself from import
  competition and obtain considerable profits by
  controlling the volume of imports. All the revenue
  thus obtained accrues the producer instead of the
  government (in the form of tariffs).
  关税私有化
  指一种情形,即在某一市场上,一个主要国内生
  产商同时又是主要进口商(或与外国主要生产商
  有密切联系),因此他能够从来自进口的竞争中
  保护自己,并从控制进口量中得到相当大的利
  益。该生产商由此所得到的所有此类收入本来是
  应(通过关税的形式)归诸于政府的。
  tariff quota
  Specified volume (quota) of imports of a good for a
  given period defining the application of different
  rates of duty (tariffs), the lower are applying until the
  specified volume is reached, the higher rate
  thereafter.
  关税配额
  即在一定时期内,对一种货物的进口数量(配额)
  使用不同的关税税率。在一定数量以内征收较低
  税率,超过一定数量以后则征收较高税率。
  tariff rates
  关税率
  tariff round, negotiations
  关税谈判回合,谈判
  tariff schedule
  收费价目表,关税税率表,(美)海关税则
  tariff wedges
  Difference between the tariff at a particular stage of
  processing and at the preceding stage.
  税率级差
  指因产品加工程度不同而产生的税率差。
  tariffication
  The conversion of quotas or other nontariff barriers
  to tariffs.
  关税折算
  指把配额或其他非关税壁垒折算成关税。
  tar sands
  沥青沙
  task force
  专门工作组
  277
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  tax allowance
  Amount deducted from gross income to arrive at
  taxable income.
  税额减免
  指在计算应税收入时从总收入中减除的数额。
  tax amnesty
  税款赦免
  tax arbitrage
  套税
  tax assessment; assessment for tax
  征税估值,确定税款金额
  tax audit
  税务审计
  tax avoidance
  The legal minimization of taxes due government by
  application of tax planning devices.
  避税
  使用避税计划手段算出的应付政府的合法最低
  税额。
  tax base
  The amount that forms the basis for calculating a
  taxpayers' liability. In income tax it is a person's
  earnings while in property tax, the value of the
  property.
  税基,计税基础
  纳税人应税义务的基础数额。在所得税中它是个
  人的收入,在财产税中则是财产的价值。
  tax bill, demand
  A document sent to a taxpayer, telling him/her how
  much s/he owes in taxes.
  税单
  送给纳税人的一项文件,通知他或她应付多少
  税。
  tax bracket
  税收等级,税级
  tax buoyancy
  Total elasticity of the tax system (built-in elasticity
  plus elasticity due to discretionary changes in the tax
  system). Measured by the annual mean growth in
  receipts divided by the annual mean growth in gross
  domestic product (GDP).
  税收制度弹性,保持高税收
  指税收制度的总弹性(内在弹性加上人为因素造
  成的的税制变化弹性)。计算方法是,用课税收
  入的年平均增长,除以国内生产总值(GDP)年
  平均增长。
  tax burden
  The actual effect of a tax. For example, the tax
  burden of income tax falls on the income-earner;
  however, the burden of indirect taxes such as sales
  taxes is generally passed on to the consumer.
  税负,税款负担
  指某种税收的实际效果。例如所得税的税负落到
  有收入者身上,而间接性税负(如销售税)一般
  转嫁到消费者身上。
  tax clearance
  完税证明书
  tax credit
  A 100% offset against tax liability.
  税额抵免,纳税额的扣免
  指应付税款100%地减免。
  tax deduction
  An expenditure that may legally be deducted from
  taxable income by taxpayers
  减税
  指纳税人可以从应税收入中合法扣减的支出。
  tax deferral
  递延纳税
  tax demand, bill
  税单
  tax effort
  The total amount of tax due from a country, sector,
  enterprise, etc.
  应缴税
  一个国家、部门、或企业等应该缴纳的税金总额。
  tax elasticity
  税收弹性
  tax evasion
  Avoidance of taxes by illegal means.
  逃税;偷税;漏税
  用非法的手段避税。
  tax exemption
  A specific sum that a taxpayer may deduct from
  taxable income for him- or herself and for each
  dependent. Also refers to certain kinds of income not
  278
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  subject to tax such as social security payments,
  monies received by certain diplomats, etc.
  免税(免税额)
  一个纳税人可以为他或她和其每个从属人员从
  应税收入中减除的一定的数额。也指某种不属于
  纳税的收入,如社会保障付费,一些外交人员的
  收入等。
  tax expenditures
  税费支出
  tax/GDP ratio
  Ratio of tax receipts to gross domestic product.
  税收占国内生产总值的比率
  tax handles
  The means by which the tax authorities can raise (or
  lower) revenues through taxation. For example, in
  an economy where income is typically derived from
  self-employment and the wage income that does
  exist is from small establishments, the government
  has only a limited tax handle on income compared
  with a modern economy where earned income is
  largely in the form of wages and salaries from large
  organizations.
  税收操纵手段
  指税务当局通过税收可以提高(或降低)收入的
  手段。例如,在一个收入主要来源于自谋职业和
  小企业支付的工资的国家里,政府只有有限的税
  收操纵手段;相比之下,在一个收入大部分由大
  机构的工资和薪水组成的现代化国家里,情形则
  相反。
  tax haven
  A country which offers permanent tax incentives in
  order to attract multinational enterprises.
  避税地,逃税乐园(场所)
  指为吸引跨国企业而提供长期税收激励的国家。
  tax holiday
  Tax relief or exemption granted temporarily, e.g. to
  encourage industrial development.
  免税期
  为了例如鼓励工业发展等目的而临时性的税收
  减免。
  tax incentive
  税收激励(优惠)
  tax incidence analysis
  Analysis of the redistributive effects of taxation.
  税收归宿分析
  有关课税对再分配的影响的分析。
  tax liability
  纳税义务
  tax loophole
  税收漏洞
  tax mitigation
  减轻税赋,避税
  tax net
  所有应税物品
  tax office
  税务局
  tax on value added; value added tax - VAT
  增值税(简写为VAT)
  tax-paid cost - TPC
  完税价(简写为 TPC)
  tax-paying capacity
  交税能力
  tax performance ratio
  征税成功率
  tax ratio
  The ratio of income tax expense to net income
  before taxes.
  税率
  缴付的税额与税前纯收入的比率。
  tax rebate
  A partial refund to taxpayers of taxes already paid.
  退税
  对纳税人已交税款的部分退回。
  tax refund
  退税
  tax relief
  税款减免
  tax reference price [oil]
  An arbitrary posted price for hydrocarbons utilized
  in a number of countries for the purpose of
  calculating taxes and other payments due the State
  from an operator.
  征税参照价格[石油]
  279
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  一些国家对碳氢化合物确定的一个人为的牌价,
  用以计算一个营运者应付国家的税和其他款项。
  tax return
  纳税申报表
  tax sharing
  The practice of a state or central government levying
  a tax and sharing its proceeds with a local
  government.
  税收分享、分成
  国家或中央政府在课征的某一税收中,将收入与
  地方政府分享,即分成。
  tax shelter
  Any of a number of investments which generate
  losses, usually due to noncash deductions such as
  depreciation or depletion, or due to accelerated
  payments which flow through to individual
  taxpayers and can be used to offset other income,
  thereby lowering the individual taxable income.
  逃税手段,纳税隐蔽所
  指可能带来损失的任意一种投资活动,损失一般
  由非现金形式的扣除造成,如折旧或耗损,或是
  由于不断增加的、可以用以抵消其他收入,从而
  减少个人应税收入的付给纳税人的付款。
  tax sparing
  免税
  tax surcharge
  附加税
  tax technology
  The tools used to administrate tax policy, e.g.
  management information systems.
  税务技术
  用来管理税收政策的工具,例如(税收)管理信
  息系统。
  tax wedge
  The difference between wages or labor income and
  the same wages or income plus government taxes on
  them. It is called a wedge because it is like a wedge
  which the tax drives between the value of a worker to
  the firm and the amount received by the worker for
  working one more hour. A Bank document defined
  it as “the difference between a given (arbitrary)
  after-tax rate of return to an individual investor and
  the pre-tax real rate of return on investment that the
  firm would need to generate in order to fund the
  investment.”
  税收楔子
  指工资或劳务收入与工资和劳务收入加上政府
  对之课征的税收之后的数额之间的差额。之所以
  称之为楔子,是因为税收象一个楔子那样,把一
  个工人对企业的价值,与该工人每多工作一个小
  时所能得到的收入分辟开来。世界银行的一份文
  件对此下的定义是:“对某个单个投资者的给定
  (任意的)税后收益率,与企业为进行投资而必
  须_____从投资中获得的税前实际收益率两者之间的
  差额”。
  tax withholding
  扣缴税款,扣税
  tax write off
  注销应交税款
  tax yield
  税收利益
  teacher-pupil ratio; pupil-teacher ratio - PTR;
  student-teacher ratio - STR
  师生比率(简写为STR)
  teacher's guide
  教师指南
  teacher's kit
  教师用成套教材
  teaching aids
  教具
  teaching load
  教学负担
  Technical Advisory Committee - TAC [CGIAR]
  技术顾问委员会(简写为TAC)[国际农业研究
  磋商小组]
  technical assistance loan - TAL
  World Bank loan for technical assistance purposes.
  技术援助贷款(简写为TAL)
  指为技术援助目的提供的世界银行的贷款。
  technical assistant
  技术助理
  technical background
  技术资力
  technical cooperation among developing
  280
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  countries - TCDC
  发展中国家间技术合作(简写为TCDC)
  technical-efficiency index - TEI
  技术效率指数(简写为TEI)
  technical note
  技术注释
  technical package
  一整套技术;一揽子技术交易
  teething problems
  初创时期出现的问题
  temperate hardwood forest
  温带硬木树林
  temporary assets
  暂时资产
  temporary liabilities
  暂时负债
  tender
  招标,投标
  tender documents
  招标文件
  见 bidding documents
  tenure
  所有权,占有权
  见 land tenure; security of tenure
  tenure [education]
  长期受聘制[教育]
  term deposit
  定期存款
  term financing
  定期筹资
  term loan
  定期贷款
  term sheet
  定期报表
  terminate
  终止,解雇
  termination
  终止,解雇
  termination grant
  解雇费
  terms and conditions (of a contract)
  (合同的)条款及条件
  terms of reference [e.g. consultants]
  职责范围[咨询人员等]
  terms of reference [study]
  职责范围[研究]
  terms of trade
  A relationship between the prices of exports and the
  prices of imports. When the concept is not further
  qualified, reference is being made to the net barter
  terms of trade, which is the quotient between an
  index of export prices and an index of import prices.
  贸易条件
  指出口价格与进口价格之间的关系。如果这一观
  念不再加以引伸的话,这个比率当以净易货贸易
  条件为参考,它是出口价格指数与进口价格指数
  之间的商。
  tertiary (oil) recovery
  Enhanced recovery methods for the production of
  crude oil or natural gas. It requires a means for
  displacing oil from the reservoir rock, modifying the
  properties of the fluids in the reservoir and/or the
  reservoir rock to cause movement of crude oil in an
  efficient manner, and providing the energy and drive
  mechanism to force its flow to a production well.
  三级采油法
  一种高级石油或天然气采集方式。先将石油从储
  油岩石中驱替出来,然后改变油层或油岩中液体
  的性质,使原油产生有效运动,然后加能加压迫
  其流入生产油井。
  territorial jurisdiction *
  领土管辖权
  test check [accounting]
  抽查法[会计]
  test plot
  实验田
  thematic team
  281
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  Team of technical specialists working in a specific
  area of the Bank's activities, which monitors
  Bankwide activities in a specific area, e.g. technical
  assistance.
  专题专家组
  在世界银行活动中的某个领域内工作的技术专
  家组,他们监督整个世界银行在某一领域内(例
  如技术援助)的活动。
  theory of public choice
  Study of the problems involved in decision-making
  by governments and the factors that influence their
  decision-making.
  公众选择论
  对政府决策中所涉及的问题和影响政府决策的
  因素的研究。
  think tank
  智囊团,思想库
  Third Window
  第三窗口,第三类业务
  33-Commodity Aggregate Price Index [IBRD]
  33种商品综合物价指数[国际复兴开发银行]
  threshold countries
  Countries on the threshold between IDA and IBRD
  status or between IBRD and graduation status.
  临界国
  位于国际开发协会软贷资格和国际复兴开发银
  行硬贷资格之间、或者介于国际复兴开发银行资
  格和超过借款资格之间的国家。
  threshold limit value - TLV
  The maximum allowed amount of exposure to a
  given hazard in a given time frame.
  临界限定值(简写为TLV)
  在一定时间内所能接触的有害物质的最大数量。
  threshold price
  最低价格,临界价格
  through bill of lading
  Bill of lading for cargo shipped between two
  specified ports plus inland portion of transit.
  联运提单
  指在两个特定港口之间,加上内陆转运部分的货
  运提单。
  throughput
  生产(率),生产能力
  through traffic
  联运,过境交通,直达交通
  tied aid
  有条件援助
  tied currency
  汇率与某种外汇挂钩的货币
  tied resources
  指定用途的资金
  tight credit policy
  紧缩的信贷政策
  tightening of credit
  信贷紧缩
  tight money
  Contractionary monetary policy. In taking steps to
  decrease the rate of growth of the money supply,
  monetary authorities are said to be following a tight
  money policy.
  银根紧缩
  一种紧缩的货币政策。货币当局采取降低货币供
  应增长率的措施即被认为是实施银根紧缩政策。
  timber
  木材
  time-adjusted [project analysis]
  An accounting convention in which the first year of
  an investment analysis is used solely for investment
  and in which incremental benefits appear only from
  year 2 or later.
  时效调整,按时间调整[项目分析]
  一种会计的常规做法,即在投资的第一年仅对投
  资进行分析,其中增量效益只从第二年和以后才
  表现出来。
  time-based contract [consultants]
  A contract for consultants where payment is made
  according to time expended.
  按时间计酬合同[咨询专家]
  指一项根据工作时间付费的咨询专家合同。
  time deposit
  定期存款
  time frame,
  时间框架
  282
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  time lag
  时滞,时间间隔
  time limit [ICSID]
  期限,时限[解决投资争端国际中心]
  time-of-use (TOU) rates [electricity tariffs]
  按使用时间计费[电力价格]
  time overrun
  超过时限
  time pattern
  时间格局,时态
  time series
  时间序列,时间数列
  time sharing [computers]
  分时,时间分享[计算机]
  time sheet
  出勤时间记录表
  time-slice loan
  Loan where the lender only finances the loan a part
  of the time.
  按时间分切的贷款
  在一笔贷款中,贷款人只对该贷款的一部分时间
  进行融资。
  time underrun
  低于时限
  time value of money
  An expression referring to the concept that values
  received earlier are worth more than values received
  later. The concept underlying discounting.
  货币的时间价值
  指一种概念,早些时候的货币价值高于晚些时候
  的货币价值。它包涵了贴现的意义。
  times interest earned ratio
  利息倍数比率
  见 interest coverage ratio - ICR
  tinged cotton
  A discolored cotton graded between spotted and
  stained cotton.
  变了成色的棉花
  一种褪色棉花,其等级介于有斑点的棉花与和有
  污迹的棉花之间。
  tissue culture
  (生物)组织培养
  titling (land)
  给予(土地)所有权
  Tokyo Round Agreement
  东京回合谈判
  tombstone
  Advertisement which announces that a credit has
  been arranged or a bond issue made.
  墓碑,证券发行公告,证券经销人名单
  公布信贷发行或股票发行的公告。
  ton of coal equivalent - tce
  A common accounting unit used to define energy
  usage. Actual definitions differ. The European
  Communities, for example, define it as yielding 7
  Gcal net calorific value while the United Kingdom
  defines it as the average gross calorific of all grades
  of coal and the UN as the gross calorific value.
  吨煤当量,折合吨煤数 (简写为tce)
  一个通用的会计单位,用来衡量能源的使用量。
  但实际的定义各有不同。例如欧共体把它确定为
  产生7克卡净热值;而在英国,把它确定为多种
  等级的煤的总平均卡路里;而在联合国则把它定
  为总热值。
  ton of oil equivalent - toe
  A common accounting unit for energy usage.
  Definitions differ. OECD/IEA define it as having a
  net calorific value of 10 Gcal (= 41.9 GJ) while the
  United Kingdom defines it as the weighted average
  gross calorific value of all petroleum products.
  吨石油当量,折合吨石油数
  一个通用的会计单位,用来衡量能源的使用量。
  它有多种定义。经发组织/国际经济协会的定义
  是,10克卡(=41.9吉焦耳)净热值;而英国的
  定义是所有石油产品的总热值的加权平均数。
  top-down (approach) [projects]
  自上而下法(方法)[项目]
  top dressing [agriculture]
  施顶肥,土表追肥[农业]
  top-rated bank loan
  头等级银行贷款,上等银行贷款
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  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  top-up scheme; minimum pension guarantee
  System whereby the government brings up a pension
  to a specified minimum level.
  最低养老金保证制度
  指政府把养老金提高到某个最低水平的制度。
  Toronto terms
  Terms for debt relief (rescheduling for low-income
  countries) agreed upon at the Group of Seven
  meeting in Toronto in 1988.
  多伦多条款
  1988年7国集团多伦多会议协议的债务缓免(对
  低收入国家的债务重新安排)条款。
  total dissolved solids - TDS
  Total weight of dissolved mineral constituents in
  water per unit volume or weight of water in the
  sample.
  总溶解固体(简写为TDS)
  在一单位容量或重量的水样本中,溶解于水中的
  矿物质成份的总重量。
  total external debt - EDT
  外债总额(简写为EDT)
  total factor productivity - TFP
  A measurement of changes in outputs per unit of all
  inputs combined.
  全要素生产率,总和要素生产率(简写为TFP)
  对每一个单位的混合投入物所带来的产出的变
  化的一个衡量方式。
  total fertility rate - TFR
  The average number of children that would be born
  live to a woman (or group of women) during her
  lifetime if she were to pass through her childbearing
  years conforming to the age-specific fertility rates of
  a given year.
  总和生育率(简写为TFR)
  指一个妇女(或一组妇女)终生所能生育的成活
  孩子的平均数,条件是她在育龄阶段的生育率符
  合某一特定年份她所在年龄组的生育率。
  total loss cover
  Insurance against all losses.
  全损险
  对所有各种损失的保险。
  Total Return Index [IFC]
  Index devised by IFC to measure the US dollar
  return on developing country equity markets, taking
  into account both domestic price changes and
  exchange rate fluctuations.
  总和收益指数[国际金融公司]
  国际金融公司创制的一种指数,用以衡量在国内
  价格变动和外汇汇率波动的情况下,发展中国家
  产权投资市场上的美元收益。
  total suspended particulates - TSP
  Any solid or liquid particles dispersed in the
  atmosphere, such as dust, pollen, ash, soot, metals
  and various chemicals.
  总悬浮微粒(简写为TSP)
  散播在大气中的任何固体或液体的微粒,如尘
  埃、花粉、灰、煤烟、金属和各种化学物质。
  total suspended solids - TSS
  The amount of particulate matter suspended in a
  water sample.
  总悬浮固体(简写为 TSS)
  在一个水样中悬浮微粒物质的数量。
  tracer study [education]
  A follow-up study of students after they have left
  school to see what they have become.
  跟踪研究[教育]
  对离开学校的学生作跟踪研究,以了解他们的发
  展变化。
  tradable [adj.]
  可供外贸的,可供贸易的 [形容词]
  tradable [noun]
  A good that could be traded internationally in the
  absence of restrictive trade policies. Depending on
  national and world costs of production and transport,
  tradables may be importables, exportables or, in
  some cases, both.
  可供外贸的产品,可贸易产品[名词]
  在没有贸易限制政策的条件下可在国际上进行
  贸易的货物。根据国内和世界的生产成本和运输
  情况,可贸易产品可以是可进口的或可出口的,
  有时两种都是。
  tradable but nontraded (good, item); nontraded
  tradable
  可贸易的非贸易品;非贸易的可贸易品
  tradable emissions permit
  Permit to emit a specified quantity of a pollutant.
  This permit may be traded.
  可交易的排污许可证
  许可释放一定数量的某种污染物。这种许可证可
  以进行交易。
  284
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  参见emissions trading, bubble concept
  trade adjustment
  Adjustment of terms of trade, e.g. by reducing
  import tariffs.
  贸易调整
  使用诸如降低进口关税等办法对贸易条件进行
  调整。
  trade adjustment loan
  Loan to assist a country in liberalization of its trade
  policy.
  贸易调整贷款
  协____助一
  290
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - U -
  UHF link [telecommunications]
  超高频连系[电信]
  ultimate model
  A model which contains all the information needed
  for its operation.
  最终模型
  包含其本身操作需要的所有信息的模型。
  
