知识与资讯
专业词汇
 
世界银行业务词典(6)
发布时间:2011-7-18 10:43:00||  点击:4739次||  文章分类:专业词汇||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)


restricted distribution
  有限制的传阅或分发
  restricted release (of 18% currency)
  Release by Bank member of its 18% currency for
  lending or relending, with some restrictions, such as
  the requirement that the funds only be used in the
  currency concerned without being converted or are
  only used for initial lending and not indefinite
  lending and relending.
  (对18%货币)限制性释放
  世界银行会员国解除对其缴纳的18%本国货币
  贷款或再贷款的限制,但仍附有一些限制,如只
  能直接使用该货币而不能转换成别的货币;或只
  能用于初始贷款而不能用于无限期贷款和再贷
  款。
  Restricted Toxic Materials List - RTML
  A list of toxic materials that may not be used in Bank
  projects.
  禁止使用的有毒材料一览表(简写为RTML)
  指在世界银行项目中不得使用的有毒材料一览
  表。
  restrictive trade policy
  限制性贸易政策
  resubmission [ICSID]
  再提交公断[解决投资争端国际中心]
  resurfacing [highways]
  路面重筑,路面翻修[公路]
  retail banking
  Traditional banking operations conducted with the
  general public.
  零售银行业务,小额银行业务
  指为公众开办的传统银行业务。
  retail training
  Training of officials directly in the country by their
  compatriots rather than abroad by EDI or others.
  就地培训
  指由本国人在本国直接培训官员,而不是由世界
  银行经济发展学院或其他组织在国外培训。
  retained earnings
  Accumulated net income, less distributions to
  stockholders and transfers to paid-in capital accounts.
  留存盈利
  累积的净收益减去分配给股东和转移进实缴资
  本帐户的数额。
  retainer
  预聘费,保留费
  retention money
  Percentage of each payment retained until the
  contract has been completed and the contractor has
  fulfilled his performance (and maintenance)
  obligations.
  保留款,保留金
  对每次付款扣留的一个百分比,直至合同全部完
  成,承包商完成其应履行(和维修)的任务。
  retention rate; grade ratio [education]
  Percentage of students that pass from one grade to
  next grade.
  留校率;升级率[教育]
  在校学生由一个年级升到上一年级的百分比。
  retired debt
  A debt that has been paid off.
  已清偿债务
  已经被偿清的债务。
  241
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  retirement (of a fixed asset)
  Removal of an asset from service, following its sale
  or the end of its productive life, accompanied by the
  necessary adjustment of fixed asset and
  depreciation-reserve accounts.
  固定资产报废
  在一项固定资产被卖出或终止其生产寿命之后,
  将其从使用中撤除,同时对固定资产和折旧准备
  帐户进行必要的调整。
  retirement benefits
  退休金,退休补助
  retirement of outstanding debt
  清偿债务余额
  retraining
  再培训
  retrieval
  (资料)检索
  retroactive financing; retrofinancing
  Reimbursement by the Bank of expenditures made
  by the borrower before the date of signing a loan
  agreement, as an exception to normal financing. It is
  subject to a fixed cutoff date, before which
  expenditures are not eligible for Bank financing.
  追溯融资
  世界银行对借款人在某项贷款协议签订以前所
  支出的费用给以偿还,这是在正常融资以外的例
  外融资。这受一定的截止日期的限制,在此日期
  之前所支出的费用没有资格得到世界银行的融
  资。
  retrofinancing
  追溯融资
  见 retroactive financing
  retrofitting
  式样翻新,改进
  return of capital
  The return to the investor of part or all of the initial
  investment of capital in a project.
  资本收益,资本利润
  投资者从一个项目早期部分或全部投入资本中
  得到的收益。
  return of investment
  投资收益
  return of labor
  A detailed list of the staff and labor employed.
  实有劳力(清单)
  实际雇用职工的详细清单。
  return on earning assets*
  生利资产收益
  return on, to capital
  1. The internal rate of return of the incremental net
  benefit after financing.
  2. Net income divided by equity.
  资本收益(率)
  1.融资后增量净收益的内部收益率。
  2.净收入除以股本金。
  return on, to investment
  投资收益(率)
  returns; revenues
  收益;岁入
  returns to scale
  规模收益
  revaluation
  升值,重新定值
  revaluation factor [currency pool]
  A ratio establishing the appreciation or depreciation
  due to exchange rate changes in the U.S. dollar value
  of currencies in the pool from one date to another. It
  is calculated by dividing, as of any day, the total U.S.
  dollar value at the exchange rates of that day of the
  balances of currencies in the pool brought forward
  from the previous day, by their total U.S. dollar
  value at the exchange rates of the previous day.