  ultimate recoverable reserves - URR
  The total amount of oil and gas recovered and
  believed to be recoverable from both discovered and
  undiscovered reservoirs, in the light of probable
  improvements in technology and based on a
  geological evaluation of a particular area or
  territory.
  最终可采储量(简写为URR)
  根据可能技术和对某一特定区域或地区的地质
  评价,从已发现和尚未发现的油藏中开采的和可
  以开采的石油、天然气总量。
  
  ultra low volume (ULV) spraying
  超低量喷洒
  umbrella (agreement)
  Agreement whereby MIGA and a member
  government provide the framework for MIGA's
  cooperation with the public and private insurers of
  that member.
  伞式(协议)
  多边投资担保机构同一个会员国政府签订的协
  议,提供多边投资担保机构与该会员国的公共、
  私营保险机构进行合作的框架。
  
  umbrella project
  A UNDP project under which an allocation from a
  country's indicative planning figures funding is
  provided for a specific period of time to finance a
  flexible package of preinvestment studies or other
  technical assistance activities, all of which may not
  be identified before approval by UNDP.
  伞式项目,“一揽子”项目
  联合国开发计划署的一种项目,在该项目下,根
  据某一国家资金需要的意向性计划提供一项分
  配额,供其在一定时期内对项目投资前研究或其
  他技术援助活动等灵活的“一揽子”活动提供融
  资。所有这些活动在联合国开发计划署项目批准
  以前,可能并没有得到认证。
  
  umpire [legal]
  公断人,仲裁人[法律]
  unaccounted [e.g. water, electricity]
  不计数的[如水、电]
  unallocatable expenditure
  无法分摊的费用
  unappropriated (earned) surplus
  That part of retained earnings which has not been
  transferred to a subordinate account or otherwise
  earmarked for any specific purpose, thus remaining
  available for the absorption of dividends.
  未分配(已实现)盈余
  指尚未转移到某附属帐户或已指定作特定目的
  之用的那部分留存盈利,因此仍可用做红利。
  
  unbundling
  分类交易
  unbundling of financial risks
  The separation and separate evaluation of financial
  risks.
  分离金融风险
  对金融(财务)风险加以分离并分别进行评价。
  
  uncalled capital
  The amount of capital by which the total capital
  authorized by the stockholders exceeds the paid-up
  capital.
  未缴资本,未收资本
  由股东确定的法定资本多于已缴资本的数额。
  
  uncovered interest rate parity model
  无担保的利率平价模型
  
  underaccruals
  应计额不足
  undercapitalized
  资本化不足
  undercollection [taxation]
  征收额不足[税收]
  underemployment
  就业不足
  undergraduate
  大学本科生
  291
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  undergraduate studies
  大学本科学科
  underground economy
  地下经济
  见 parallel economy
  underinvestment
  投资不足
  underinsurance
  Failure to maintain adequate coverage for a specific
  loss or damage.
  不足额保险
  指保额不足以为所投保的特定损失或损坏带来
  足够补偿的保险。
  
  underinvoicing of exports
  出口货物收费低于其实际价值
  
  underleveraged
  未充分发挥杠杆作用的
  underlying costs
  基本成本
  underlying inflation
  潜在的通货膨胀
  undernourished
  营养不足者
  undernutrition
  营养不良
  underprivileged
  享受不到正当权利的,贫困的
  underrun cost
  低于估计的成本
  underwriter [securities]
  The middleman for selling and distributing
  securities to investors or the public.
  承销人,承销商[证券]
  向投资者或公众推销和分配证券的中间商。
  
  Underwriting
  包销,承销
  见 also equity underwriting
  underwriting authority [MIGA]
  The President or any official or officials of MIGA
  designated by the President to make the decision on
  the issuance of a guarantee and on related matters.
  承保授权[多边投资担保机构]
  总裁或总裁指定的任何多边投资担保机构官员
  对签发一项担保和有关事项做_____出决定的权力。
  
  underwriting commitment [IFC]
  认购承诺,承保约定 [国际金融公司]
  underwriting costs
  承保费用
  underwriting syndicate
  联合保险集团;证券包销银行
  undeveloped plot
  未开发地块
  undrawn balance
  未提取余额
  undrawn borrowings
  未提取的贷款
  
  unearned income
  非劳动收入,投资所得
  unearned interest
  Interest on a loan that has already been collected but
  has not yet been earned because the principal has not
  been outstanding long enough.
  预收利息
  由于本金尚未到期而已经收取但尚未实现的贷
  款利息。
  
  uneconomic production
  不经济生产
  unemployment compensation, benefit
  失业补助,失业津贴
  unfunded interest
  未备基金的借款利息
  
  unfunded liabilities
  Any short-term liabilities as opposed to long-term
  obligations such as bonds.
  短期负债
  指相对于长期债务(如债券)而言的任何短期债
  务。
  292
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  
  unfunded system [insurance; social security]
  非积累制度[保险、社会保障]
  unified cross rates
  统一交叉汇率
  uniform votes [IBRD]
  Basic votes plus votes derived from membership
  shares.
  统一投票权 [国际复兴开发银行]
  指基本投票权加上从会员国股份中产生的投票
  权。
  
  unimpaired capital
  Capital which has no liens against it. MIGA's
  unimpaired capital is used as a basis for calculating
  its guarantee capacity.
  未动用资本, 未减损资本
  指对其没有留置权的资本。多边投资担保机构的
  未动用资本是用作计算其担保能力的基础的。
  
  unit activity (crop) budget
  In farm investment analysis, a farm budget based on
  an easily segregated activity such as planting a single
  hectare of a crop or raising a particular group of
  animals. It is difficult to prepare a unit activity
  budget on a with and without basis; rather, it is
  generally prepared on an incremental basis, with all
  costs and all benefits included at the incremental
  value. For both financial analysis and economic
  analysis, this means that for some elements the
  opportunity cost must be estimated directly, often
  especially difficult for land and for family labor. As
  a result, unit activity budgets are most appropriate in
  project analyses where the opportunity cost of land
  and family labor can be taken to be zero.
  单项活动(作物)预算,部分预算
  指一种农场预算。在农场投资分析中,把分析的
  基础放在每项易于分隔的活动上,如在一公顷土
  地上种植某种作物,或养一群特定的牲畜。在“有
  或无”的基础上制订一项单项活动预算是很难
  的,所以一般情况下,单项预算是在增量的基础
  上进行的,即把所有成本和效益都计入增量价
  值。对财务分析和经济分析而言,这意味着对一
  些因素的机会成本必须直接进行估计,而对土地
  和家庭劳动的机会成本的估计则常常是特别困
  难的。因此,单项活动预算最适合用于分析那些
  土地和家庭劳动的机会成本可以被认为是“零”
  的项目。
  
  unit budget envelope
  The budget for a specific unit in the Bank.
  单位预算包
  世界银行中某个特定单位的预算。
  
  unit cost
  单位成本
  unit(ary) elasticity
  A schedule in which the coefficient of elasticity is 1,
  that is, a change of x percent in the price will cause a
  change of x percent in the quantity demanded or
  supplied.
  单一弹性,统一弹性
  一种弹性系数为1的设计安排。也就是说当价格
  发生x%变化时,需求或供给数量也发生x%的变
  化。
  
  unit-managed costs
  Costs which are the responsibility, for budgetary
  purposes, of individual units, as opposed to those
  that are centrally-managed.
  单位管理费用
  在预算中由个别单位负责管理的费用,相对于那
  些由中央管理的费用。
  