  重估价系数[货币总库]
  用以确定由于美元汇率的变化而使总库内当天
  和前一天相比各种货币升值或贬值的比率。其计
  算方法是用任何一天总库内各种货币按当日汇
  率折算的美元总值,除以前一天按当日汇率折算
  的各种货币的美元总值。
  revealed comparative advantage - RCA
  Concept developed by Bela Balassa, it is measured
  by an item's share in the country's exports relative to
  its share in world trade. If the share of the item in the
  country's exports is more than the corresponding
  world share, then the country has a revealed
  comparative advantage; if less, it has a revealed
  comparative disadvantage.
  242
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  显示出来的相对优势(简写为RCA)
  这是由Bela Balassa提出的一个概念,是以某项商
  品在一国的出口中所占的份额相对于该商品在
  世界贸易中所占份额来衡量的。如果该商品在本
  国出口中所占份额大于它在世界贸易中所占份
  额,则该国显示出相对优势,如果前者小于后者,
  则显示相对劣势。
  revenue
  收入
  见 current revenues; fiscal revenue; government
  revenues
  revenue account [national accounts]
  收入帐户[国民核算]
  revenue-earning enterprise
  赢利企业
  revenue recognition
  In accounting, when income is deemed to have been
  received. IFC records dividends, profit
  participations and fees (other than commitment fees)
  as income when received. Income and commitment
  fees are recorded as income on an accrual basis. It
  does not recognize income on loans where
  collectibility is in doubt and payments of principal
  or interest are past due more than sixty days.
  收入认定
  会计中认为是已收到的收入。国际金融公司把收
  到的股利、利润分配和收费(除了承诺费以外)
  作为收入进行登记。收入和承诺费在应计基础上
  记为收入。它对收入不确定、本息支付拖延达60
  天以上的贷款的收入不做认定。
  revenue sharing
  收益分配,收益分享
  revenue stamp
  印花税票,印花
  revenues; returns
  收入;收益
  reverse charge call; collect call; transfer charge call
  对方付款电话
  reverse transfer of technology
  Transfer of technology from the developing to the
  developed countries.
  反向技术转让
  从发展中国家向发达国家进行的技术转让。
  review clause; (periodic) review clause
  Clause in a loan agreement which allows the lender
  to determine periodically whether stated objectives
  are being met.
  审查条款;(定期)审查条款
  贷款协议中的一项条款,它使贷款人可以定期确
  认各项目标是否已经达到。
  review mission
  考察团,检查团
  revised minimum standard model - RMSM
  An IBRD mathematical model of monetary
  aggregates, covering a few basic economic factors.
  修正的最低标准模型(简写为RMSM)
  国际复兴开发银行的一种货币总量数学模型,包
  括一些基本的经济要素。
  revolving account*
  周转帐户;循环帐户
  revolving credit
  Any line of credit that be borrowed against up to a
  stated credit limit and into which repayments go for
  crediting.
  循环信贷
  一种信贷额度,可在一定限额内进行贷款,其偿
  还款仍用于贷款。
  revolving fund
  A fund for project-related expenditure.
  周转基金;备用金
  用于与项目有关的费用的开支。
  revolving underwriting facility - RUF; note issuance
  facility - NIF; prime underwriting facility - PUF
  A medium-term arrangement under which a borrower
  can issue short-term paper (Euronotes)
  backed up by commercial bank underwriting commitments.
  循环包销措施(简写为RUF);票据保险措施(简
  写为NIF);初级包销措施(简写为PUF)
  一种中期安排,此中借款人可以在商业银行包销
  承诺的支持下发行三个月或六个月的短期票据
  (欧洲票据)。
  rhizomes; rootstock crops
  根茎;根茎作物
  ribbon check irrigation
  条灌
  243
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  见 border check irrigation
  rice
  稻
  见 floating rice; floded rice; upland rice
  rig
  井架
  见 oil (drilling) rig
  right of first refusal
  优先取舍权
  见 first refusal right
  right of way
  地面通过权,地役权,路权
  rights issue, offering
  增股
  riot [MIGA]
  An assemblage of individuals who commit public
  acts of violence in defiance of local authority.
  Covered by MIGA under the war and civil
  disturbance category.
  暴乱[多边投资担保机构]
  无视当地政府,聚众进行的公开的暴力行为。多
  边投资担保机构对此在“战争和内乱”类别下提
  供担保。
  参见 Civil commotion
  ripple price effects
  价格波浪作用
  risk allowance [projects]
  An allowance made when funding a project for risks
  that might occur.