  unit of account - UA
  An artificial concept designed to provide a
  consistent reference value against varying exchange
  rates, e.g. European Currency Unit, Special Drawing
  Rights
  记帐单位,计算单位(简写为UA)
  指一个人为设定的价值单位,如欧洲货币单位、
  特别提款权,旨在对不断变化的外汇汇率提供一
  个不变的参考价值。
  unit of output
  产量单位
  unit price contract; admeasurement contract;
  remeasurement contract
  A contract based on unit prices. Includes a bill of
  quantities, which is a statement of all the items of
  work
  单价合同;计量合同
  以单价为基础的合同,它包括一张数量清单,即
  所有工程的类目表。
  unit trains
  A complete train loaded with one product or
  material (such as coal) that is shipped from one
  specific point to another on a closely scheduled and
  controlled basis.
  293
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  专列火车
  指装运一种产品或材料(如煤)的专列火车,它
  从一个规定的地点到达另一个规定的地点,有详
  细的运行时间和严密的控制。
  unit trust
  单位信托 见无定额(投资)基金
  见 open end (investment) fund
  unit value
  单位价值,单价
  unit value export index
  An index of the exports for the developing countries
  and the industrial market economies based on
  amount and value of total exports, calculated on an
  annual basis. Used to show changes over a period of
  time.
  单位价值出口指数
  发展中国家和工业化市场经济国家的出口指数,
  它是以总出口的数量和价值为基础的,每年计算
  一次,用以表示一段时间内的变化。
  unlisted securities market*
  未上市证券的交易市场
  unlocated worker
  Worker not employed in one place.
  流动工人
  不是在一个地方受雇的工人。
  unorganized worker
  无组织工人
  unpeg (a rate), to
  取消(汇率)挂钩
  unrealized gains
  Profits that have not become actual. The gains are
  realized when the security or other instrument on
  which there has been a gain is sold for a profit.
  未实现收益
  还没有实现的利润。利润只有在带有收益的证券
  或其他金融票据出售以后才能实现。
  unregulated housing
  未加控制的住房
  unreleased funds
  未动用资金
  unrequited transfer
  Transfer of income that does not a involve a quid pro
  quo and which is non-contractual in character, for
  example, direct taxes, social security benefits and
  contributions, social assistance grants and grants
  between governments to finance the military or other
  consumption expenditure or budgetary deficit of a
  government.
  无偿转移
  指无报酬和非契约性质的收入转移,例如直接
  税、社会保障津贴和缴费、社会援助捐赠和政府
  间作军事或其他消费支出的捐赠或弥补政府预
  算赤字的捐赠等。
  unrestricted currency
  The portion of capital subscriptions paid in gold or
  US dollars and freely usable by IBRD in its lending
  operations.
  不受限制的货币[国际复兴开发银行]
  以黄金或美元缴付的那部分认缴股本,可以由国
  际复兴开发银行自由用于贷款业务。
  unrestricted subscription [IDA]
  不受限制的认股[国际开发协会]。
  unseasoned investment
  An investment that is not yet fully producing.
  未成熟投资
  尚未产生全部效益的投资项目。
  unsecured (note, loan, etc.)
  无担保的(票据、贷款等)
  unskilled labor
  不熟练劳动力
  unsmoothed data
  Data which has not been subject to regression
  analysis.
  未经处理的数据
  指还未经回归分析的数据。
  unspent credit balance
  未动用信贷余额
  unsubdivided plot
  未细分的地块
  unsuccessful bid
  未得标的投标
  untapped resources
  未开发的资源
  294
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  untied aid
  不附带条件的援助
  untying of aid
  取消对援助附加的条件
  upgrade, to [oil]
  提高等级[石油]
  upgrading of skills
  提高技能
  upkeep costs
  维护费用
  upland cotton; hairy cotton
  旱地棉,茸棉
  upland crops
  旱地作物
  upland rice; mountain rice; highland rice
  旱稻
  uploading [computers]
  装机,装入主机[计算机]
  upper middle income country-UMIC*
  中上收入国家
  upper secondary education
  高级中等教育
  upstream innovations; research-push innovations
  上游革新;研究推动型革新
  upstream process
  上游工序
  upswing
  上升
  upturn (economic)
  (经济)好转
  upward trend
  上升趋势
  urbanization economies
  Economies of scale external to both individual firms
  and industries. They reflect the sum of private and
  public investments in specific locations, as well as
  the pools of labor and capital and financial, legal and
  public services.
  城市化经济
  指在个体厂商和产业外部实现的规模经济。它们
  反映一定地区内私人和公共投资总额以及劳力、
  资本、金融、法律和公共服务的集中。
  urban sprawl
  城市无计划扩展
  urban sprinkling
  Development of small but swiftly growing urban
  areas in a generally undeveloped region.
  城市散布
  在总体不发达的地区出现的小面积但快速发展
  的城市地区。
  Uruguay Round [GATT]
  乌拉圭回合[关贸总协定]
  usable equity [World Bank]*
  可用股金[世界银行]
  useful life
  有效寿命,使用寿命,有效年限
  useful farm space - UFS
  The total area of a farm less the woods and
  nonagricultural area.
  有效农田面积(简写为UFS)
  农场的总面积减去林地和非农业地区。
  user friendly
  方便用户的
  utilities
  公用事业
  utility function
  效用涵数
  见 welfare function
  295
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - V -
  vaccination yard
  预防接种场地
  valuable consideration
  A right, interest, profit or benefit accruing to one
  party or some forebearance, detriment, loss or
  responsibility given, suffered or undertaken by the
  other.
  有价约因
  为一方产生的权利、利益、利润或权益,或由另
  一方所承担的忍耐、伤害、损失或责任。
  见consideration
  valuations for customs purposes
  为关税而进行的估计
  valuable consideration, for; for a consideration
  给予对偿
  value-added tax - VAT; tax on value added
  增值税
  value base accounting
  价值基础会计法
  见 current cost (value) accounting
  value date
  The calendar date on which a transaction takes
  place.
  成交日;起息日
  一笔交易发生的日历日期。
  value engineering
  An objective appraisal of all the elements of the
  design, construction, procurement, installation and
  maintenance of equipment, including the
  specifications, to achieve the necessary functions,
  maintainability and reliability at the lowest cost. It
  entails a detailed review of product designs and
  specifications, placing a total dollar value on the
  costs of production and maintenance and relating
  these costs to the functional value of each part and
  assembly.
  价值评估工程
  一项对设备的设计、建设、采购、安装和维修的
  所有要素的客观评估,其中包括对以最低成本达
  到必需的功能、可维修性和可靠性的说明。它需
  要对产品的设计和规格作详细的审查,对生产和
  维修的成本以美元价值作出费用估算,并将这些
  费与每一部件和组装件的功能价值相联系。
  value for money
  资金价值,资金效益
  value recovery clause
  In debt rescheduling agreement, clause which states
  that if economic conditions improve beyond a
  predefined threshold, creditors will be entitled to
  increased reimbursement.
  价值回收条款
  指在债务重新安排协议中的一项条款,它阐明:
  如果经济情况的改善超过预定的临界点,债务人
  应增加其偿还额。
  variety trial
  差异测试
  vault toilet
  窖式厕所
  vectorborne disease
  虫媒疾病
  vehicle currency
  Currency used in a swap or similar transaction, even
  though it may not be the target currency.
  周转货币,国际支付货币
  在掉期或类似交易中使用的货币,尽管它可能不
  是最终希望得到的货币。
  ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine; VIP latrine
  A pit latrine (i.e. a latrine consisting of a pit, a
  squatting plate (or seat and riser) and foundation,
  and a superstructure) where the pit is slightly offset
  to make room for an external vent pipe, painted
  black and located on the sunny side of the latrine
  superstructure so that the air in the vent pipe will
  heat up and create an updraft with a corresponding
  down draft through the squatting plate.
  通风的、改良蹲坑式厕所
  一种蹲坑厕所(式包括一个蹲坑、一块蹲板或座
  子,以及基础和上层结构),蹲坑稍为偏离以便
  腾出地方装置一条外部通风管,漆成黑色,置于
  向阳一面,以使通风管中空气得以加热,形成一
  股向上的气流和相应的通过蹲板的向下的气流。
  venture [IFC]
  商业经营,商业冒险,投机[国际金融公司]
  venture capital
  296
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  风险资本
  见 risk capital
  venture capital company
  Company specializing in providing venture capital
  finance.
  风险资本公司
  指专门提供风险资本融资的公司。
  vertical cofinancing
  纵向联合融资
  vertical equity
  Distributing the tax burden among the nonpoor in
  line with their ability to pay.
  纵向公平
  指在非穷人之间按_____付税能力分配税负。
  vetiver
  Type of fodder grass, common in Africa. Also used
  for erosion control.
  香根草
  一种饲料草,在非洲很普遍,也用于控制水土流
  失。
  VHF link [telecommunications]
  甚高频联系[电信]
  village extension worker - VEW
  The same as a village level worker.
  农村技术推广工作人员(简写为VEW)
  与村级工作人员同。
  village level operation and maintenance (VLOM)
  pump
  Pump for use in small villages. It is used in areas
  where there is no power so it is a hand pump and
  must be maintained by villagers with no mechanical
  skills. It must also be cheap.
  农村级营运和维修水泵
  指小村庄中使用的水泵。一般用于没有电力的地
  区,因而它是一种手动泵,可以由没有技能的农
  民维修,而且价格必须便宜。
  village level worker - VLW
  A worker with comparatively low-level education
  who has received training in production methods
  which he disseminates through selected farmers and
  others who adopt the new methods and compare the
  results with that part of their fields cultivated by
  normal practices.
  村级工作人员(简写为VLW)
  只具有较低教育水平的工作人员,他们接受生产
  方法的训练,然后有选择地向农民或其他人传
  播,让他们采用新方法,然后把他们使用常规的
  方法进行耕作的结果与新方法进行比较。
  village woodlot
  农村林地
  VIP latrine; ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine
  A pit latrine (i.e. a latrine consisting of a pit, a
  squatting plate (or seat and riser) and foundation,
  and a superstructure) where the pit is slightly offset
  to make room for an external vent pipe, painted
  black and located on the sunny side of the latrine
  superstructure so that the air in the vent pipe will
  heat up and create an updraft with a corresponding
  down draft through the squatting plate.
  通风的、改良蹲坑式厕所
  一种蹲坑厕所(包括一个蹲坑、一块蹲板或座子,
  以及基础和上层结构),蹲坑稍为偏离以便腾出
  地方装置一条外部通风管,漆成黑色,置于向阳
  一面,以使通风管中空气得以加热,形成一股向
  上气流和相应的通过蹲板的向下气流。
  vital statistics
  人口统计
  vitamin deficiency
  维生素缺乏
  vocational guidance
  职业指导
  vocational training
  职业培训
  voice mechanism
  Procedures to allow users to comment on the volume
  or quality of a service. In public sector management,
  these include dissemination of information about
  services, periodic evaluation, complaints
  procedures, participation of public representatives
  in decision-making or regulatory bodies and legal
  action by consumer action groups. This concept was
  developed by Albert Hirschman in Exit, Voice and
  Loyalty and adapted by Samuel Paul to the issue of
  accountability.
  意见表达机制
  指允许使用者对服务的数量和质量进行评论的
  程序。在公共部门管理中,这些包括服务信息的
  传播、定期评价、投拆程序、公众代表在决策或
  管理机构中的参与,以及消费者行动团体的法律
  297
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  行动。这一概念是Albert Hirschman在《退出、声
  音和忠诚》(Exit,Voice and Loyalty)一书中
  提出的,以后被Samuel Paul在经营责任问题上
  使用。
  volatile capital
  游资
  volatile organic compounds - VOC
  Organic compounds which are capable of producing
  photo-chemical oxidants by sunlight-driven
  reactions in the presence of nitrogen oxides. Include
  emissions such as hydrocarbon vapor emissions.
  挥发性有机化合物
  一种有机化合物,可在氧化氮存在的条件下,通
  过日光照射反应产生光合氧化物。这类化合物包
  括碳氢化合物的挥发物。
  volatile stock
  A stock that changes in a manner inconsistent with
  changes in the rest of the market.
  游动股票,价格波动激烈的股票
  一种与市场其他股票的变动不相一致的股票。
  volatility
  波动性,不稳定性
  volatility ratio [stocks]
  The ratio by which overall changes in the stock
  market influence changes in a specific stock.
  波动率[股票]
  股票市场全面波动对某一特定股票变动的影响
  的比率。
  volume driven program
  追求数量的计划
  volumetric charge
  Charge levied for water pollution, based on volume
  of wastewater discharged rather than on
  concentration of pollutants in the water. 按(废水)
  容积收费
  根据废水排放的容积而不是按水中污染物强度
  征收的废水排放费。
  参见strength charge
  voluntary export restraints - VER
  An agreement by a country not to export certain
  goods to another country or to limit those exports to
  prevent them from gaining too large a share of the
  domestic market.
  自愿出口限制(简写为VER)
  一个国家与另一国家签订的一项协议,承诺不向
  另一国家出口某一商品,或限制这种出口,以防
  止该商品在另一国家国内市场取得太大的份额。
  voluntary lending; spontaneous lending
  Lending that is made willingly, as opposed to
  lending where the lender has some sort of obligation
  to lend or else the borrower will not reimburse
  previous loans.
  自愿贷款
  指出于自愿的贷款。相对于贷款人出于某种责任
  而作的贷款否则借款人将不能偿还以前的借款。
  voluntary restraints (on trade)
  对贸易的自愿限制
  vote without meeting
  会外表决
  voting power
  表决权
  voting right
  表决权
  voting stock
  有投票权的股票
  voucher privatization
  Method of privatization used primarily in the former
  Soviet Union whereby, prior to privatization,
  vouchers are distributed to eligible parties (e.g.
  employees, local residents). Voucher-holders
  exchange their vouchers for stock in the corporation,
  shares in an investment fund (which invests in one or
  more corporations to be privatized) or sell them on
  the open market for cash.
  私有化凭单
  一种私有化的方法,起初在前苏联使用。在私有
  化开始以前,政府把凭单分配给够格的各方(例
  如雇员、当地居民)。持有凭单的人可以用凭单
  去交换公司的股票、投资基金(投资于一个或几
  个将要私有化的公司)的股分,或者在公开市场
  出售以换取现金。
  298
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - W -
  wage agreement
  工资协议
  wage bill
  工资总额
  wage claim
  工资要求
  wage control
  工资控制
  wage costs
  工资成本
  wage drift
  An increase in the effective rate of pay per unit of
  labor input by arrangements that lie outside the
  control of the recognized procedures for scheduling
  rates. In practice this is frequently interpreted to
  mean a rise in standard weekly earnings in excess of
  the rise in nationally negotiated wage rates.
  工资上浮
  指每一单位劳动投入所产生的有效工资的增长,
  这种增长是在制定工资表的既定程序控制之外
  进行的。实际上,这常常被认为是标准周薪在超
  过与国家议定的工资增长率之上的增长。
  wage goods
  Goods normally bought out of current salary.
  工资货物
  一般指用当前工资购买的货物。
  wage pressure
  工资压力
  wage-price indexing
  System whereby wage and salary increases are
  indexed to price increases.
  工资按物价指数调整
  指工资和薪金的增长与物价增长挂钩的制度。
  wage-price spiral
  工资-物价螺旋上升
  wage pull inflation
  工资拉动的通货膨胀
  wage rate
  工资率
  wage restraint
  工资遏制
  waive, to
  放弃
  waiver
  弃权
  waiver notification [IDA]*
  弃权通知[国际开发协会]
  waiver (of a right) [ICSID]
  放弃(权利)[解决投资争端国际中心]
  waiver (of immunity) [ICSID]
  放弃(豁免权)[解决投资争端国际中心]
  war and civil disturbance [MIGA]
  One of the MIGA covered risks. Defined as "any
  military action or civil disturbance in any territory of
  the host country to which the Convention shall be
  applicable as provided in Article 66." 战争和内乱
  [多边投资担保机构]
  多边投资担保机构所承保的一种险别。其定义
  是:“依照第66条本公约适用的东道国境内任何
  地区的任何军事行动或内乱。”
  参看riot和civil commotion
  warehousing (of financial assets)
  Keeping financial assets in an investment for
  purposes other than making an immediate profitable
  investment. IFC does this to encourage other
  investors to invest in the project, while commercial
  banks are doing it with developing country assets in
  order to keep a presence in the country concerned.
  (金融资产的)存栈,抵押
  把金融资产保存在一项投资之中,其目的不是进
  行立即能赚钱的投资。国际金融公司这样做的目
  的是为了鼓励其他投资者对该项目进行投资,而
  商业银行对发展中国, 家的资产进行的这类投资
  是为了保持在该国的存在。
  warning signal
  警告信号
  warrant [finance]
  Option to purchase ordinary share or bond of a
  particular company, usually purchased by
  299
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  bondholder wanting to participate in profit growth of
  that company. Often attached to new bond issue as
  inducement for investors to take up the bond.
  认股权书,凭据[金融]
  一种购买某公司的普通股或公司债券的选择权,
  通常是由想分享该公司利润增长的债券持有人
  所购买。这种认股证书常常附带于新发行的债券
  上,以吸引投资者购买债券。
  warrant bond
  Bond with warrant attached. This may be a bond
  with bond warrant or a bond with equity warrant.
  认股保单,担保书
  附有购买选择权凭据的债券,可以是购买债券的
  保单,或是购买股份的保单。
  wastage; waste [education]
  浪费[教育]
  waste; loss in weight [commerce]
  损耗,重量亏损[商业]
  waste disposal
  废水处理
  wastewater
  废水
  wasting assets*
  递耗资产
  water balance
  Balance of input and output of water within a given
  defined hydrological area such as a basin, lake, etc.,
  taking into account net changes of storage.
  水源平衡
  指在某一既定的水文地域,在考虑到水的蓄存量
  净变化的前提下,盆地、湖泊等的水的注入和输
  出的平衡。
  water-based disease
  Disease where a necessary part of the life cycle of
  the infecting agent takes place in an aquatic animal.
  Includes urinary schistosomiasis and dracunculosis.
  水源性疾病
  一种传染物生命周期的必要阶段在水生动物体
  内度过的疾病。包括吸血虫病和麦地拉龙线虫
  病。
  waterborne disease
  Disease where water acts only as a passive vehicle
  for the infecting agent. Includes cholera, typhoid and
  infectious hepatitis.
  水传播疾病
  水对其传染物只是一种消极的媒介的疾病。这类
  病包括霍乱、伤寒和传染性肝炎。
  waterborne sewage system
  水道排水系统
  water charges
  水费
  water control
  用水控制
  water effluent charges
  Charges to users for polluting water.
  污水排放费
  对污水排放户所征收的费。
  water engineer
  水工程师
  water harvesting
  Directing runoff from a broad area by earth or stone
  bunds and canals onto smaller areas growing crops
  or trees.
  引水
  以土或石筑堤、修渠,把水从宽阔地带引入较小
  的耕作或造林地区。
  waterlogging
  水浸的,受涝的
  water management
  用水管理
  waterman
  灌区管理人员
  见 ditch rider
  water spreading
  Diverting water from gullies onto cultivated fields
  for irrigation purposes.
  引水灌溉
  从溪谷引水灌溉耕地。
  water supply
  供水
  water users' association*
  用水户协会
  300
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  water-washed disease
  Disease caused by lack of water, poor personal
  hygiene and lack of proper human waste disposal.
  Includes scabies, skin sepsis, yaws, leprosy,
  trachoma and conjunctivitis.
  水洗疾病
  因水缺乏、个人卫生差、粪便处理差而引起的疾
  病,包括疥疮、皮肤浓毒症、雅司病、麻风、沙
  眼和结膜炎。
  watering
  搀水
  见 stock watering
  watering place
  供水处,水源,(牧马等的)饮水处
  watershed management
  流域管理
  waterway
  水路,航道
  ways and means
  (筹款的)方法和手段;预算收入资源
  weaning foods
  Foods for weaning babies.
  断奶食品
  指断奶婴儿用食品。
  wear and tear (fair)
  (合理)耗损,磨损
  wearing course; surface course [highways]
  磨损层;路面层[公路]
  weighbridge
  桥秤,地磅
  weighted average
  加权平均数
  weighted average tariff rate - WATR
  The average of all tariffs paid on imported goods
  and all subsidies paid on exported goods, each
  weighted by the proportion that the good represents
  in the value of total trade of the country.
  加权平均关税税率(简写为WATR)
  指所有进口货物的税率和所有出口货物贴补率
  的平均数,每一项根据其在该国贸易值中的比重
  予以加权。
  weighted voting system
  加权表决制
  welfare costs of protectionism
  Amount of money that exporters would need to
  receive to be as well off with protectionism against
  them in industrial countries as they would be without
  protectionism against them.
  保护主义的福利成本
  指一国的出口商在受到工____业国
  
  
  290
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - U -
  UHF link [telecommunications]
  超高频连系[电信]
  ultimate model
  A model which contains all the information needed
  for its operation.
  最终模型
  包含其本身操作需要的所有信息的模型。
  
  ultimate recoverable reserves - URR
  The total amount of oil and gas recovered and
  believed to be recoverable from both discovered and
  undiscovered reservoirs, in the light of probable
  improvements in technology and based on a
  geological evaluation of a particular area or
  territory.
  最终可采储量(简写为URR)
  根据可能技术和对某一特定区域或地区的地质
  评价,从已发现和尚未发现的油藏中开采的和可
  以开采的石油、天然气总量。
  
  ultra low volume (ULV) spraying
  超低量喷洒
  umbrella (agreement)
  Agreement whereby MIGA and a member
  government provide the framework for MIGA's
  cooperation with the public and private insurers of
  that member.
  伞式(协议)
  多边投资担保机构同一个会员国政府签订的协
  议,提供多边投资担保机构与该会员国的公共、
  私营保险机构进行合作的框架。
  
  umbrella project
  A UNDP project under which an allocation from a
  country's indicative planning figures funding is
  provided for a specific period of time to finance a
  flexible package of preinvestment studies or other
  technical assistance activities, all of which may not
  be identified before approval by UNDP.
  伞式项目,“一揽子”项目
  联合国开发计划署的一种项目,在该项目下,根
  据某一国家资金需要的意向性计划提供一项分
  配额,供其在一定时期内对项目投资前研究或其
  他技术援助活动等灵活的“一揽子”活动提供融
  资。所有这些活动在联合国开发计划署项目批准
  以前,可能并没有得到认证。
  
  umpire [legal]
  公断人,仲裁人[法律]
  unaccounted [e.g. water, electricity]
  不计数的[如水、电]
  unallocatable expenditure
  无法分摊的费用
  unappropriated (earned) surplus
  That part of retained earnings which has not been
  transferred to a subordinate account or otherwise
  earmarked for any specific purpose, thus remaining
  available for the absorption of dividends.
  未分配(已实现)盈余
  指尚未转移到某附属帐户或已指定作特定目的
  之用的那部分留存盈利,因此仍可用做红利。
  
  unbundling
  分类交易
  unbundling of financial risks
  The separation and separate evaluation of financial
  risks.
  分离金融风险
  对金融(财务)风险加以分离并分别进行评价。
  
  uncalled capital
  The amount of capital by which the total capital
  authorized by the stockholders exceeds the paid-up
  capital.
  未缴资本,未收资本
  由股东确定的法定资本多于已缴资本的数额。
  
  uncovered interest rate parity model
  无担保的利率平价模型
  
  underaccruals
  应计额不足
  undercapitalized
  资本化不足
  undercollection [taxation]
  征收额不足[税收]
  underemployment
  就业不足
  undergraduate
  大学本科生
  291
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  undergraduate studies
  大学本科学科
  underground economy
  地下经济
  见 parallel economy
  underinvestment
  投资不足
  underinsurance
  Failure to maintain adequate coverage for a specific
  loss or damage.
  不足额保险
  指保额不足以为所投保的特定损失或损坏带来
  足够补偿的保险。
  
  underinvoicing of exports
  出口货物收费低于其实际价值
  
  underleveraged
  未充分发挥杠杆作用的
  underlying costs
  基本成本
  underlying inflation
  潜在的通货膨胀
  undernourished
  营养不足者
  undernutrition
  营养不良
  underprivileged
  享受不到正当权利的,贫困的
  underrun cost
  低于估计的成本
  underwriter [securities]
  The middleman for selling and distributing
  securities to investors or the public.
  承销人,承销商[证券]
  向投资者或公众推销和分配证券的中间商。
  
  Underwriting
  包销,承销
  见 also equity underwriting
  underwriting authority [MIGA]
  The President or any official or officials of MIGA
  designated by the President to make the decision on
  the issuance of a guarantee and on related matters.
  承保授权[多边投资担保机构]
  总裁或总裁指定的任何多边投资担保机构官员
  对签发一项担保和有关事项做_____出决定的权力。
  
  underwriting commitment [IFC]
  认购承诺,承保约定 [国际金融公司]
  underwriting costs
  承保费用
  underwriting syndicate
  联合保险集团;证券包销银行
  undeveloped plot
  未开发地块
  undrawn balance
  未提取余额
  undrawn borrowings
  未提取的贷款
  
  unearned income
  非劳动收入,投资所得
  unearned interest
  Interest on a loan that has already been collected but
  has not yet been earned because the principal has not
  been outstanding long enough.
  预收利息
  由于本金尚未到期而已经收取但尚未实现的贷
  款利息。
  
  uneconomic production
  不经济生产
  unemployment compensation, benefit
  失业补助,失业津贴
  unfunded interest
  未备基金的借款利息
  
  unfunded liabilities
  Any short-term liabilities as opposed to long-term
  obligations such as bonds.
  短期负债
  指相对于长期债务(如债券)而言的任何短期债
  务。
  292
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  
  unfunded system [insurance; social security]
  非积累制度[保险、社会保障]
  unified cross rates
  统一交叉汇率
  uniform votes [IBRD]
  Basic votes plus votes derived from membership
  shares.
  统一投票权 [国际复兴开发银行]
  指基本投票权加上从会员国股份中产生的投票
  权。
  
  unimpaired capital
  Capital which has no liens against it. MIGA's
  unimpaired capital is used as a basis for calculating
  its guarantee capacity.
  未动用资本, 未减损资本
  指对其没有留置权的资本。多边投资担保机构的
  未动用资本是用作计算其担保能力的基础的。
  
  unit activity (crop) budget
  In farm investment analysis, a farm budget based on
  an easily segregated activity such as planting a single
  hectare of a crop or raising a particular group of
  animals. It is difficult to prepare a unit activity
  budget on a with and without basis; rather, it is
  generally prepared on an incremental basis, with all
  costs and all benefits included at the incremental
  value. For both financial analysis and economic
  analysis, this means that for some elements the
  opportunity cost must be estimated directly, often
  especially difficult for land and for family labor. As
  a result, unit activity budgets are most appropriate in
  project analyses where the opportunity cost of land
  and family labor can be taken to be zero.
  单项活动(作物)预算,部分预算
  指一种农场预算。在农场投资分析中,把分析的
  基础放在每项易于分隔的活动上,如在一公顷土
  地上种植某种作物,或养一群特定的牲畜。在“有
  或无”的基础上制订一项单项活动预算是很难
  的,所以一般情况下,单项预算是在增量的基础
  上进行的,即把所有成本和效益都计入增量价
  值。对财务分析和经济分析而言,这意味着对一
  些因素的机会成本必须直接进行估计,而对土地
  和家庭劳动的机会成本的估计则常常是特别困
  难的。因此,单项活动预算最适合用于分析那些
  土地和家庭劳动的机会成本可以被认为是“零”
  的项目。
  
  unit budget envelope
  The budget for a specific unit in the Bank.
  单位预算包
  世界银行中某个特定单位的预算。
  
  unit cost
  单位成本
  unit(ary) elasticity
  A schedule in which the coefficient of elasticity is 1,
  that is, a change of x percent in the price will cause a
  change of x percent in the quantity demanded or
  supplied.
  单一弹性,统一弹性
  一种弹性系数为1的设计安排。也就是说当价格
  发生x%变化时,需求或供给数量也发生x%的变
  化。
  
  unit-managed costs
  Costs which are the responsibility, for budgetary
  purposes, of individual units, as opposed to those
  that are centrally-managed.
  单位管理费用
  在预算中由个别单位负责管理的费用,相对于那
  些由中央管理的费用。
  
  unit of account - UA
  An artificial concept designed to provide a
  consistent reference value against varying exchange
  rates, e.g. European Currency Unit, Special Drawing
  Rights
  记帐单位,计算单位(简写为UA)
  指一个人为设定的价值单位,如欧洲货币单位、
  特别提款权,旨在对不断变化的外汇汇率提供一
  个不变的参考价值。
  unit of output
  产量单位
  unit price contract; admeasurement contract;
  remeasurement contract
  A contract based on unit prices. Includes a bill of
  quantities, which is a statement of all the items of
  work
  单价合同;计量合同
  以单价为基础的合同,它包括一张数量清单,即
  所有工程的类目表。
  unit trains
  A complete train loaded with one product or
  material (such as coal) that is shipped from one
  specific point to another on a closely scheduled and
  controlled basis.
  293
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  专列火车
  指装运一种产品或材料(如煤)的专列火车,它
  从一个规定的地点到达另一个规定的地点,有详
  细的运行时间和严密的控制。
  unit trust
  单位信托 见无定额(投资)基金
  见 open end (investment) fund
  unit value
  单位价值,单价
  unit value export index
  An index of the exports for the developing countries
  and the industrial market economies based on
  amount and value of total exports, calculated on an
  annual basis. Used to show changes over a period of
  time.
  单位价值出口指数
  发展中国家和工业化市场经济国家的出口指数,
  它是以总出口的数量和价值为基础的,每年计算
  一次,用以表示一段时间内的变化。
  unlisted securities market*
  未上市证券的交易市场
  unlocated worker
  Worker not employed in one place.
  流动工人
  不是在一个地方受雇的工人。
  unorganized worker
  无组织工人
  unpeg (a rate), to
  取消(汇率)挂钩
  unrealized gains
  Profits that have not become actual. The gains are
  realized when the security or other instrument on
  which there has been a gain is sold for a profit.
  未实现收益
  还没有实现的利润。利润只有在带有收益的证券
  或其他金融票据出售以后才能实现。
  unregulated housing
  未加控制的住房
  unreleased funds
  未动用资金
  unrequited transfer
  Transfer of income that does not a involve a quid pro
  quo and which is non-contractual in character, for
  example, direct taxes, social security benefits and
  contributions, social assistance grants and grants
  between governments to finance the military or other
  consumption expenditure or budgetary deficit of a
  government.
  无偿转移
  指无报酬和非契约性质的收入转移,例如直接
  税、社会保障津贴和缴费、社会援助捐赠和政府
  间作军事或其他消费支出的捐赠或弥补政府预
  算赤字的捐赠等。
  unrestricted currency
  The portion of capital subscriptions paid in gold or
  US dollars and freely usable by IBRD in its lending
  operations.
  不受限制的货币[国际复兴开发银行]
  以黄金或美元缴付的那部分认缴股本,可以由国
  际复兴开发银行自由用于贷款业务。
  unrestricted subscription [IDA]
  不受限制的认股[国际开发协会]。
  unseasoned investment
  An investment that is not yet fully producing.
  未成熟投资
  尚未产生全部效益的投资项目。
  unsecured (note, loan, etc.)
  无担保的(票据、贷款等)
  unskilled labor
  不熟练劳动力
  unsmoothed data
  Data which has not been subject to regression
  analysis.
  未经处理的数据
  指还未经回归分析的数据。
  unspent credit balance
  未动用信贷余额
  unsubdivided plot
  未细分的地块
  unsuccessful bid
  未得标的投标
  untapped resources
  未开发的资源
  294
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  untied aid
  不附带条件的援助
  untying of aid
  取消对援助附加的条件
  upgrade, to [oil]
  提高等级[石油]
  upgrading of skills
  提高技能
  upkeep costs
  维护费用
  upland cotton; hairy cotton
  旱地棉,茸棉
  upland crops
  旱地作物
  upland rice; mountain rice; highland rice
  旱稻
  uploading [computers]
  装机,装入主机[计算机]
  upper middle income country-UMIC*
  中上收入国家
  upper secondary education
  高级中等教育
  upstream innovations; research-push innovations
  上游革新;研究推动型革新
  upstream process
  上游工序
  upswing
  上升
  upturn (economic)
  (经济)好转
  upward trend
  上升趋势
  urbanization economies
  Economies of scale external to both individual firms
  and industries. They reflect the sum of private and
  public investments in specific locations, as well as
  the pools of labor and capital and financial, legal and
  public services.
  城市化经济
  指在个体厂商和产业外部实现的规模经济。它们
  反映一定地区内私人和公共投资总额以及劳力、
  资本、金融、法律和公共服务的集中。
  urban sprawl
  城市无计划扩展
  urban sprinkling
  Development of small but swiftly growing urban
  areas in a generally undeveloped region.
  城市散布
  在总体不发达的地区出现的小面积但快速发展
  的城市地区。
  Uruguay Round [GATT]
  乌拉圭回合[关贸总协定]
  usable equity [World Bank]*
  可用股金[世界银行]
  useful life
  有效寿命,使用寿命,有效年限
  useful farm space - UFS
  The total area of a farm less the woods and
  nonagricultural area.
  有效农田面积(简写为UFS)
  农场的总面积减去林地和非农业地区。
  user friendly
  方便用户的
  utilities
  公用事业
  utility function
  效用涵数
  见 welfare function
  295
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - V -
  vaccination yard
  预防接种场地
  valuable consideration
  A right, interest, profit or benefit accruing to one
  party or some forebearance, detriment, loss or
  responsibility given, suffered or undertaken by the
  other.
  有价约因
  为一方产生的权利、利益、利润或权益,或由另
  一方所承担的忍耐、伤害、损失或责任。
  见consideration
  valuations for customs purposes
  为关税而进行的估计
  valuable consideration, for; for a consideration
  给予对偿
  value-added tax - VAT; tax on value added
  增值税
  value base accounting
  价值基础会计法
  见 current cost (value) accounting
  value date
  The calendar date on which a transaction takes
  place.
  成交日;起息日
  一笔交易发生的日历日期。
  value engineering
  An objective appraisal of all the elements of the
  design, construction, procurement, installation and
  maintenance of equipment, including the
  specifications, to achieve the necessary functions,
  maintainability and reliability at the lowest cost. It
  entails a detailed review of product designs and
  specifications, placing a total dollar value on the
  costs of production and maintenance and relating
  these costs to the functional value of each part and
  assembly.
  价值评估工程
  一项对设备的设计、建设、采购、安装和维修的
  所有要素的客观评估,其中包括对以最低成本达
  到必需的功能、可维修性和可靠性的说明。它需
  要对产品的设计和规格作详细的审查,对生产和
  维修的成本以美元价值作出费用估算,并将这些
  费与每一部件和组装件的功能价值相联系。
  value for money
  资金价值,资金效益
  value recovery clause
  In debt rescheduling agreement, clause which states
  that if economic conditions improve beyond a
  predefined threshold, creditors will be entitled to
  increased reimbursement.
  价值回收条款
  指在债务重新安排协议中的一项条款,它阐明:
  如果经济情况的改善超过预定的临界点,债务人
  应增加其偿还额。
  variety trial
  差异测试
  vault toilet
  窖式厕所
  vectorborne disease
  虫媒疾病
  vehicle currency
  Currency used in a swap or similar transaction, even
  though it may not be the target currency.
  周转货币,国际支付货币
  在掉期或类似交易中使用的货币,尽管它可能不
  是最终希望得到的货币。
  ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine; VIP latrine
  A pit latrine (i.e. a latrine consisting of a pit, a
  squatting plate (or seat and riser) and foundation,
  and a superstructure) where the pit is slightly offset
  to make room for an external vent pipe, painted
  black and located on the sunny side of the latrine
  superstructure so that the air in the vent pipe will
  heat up and create an updraft with a corresponding
  down draft through the squatting plate.
  通风的、改良蹲坑式厕所
  一种蹲坑厕所(式包括一个蹲坑、一块蹲板或座
  子,以及基础和上层结构),蹲坑稍为偏离以便
  腾出地方装置一条外部通风管,漆成黑色,置于
  向阳一面,以使通风管中空气得以加热,形成一
  股向上的气流和相应的通过蹲板的向下的气流。
  venture [IFC]
  商业经营,商业冒险,投机[国际金融公司]
  venture capital
  296
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  风险资本
  见 risk capital
  venture capital company
  Company specializing in providing venture capital
  finance.
  风险资本公司
  指专门提供风险资本融资的公司。
  vertical cofinancing
  纵向联合融资
  vertical equity
  Distributing the tax burden among the nonpoor in
  line with their ability to pay.
  纵向公平
  指在非穷人之间按_____付税能力分配税负。
  vetiver
  Type of fodder grass, common in Africa. Also used
  for erosion control.
  香根草
  一种饲料草,在非洲很普遍,也用于控制水土流
  失。
  VHF link [telecommunications]
  甚高频联系[电信]
  village extension worker - VEW
  The same as a village level worker.
  农村技术推广工作人员(简写为VEW)
  与村级工作人员同。
  village level operation and maintenance (VLOM)
  pump
  Pump for use in small villages. It is used in areas
  where there is no power so it is a hand pump and
  must be maintained by villagers with no mechanical
  skills. It must also be cheap.
  农村级营运和维修水泵
  指小村庄中使用的水泵。一般用于没有电力的地
  区,因而它是一种手动泵,可以由没有技能的农
  民维修,而且价格必须便宜。
  village level worker - VLW
  A worker with comparatively low-level education
  who has received training in production methods
  which he disseminates through selected farmers and
  others who adopt the new methods and compare the
  results with that part of their fields cultivated by
  normal practices.
  村级工作人员(简写为VLW)
  只具有较低教育水平的工作人员,他们接受生产
  方法的训练,然后有选择地向农民或其他人传
  播,让他们采用新方法,然后把他们使用常规的
  方法进行耕作的结果与新方法进行比较。
  village woodlot
  农村林地
  VIP latrine; ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine
  A pit latrine (i.e. a latrine consisting of a pit, a
  squatting plate (or seat and riser) and foundation,
  and a superstructure) where the pit is slightly offset
  to make room for an external vent pipe, painted
  black and located on the sunny side of the latrine
  superstructure so that the air in the vent pipe will
  heat up and create an updraft with a corresponding
  down draft through the squatting plate.
  通风的、改良蹲坑式厕所
  一种蹲坑厕所(包括一个蹲坑、一块蹲板或座子,
  以及基础和上层结构),蹲坑稍为偏离以便腾出
  地方装置一条外部通风管,漆成黑色,置于向阳
  一面,以使通风管中空气得以加热,形成一股向
  上气流和相应的通过蹲板的向下气流。
  vital statistics
  人口统计
  vitamin deficiency
  维生素缺乏
  vocational guidance
  职业指导
  vocational training
  职业培训
  voice mechanism
  Procedures to allow users to comment on the volume
  or quality of a service. In public sector management,
  these include dissemination of information about
  services, periodic evaluation, complaints
  procedures, participation of public representatives
  in decision-making or regulatory bodies and legal
  action by consumer action groups. This concept was
  developed by Albert Hirschman in Exit, Voice and
  Loyalty and adapted by Samuel Paul to the issue of
  accountability.
  意见表达机制
  指允许使用者对服务的数量和质量进行评论的
  程序。在公共部门管理中,这些包括服务信息的
  传播、定期评价、投拆程序、公众代表在决策或
  管理机构中的参与,以及消费者行动团体的法律
  297
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  行动。这一概念是Albert Hirschman在《退出、声
  音和忠诚》(Exit,Voice and Loyalty)一书中
  提出的,以后被Samuel Paul在经营责任问题上
  使用。
  volatile capital
  游资
  volatile organic compounds - VOC
  Organic compounds which are capable of producing
  photo-chemical oxidants by sunlight-driven
  reactions in the presence of nitrogen oxides. Include
  emissions such as hydrocarbon vapor emissions.
  挥发性有机化合物
  一种有机化合物,可在氧化氮存在的条件下,通
  过日光照射反应产生光合氧化物。这类化合物包
  括碳氢化合物的挥发物。
  volatile stock
  A stock that changes in a manner inconsistent with
  changes in the rest of the market.
  游动股票,价格波动激烈的股票
  一种与市场其他股票的变动不相一致的股票。
  volatility
  波动性,不稳定性
  volatility ratio [stocks]
  The ratio by which overall changes in the stock
  market influence changes in a specific stock.
  波动率[股票]
  股票市场全面波动对某一特定股票变动的影响
  的比率。
  volume driven program
  追求数量的计划
  volumetric charge
  Charge levied for water pollution, based on volume
  of wastewater discharged rather than on
  concentration of pollutants in the water. 按(废水)
  容积收费
  根据废水排放的容积而不是按水中污染物强度
  征收的废水排放费。
  参见strength charge
  voluntary export restraints - VER
  An agreement by a country not to export certain
  goods to another country or to limit those exports to
  prevent them from gaining too large a share of the
  domestic market.
  自愿出口限制(简写为VER)
  一个国家与另一国家签订的一项协议,承诺不向
  另一国家出口某一商品,或限制这种出口,以防
  止该商品在另一国家国内市场取得太大的份额。
  voluntary lending; spontaneous lending
  Lending that is made willingly, as opposed to
  lending where the lender has some sort of obligation
  to lend or else the borrower will not reimburse
  previous loans.
  自愿贷款
  指出于自愿的贷款。相对于贷款人出于某种责任
  而作的贷款否则借款人将不能偿还以前的借款。
  voluntary restraints (on trade)
  对贸易的自愿限制
  vote without meeting
  会外表决
  voting power
  表决权
  voting right
  表决权
  voting stock
  有投票权的股票
  voucher privatization
  Method of privatization used primarily in the former
  Soviet Union whereby, prior to privatization,
  vouchers are distributed to eligible parties (e.g.
  employees, local residents). Voucher-holders
  exchange their vouchers for stock in the corporation,
  shares in an investment fund (which invests in one or
  more corporations to be privatized) or sell them on
  the open market for cash.
  私有化凭单
  一种私有化的方法,起初在前苏联使用。在私有
  化开始以前,政府把凭单分配给够格的各方(例
  如雇员、当地居民)。持有凭单的人可以用凭单
  去交换公司的股票、投资基金(投资于一个或几
  个将要私有化的公司)的股分,或者在公开市场
  出售以换取现金。
  298
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - W -
  wage agreement
  工资协议
  wage bill
  工资总额
  wage claim
  工资要求
  wage control
  工资控制
  wage costs
  工资成本
  wage drift
  An increase in the effective rate of pay per unit of
  labor input by arrangements that lie outside the
  control of the recognized procedures for scheduling
  rates. In practice this is frequently interpreted to
  mean a rise in standard weekly earnings in excess of
  the rise in nationally negotiated wage rates.
  工资上浮
  指每一单位劳动投入所产生的有效工资的增长,
  这种增长是在制定工资表的既定程序控制之外
  进行的。实际上,这常常被认为是标准周薪在超
  过与国家议定的工资增长率之上的增长。
  wage goods
  Goods normally bought out of current salary.
  工资货物
  一般指用当前工资购买的货物。
  wage pressure
  工资压力
  wage-price indexing
  System whereby wage and salary increases are
  indexed to price increases.
  工资按物价指数调整
  指工资和薪金的增长与物价增长挂钩的制度。
  wage-price spiral
  工资-物价螺旋上升
  wage pull inflation
  工资拉动的通货膨胀
  wage rate
  工资率
  wage restraint
  工资遏制
  waive, to
  放弃
  waiver
  弃权
  waiver notification [IDA]*
  弃权通知[国际开发协会]
  waiver (of a right) [ICSID]
  放弃(权利)[解决投资争端国际中心]
  waiver (of immunity) [ICSID]
  放弃(豁免权)[解决投资争端国际中心]
  war and civil disturbance [MIGA]
  One of the MIGA covered risks. Defined as "any
  military action or civil disturbance in any territory of
  the host country to which the Convention shall be
  applicable as provided in Article 66." 战争和内乱
  [多边投资担保机构]
  多边投资担保机构所承保的一种险别。其定义
  是:“依照第66条本公约适用的东道国境内任何
  地区的任何军事行动或内乱。”
  参看riot和civil commotion
  warehousing (of financial assets)
  Keeping financial assets in an investment for
  purposes other than making an immediate profitable
  investment. IFC does this to encourage other
  investors to invest in the project, while commercial
  banks are doing it with developing country assets in
  order to keep a presence in the country concerned.
  (金融资产的)存栈,抵押
  把金融资产保存在一项投资之中,其目的不是进
  行立即能赚钱的投资。国际金融公司这样做的目
  的是为了鼓励其他投资者对该项目进行投资,而
  商业银行对发展中国家的资产进行的这类投资
  是为了保持在该国的存在。
  warning signal
  警告信号
  warrant [finance]
  Option to purchase ordinary share or bond of a
  particular company, usually purchased by
  299
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  bondholder wanting to participate in profit growth of
  that company. Often attached to new bond issue as
  inducement for investors to take up the bond.
  认股权书,凭据[金融]
  一种购买某公司的普通股或公司债券的选择权,
  通常是由想分享该公司利润增长的债券持有人
  所购买。这种认股证书常常附带于新发行的债券
  上,以吸引投资者购买债券。
  warrant bond
  Bond with warrant attached. This may be a bond
  with bond warrant or a bond with equity warrant.
  认股保单,担保书
  附有购买选择权凭据的债券,可以是购买债券的
  保单,或是购买股份的保单。
  wastage; waste [education]
  浪费[教育]
  waste; loss in weight [commerce]
  损耗,重量亏损[商业]
  waste disposal
  废水处理
  wastewater
  废水
  wasting assets*
  递耗资产
  water balance
  Balance of input and output of water within a given
  defined hydrological area such as a basin, lake, etc.,
  taking into account net changes of storage.
  水源平衡
  指在某一既定的水文地域,在考虑到水的蓄存量
  净变化的前提下,盆地、湖泊等的水的注入和输
  出的平衡。
  water-based disease
  Disease where a necessary part of the life cycle of
  the infecting agent takes place in an aquatic animal.
  Includes urinary schistosomiasis and dracunculosis.
  水源性疾病
  一种传染物生命周期的必要阶段在水生动物体
  内度过的疾病。包括吸血虫病和麦地拉龙线虫
  病。
  waterborne disease
  Disease where water acts only as a passive vehicle
  for the infecting agent. Includes cholera, typhoid and
  infectious hepatitis.
  水传播疾病
  水对其传染物只是一种消极的媒介的疾病。这类
  病包括霍乱、伤寒和传染性肝炎。
  waterborne sewage system
  水道排水系统
  water charges
  水费
  water control
  用水控制
  water effluent charges
  Charges to users for polluting water.
  污水排放费
  对污水排放户所征收的费。
  water engineer
  水工程师
  water harvesting
  Directing runoff from a broad area by earth or stone
  bunds and canals onto smaller areas growing crops
  or trees.
  引水
  以土或石筑堤、修渠,把水从宽阔地带引入较小
  的耕作或造林地区。
  waterlogging
  水浸的,受涝的
  water management
  用水管理
  waterman
  灌区管理人员
  见 ditch rider
  water spreading
  Diverting water from gullies onto cultivated fields
  for irrigation purposes.
  引水灌溉
  从溪谷引水灌溉耕地。
  water supply
  供水
  water users' association*
  用水户协会
  300
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  water-washed disease
  Disease caused by lack of water, poor personal
  hygiene and lack of proper human waste disposal.
  Includes scabies, skin sepsis, yaws, leprosy,
  trachoma and conjunctivitis.
  水洗疾病
  因水缺乏、个人卫生差、粪便处理差而引起的疾
  病,包括疥疮、皮肤浓毒症、雅司病、麻风、沙
  眼和结膜炎。
  watering
  搀水
  见 stock watering
  watering place
  供水处,水源,(牧马等的)饮水处
  watershed management
  流域管理
  waterway
  水路,航道
  ways and means
  (筹款的)方法和手段;预算收入资源
  weaning foods
  Foods for weaning babies.
  断奶食品
  指断奶婴儿用食品。
  wear and tear (fair)
  (合理)耗损,磨损
  wearing course; surface course [highways]
  磨损层;路面层[公路]
  weighbridge
  桥秤,地磅
  weighted average
  加权平均数
  weighted average tariff rate - WATR
  The average of all tariffs paid on imported goods
  and all subsidies paid on exported goods, each
  weighted by the proportion that the good represents
  in the value of total trade of the country.
  加权平均关税税率(简写为WATR)
  指所有进口货物的税率和所有出口货物贴补率
  的平均数,每一项根据其在该国贸易值中的比重
  予以加权。
  weighted voting system
  加权表决制
  welfare costs of protectionism
  Amount of money that exporters would need to
  receive to be as well off with protectionism against
  them in industrial countries as they would be without
  protectionism against them.
  保护主义的福利成本
  指一国的出口商在受到工业国的保护主义损害
  的情况下,要取得与没有保护主义下同样好的境
  遇所需要收到的一笔钱。
  welfare economy
  福利经济
  welfare function; utility function
  For an individual, the relationship between his level
  of wellbeing, welfare or utility and the things that
  contribute to it. For society, the relationship
  between the welfare of society as a whole and all the
  variables affecting the state of the economy and
  quality of life.
  福利功能;效用涵数
  对个人而言,是指他的康乐、福利水平或效用与
  造成这一切的因素之间的关系。对社会而言,是
  指整个社会福利和影响国家经济情况以及生活
  质量等各种变量之间的关系。
  welfare State
  福利国家
  welfare payments
  福利金
  wellhead
  井头,坑口
  wellhead price
  The price paid at the wellhead for gas or oil
  produced.
  坑口价
  指在井口付款的天然气和石油价格。
  West Indian cotton; Sea Island cotton; Egyptian
  cotton; kidney cotton
  西印度群岛棉;海岛棉;埃及棉;肾型棉
  wetcore
  The minimum structure for sanitary facilities on a
  lot.
  301
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  卫生站
  场地上卫生设施的最基本结构
  wet gas
  Natural gas containing liquid hydrocarbons in
  solution, which may be removed by a reduction of
  temperature and pressure or by a relatively simple
  extraction process.
  湿(天然)气
  包含液态碳化氢溶液的天然气,其中的液态碳化
  氢溶液可以用降低温度和减压的方式,或用相对
  简单的提炼加工予以去除。
  wet lands
  Estuaries, lakes, mangroves, marshes and swamps.
  湿地
  指河口、湖泊、红树丛生地、湿地和沼泽。
  wet process [cement manufacture]
  Process of manufacturincement used when the raw
  material contains a quantity of water. It is mixed in
  water
  湿法制作[水泥制造]
  在水泥原料含一定的水份的条件下制造水泥的
  一种方法。把原料用水混合。
  wharfage; wharfage charges; dockage; quayage
  码头费;停泊费
  wheeling
  Energy transported by an intervening party between
  a supplier and a receiver.
  间接输送
  通过一个中介商,把能源从供应商输送到用户。
  wheeling charge
  Charges levied by an intermediary who allows the
  producer to use his equipment to transmit electricity
  to the consumer.
  间接输送费
  中介商允许生产者使用其设备把电力输送给消
  费者所收取的费用。
  whole farm budget
  A budget for activities on a farm.
  全农场预算
  为整个农场活动所做的预算。
  whole farm development
  全农场开发
  wholesale banking
  1. Large-scale dealings in money deposits centered
  in the closely-interrelated group of money markets
  which have developed strongly since the mid-1960s.
  2. Banking facilities offering a limited number of
  services to select clients (generally large
  corporations).
  大规模银行业务
  1.集中于密切相关的货币市场中的大规模存款
  业务。该市场在60年代中期以来得到强劲发展。
  2.银行对精选的客户(一般是大的公司)提供
  有限的几项服务。
  见retail banking
  wholesale mechanism; wholesaling
  Bank procedure whereby loans are made to an
  intermediary, which in turn onlends them to the
  beneficiaries.
  批发机制;批发
  一种银行贷款的程序,先贷给一个中间机构,然
  后再由后者转贷给受益人。
  wholesale training
  Training trainers for subsequent training.
  对培训人员的培训
  为后续的培训而对培训人员进行的培训。
  wholly owned subsidiary
  独家所有的分号(子公司,附属公司)
  widening
  扩张
  见 capital widening
  wildcat (drilling)
  Exploratory drilling for oil and/or gas on a geologic
  feature not yet proven to be productive, in an
  unproven territory or in a zone that has never
  produced or is not known to productive in the
  general area.
  盲目开采(钻探)
  指在尚未证实具有生产能力的地质区为寻找石
  油和/或天然气而进行的勘探性钻井;在未经证实
  的/或从未生产过或尚未知悉具有生产能力的一
  般地区进行钻探。
  wildcat well
  盲目挖掘的油井
  wild flooding
  Method of irrigation which consists of spilling water
  at frequent intervals from a grade ditch constructed
  along the high edge of a sloping field. The water is
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  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  allowed to flow freely down the slope, irrigating the
  soils the water moves across. Interceptor ditches are
  placed at intervals down the slopes to collect the
  water. Used primarily for irrigating low-income
  crops on steep lands where uniformity of water
  distribution is not a major consideration.
  漫流灌溉
  指一种灌溉方式,即在坡地高处筑渠,分段开口,
  让水顺坡流下灌溉农田;并在斜坡下挖一条栏截
  渠以收集余水。这种灌溉方式主要用于斜坡上种
  植的低收入作物,在那里,均匀灌溉用水不是主
  要考虑的问题。
  wildland management area - WMA
  Area where wildlands are protected and managed to
  retain a relatively unmodified state.
  荒地管理区[简写WMA]
  指对荒地加以保护和管理的地区,旨在保持其相
  对未修饰的状态。
  wildland management unit - WMU
  荒地管理单位(简写为WMU)
  wildlands
  未开垦土地,荒地
  willingness to pay - WTP
  The amount consumers are prepared to pay for a
  final good or service. An estimate of the value in use.
  支付意愿(简写为WTP)
  消费者愿对某最终货物或服务支付的价格,是对
  使用价值的估计
  wind pump
  风动水泵
  windbreak
  防风林
  windfall profit
  意外利润,横财
  window [computers]
  视窗[计算机]
  window (in a market)
  Short-lived opportunity to issue securities that may
  be taken up by any of a significant number of highly
  rated borrowers.
  (市场的)窗口
  发行证券的短暂时机,此时发行的证券有可能被
  信誉高的借款人所收购。
  window dressing
  Financial actions such as stock market trading,
  whose purpose is to make a corporation's financial
  situation seem better than it really is, just before the
  publication of a balance sheet or other financial
  statement.
  (帐面)粉饰,做假帐
  在公司资产负债表或其他财务报表就要公开发
  表以前发生的某种金融行为(如在证券交易所进
  行交易),其目的是使一个公司的财务状况看上
  去比实际情况要好。
  window guidance [central bank]
  Unofficial control of interest rates by central bank.
  窗口指导[中央银行]
  中央银行对利率的非官方控制。
  "with-and-without" test [projects]
  A test of the net benefit with and without the project.
  “有-无”分析法[项目]
  一种对有项目与无项目的情况下,净收益的测算
  方法。
  withholding tax
  预扣税款
  women in development - WID
  发展中的妇女,妇女在发展中的作用(简写WID)
  woodfuel
  木材燃料
  word processor
  文字处理器
  workers' remittances
  工人汇款,工人侨汇
  working account
  A normal revenue and expense account.
  流动帐户
  一般收支帐户。
  working age population
  劳动适龄人口
  working agreement
  实际业务协定
  working capital
  The capital necessary to purchase goods and
  303
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  services that are used for the production activities of
  an enterprise and that are turned over during the
  production cycle.
  流动资金
  指企业购买用于生产活动的货物和劳务所必需
  的资金,它在生产周期中进行周转。
  working capital loan
  流动资本贷款
  working capital ratio
  流动资本比率
  见 current ratio
  working capital statement
  流动资金报表
  见 statement of changes in financial position
  working funds
  周转金
  working interest [oils, minerals]
  经营权益,开采权益[石油、矿物]
  working population
  劳动人口
  working ratio
  Cash working expenses divided by operating
  revenues, expressed as a percentage.
  营业费用比率
  即现金经营费用除以营业收入,以百分比表示。
  working table; performance chart; management
  chart
  工作表,业绩图,管理图
  workmen's compensation
  工人劳动补偿,工人工资
  workout [financial]
  Arrangements between borrowers and debtors
  (usually at international level) to extend repayment
  schedules and provide new credit at reduced interest
  rates.
  解决性方案[金融]
  在借款人和贷款人之间(通常在国际层次上)就
  延长偿还款期和提供减低利率的新贷款所作出
  的安排。
  workout arrangements; workouts [IFC]
  Arrangements between borrowers and debtors
  (usually at international level) to extend repayment
  schedules and provide new credit at reduced interest
  rates.
  解决性方案[国际金融公司]
  在借款人和贷款人之间(通常在国际层次上)就
  延长偿还款期和提供减低利率的新贷款所作出
  的安排。
  workshop [training]
  研讨会[培训]
  World Bank Capital Markets System-CMS*
  世界银行资本市场体系(简写为CMS)
  World Bank Country Study*
  世界银行国别研究
  World Bank Debtor Reporting System*
  世界银行债务国报告制度
  (World Bank) Program of Special Assistance (to
  Member Countries)-SAL(sometimes known as
  Special Acting Program, Special Assistance
  Program)*
  (世界银行对会员国的)特别援助规划(有时称
  作特别行动规划)(简写为SAL)
  World Bank's Bank
  Proposed organization to help raise and channel
  additional money for use in developing countries.
  Would probably had a greater lending-to-assets ratio
  than one-to-one as observed by the Bank itself.
  Would have had more flexibility in raising money
  than the Bank. The project has been abandoned.
  世界银行的银行
  建议设立的一个组织,它将帮助筹措资金和向发
  展中国家提供额外的资金。它的贷款/资产比率可
  高于世界银行1:1的比率;在筹资上也可比世界
  银行更灵活一些。该计划后来被放弃了。
  World Bank Group
  世界银行集团
  (World Bank) Manufacturing Unit Value (MUV)
  Index
  Industrial countries' indices of US dollar unit values
  of manufactured exports to developing countries.
  There are two indices - the cif index which combines
  a 90% weight of FOB export prices with a 10%
  weight of transport costs and a FOB index.
  (世界银行)制成品单位值(简写MUV)指数
  即工业国向发展中国家出口制成品的单位美元
  304
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  值指数。该指数有两种:一种是到岸价格指数(其
  中以离岸价格计的出口价格给以90%的权数、运
  费给以10%的权数),另一种是离岸价格指数。
  World Bank Technical Paper *
  世界银行技术文件
  World Development Indicators - WDIs
  List of key economic indicators (e.g. population,
  labor force, urbanization, health-related indicators)
  given in the Annex to the World Development
  Report.
  世界发展指标(简写为WDIs)
  附在世界银行出版的《世界发展报告》后面的一
  些显示主要经济指标的表(例如人口、劳动力、
  城市化、和有关卫生方面的指标等)。
  World Development Report*
  《世界发展报告》
  "wrap-up" insurance arrangement
  总包保险安排
  wrap-up insurance policy
  Insurance policy covering several contractors all
  working on the same project.
  总包保险单
  指为同一项目工作的几个承包商共同进行保险
  的保单。
  wrap-up meeting
  总结会议
  write down, to; expense, to
  To transfer a portion of the balance of an account
  previously regarded as an asset to an expense
  account or to profit and loss.
  减记(资产);划减、消减
  把原先作为一项资产记入帐户的那部分余额转
  入一个费用帐户,或记入损益帐户。
  write off [noun]
  When an asset or a portion of an asset is recognized
  as worthless, it is removed from the books of a
  corporation and a corresponding loss in the
  corporation's capital is recognized.
  注销[名词]
  当一项资产或其一部分被确认为已无价值时,将
  其从公司的帐簿上剔除,同时确认该公司资本的
  相应损失。
  write off, to
  注销,销帐
  writing down
  减记资产帐面价值,减少价值
  write up [USA]
  增记资产帐面价值,增加价值[美国]
  305
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - X -
  x-efficiency
  A situation in which a firm's total costs are not
  minimized because the actual output from given
  inputs is less than the maximum feasible level.
  X效益
  指在一定投入下,由于实际产出额没有达到最佳
  水平而使公司的总成本没有降至最低的状况。
  xenocurrencies
  A deposit or loan denominated in a currency other
  than that of the country in which the bank is located.
  在原发行国以外流通的货币
  存款或贷款使用的标值货币是银行所在国之外
  的另一个国家的货币。
  - Y -
  yellow stained cotton
  Cotton almost entirely discolored to a slightly
  mottled tan color.
  黄褐色污染棉
  几乎完全变色并带有浅褐色斑污的棉花。
  yield curve
  Graph relating rates of return to maturity.
  产出曲线
  表示到期收益率的图形。
  yield rate
  产出率,收益率
  yield test of projects
  项目产出试验
  yield to maturity - YTM
  The return a security earns assuming that it is held
  until a certain date and put to the borrower at the
  specified put price.
  到期收益(简写为YTM)
  假定持有一项票据到一定期限,并按预定的售价
  出售所获得的收益。
  - Z -
  zero base budgeting - ZBB
  A budget process which requires managers to justify
  each requested budgetary expenditure anew each
  year.
  零基预算(简写为ZBB)
  每一年都要求管理人员对每一项所需预算支出
  重新进行说明的预算程序。
  zero coupon bond
  Bond that pays no interest but is sold at a steep
  discount and paid off at par.
  无息债券
  没有利息,但按很高的贴现价格销售,并按票面
  价格偿付的债券。
  zero fee policy
  无费用政策
  zero population growth - ZPG
  人口零增长(简写为ZPG)
  zero sum game
  零收益策略
  zero tillage system
  Cultivation involving zero plowing, i.e. by planting
  directly on the soil surface, usually using manure,
  hay or some other substance to aid growing.
  无耕作制度
  即不耕地而直接在土壤表面进行种植的耕作方
  法。通常用肥料,干草或其它的物质来帮助作物
  生长。
  zone extension officer - ZEO [agricultural extention]
  Senior extention officer, at the highest level.
  地区推广官员(简写为ZEO)[农业技术推广]
  最高一级的高级农业技术推广官员。
  


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