  风险备抵[项目]
  在向一个可能发生风险的项目提供资____金时设立
  的准备金。
  risk-asset ratio
  Ratio between assets held and amount of risk.
  MIGA's risk-asset ratio may not exceed one-to-five.
  风险-资产比率
  持有资产额与风险额之间的比率。多边投资担保
  机构的风险资产比率不得超过1:5。
  risk capital; venture capital
  Capital invested in high-risk or relatively high-risk
  securities and enterprises, in expectation of commensurately
  high returns. It is sometimes used of
  equities or ordinary stock, the dividend of which
  varies with the profits earned by the corporation.
  风险资本
  投资于高风险或相对高风险的证券和企业,以期
  得到相应的高收益。有时用于指股本或普通股
  票,其股利随公司获利情况而变化。
  risk contract [oil]
  Contract that typically places all risk and investment
  on the contractor, who provides capital for
  exploration and production.
  风险合同 [石油业]
  一般由提供勘探和生产资金的承包商承担一切
  投资与风险的合同。
  risk management
  风险管理
  risk of expropriation [MIGA]
  被征收的风险,被没收的风险[多边投资担保机
  构]
  risk pooling [MIGA]
  Sharing of risks among members of an insurance
  pool.
  风险联保[多边投资担保机构]
  指由一个联保集团的成员共同分担风险。
  risk posture
  The degree of risk of an investment.
  风险状态
  一项投资的风险程度。
  risk spread
  分散风险
  risk transformation guarantees
  风险转移担保
  river blindness; onchocerciasis
  河盲症;盘尾丝虫病
  river channel
  河流航道,河道
  ro/ro [= roll-on/roll-off]
  滚装法,滚装运输[=滚装滚卸法]
  road base
  路基[公路]
  见 base [highways]
  244
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  road, surface patching; spot improvement, patching;
  patching [highways]
  路面补坑,路面零补 [公路]
  road pricing
  公路运输定价
  road user charges
  道路使用费
  rock phosphate; phosphate rock
  磷酸盐岩
  rollback
  In GATT, the progressive dismantling of all trade
  restrictions which are inconsistent with GATT.
  逐步撤除
  关贸总协定规定的对与总协定不一致的所有贸
  易限制进行逐步撤除。
  rolled (costs)
  平均成本
  rolling back
  压低物价,回降物价
  rolling plan
  滚动计划,逐年延伸计划
  roll-on/roll-off - ro/ro
  滚装/滚卸法,滚装运输
  rollover
  1. Reinvestment of money received from a
  maturing security in a similar security.
  2. Term used for a delay allowed by a lender to
  borrower in making a principal payment on a loan.
  With governments, rollovers in the form of
  refundings or refinancings are routine.
  滚转法
  1.把从到期证券收到的钱再投资于类似的证券。
  2.指贷款人允许借款人推迟对一项贷款本金的
  偿还。就政府而言,以重新融资方式进行滚转,
  属例行公事。
  rollover credit
  展期信贷
  见 revolving credit
  rollover of gains
  利润的再投资,利润的滚转
  rollover project, program
  持续性项目,滚动计划
  root crops
  块根作物
  rootstock crops; rhizomes
  根茎作物, 根茎
  rotating savings and credit association - ROSCA
  Type of savings institution whereby each member
  contributes a certain sum each month and the entire
  proceeds for that month are given to one individual.
  Each member takes it in turn to be the recipient.
  轮流储蓄和信贷协会(简写为ROSCA)
  储蓄机构的一种,由每一成员按月缴纳一笔资
  金,并将当月交纳的资金总额给予某一成员。每
  个成员轮流接受这笔资金成为受益人。
  roundwood
  圆木,圆材
  routine maintenance
  例行(日常)维修,常规保养
  row crops
  条种作物,需中耕作物
  Rules of Procedure for Arbitration Proceedings
  (Arbitration Rules) [ICSID]
  《仲裁程序规则》(仲裁规则)[解决投资争端
  国际中心]
  Rules of Procedure for Conciliation Proceedings
  (Conciliation Rules) [ICSID]
  《调解程序规则》(调解规则)[解决投资争端
  国际中心]
  Rules of Procedure for the Institution of Conciliation
  and Arbitration Proceedings (Institution Rules)
  [ICSID]
  《调解和仲裁的组织程序规则》(组织规则)[解
  决投资争端国际中心]
  Rules of Procedure for Meetings of the Executive
  Directors
  执行董事会会议程序规则
  runaway inflation
  恶性通货膨胀
  running average; moving average
  245
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  The average rate of interest applied to an
  outstanding loan, based on the rates applied on all
  previous disbursements, weighted, where necessary,
  to allow for different levels of disbursement.
  移动平均数,连续平均数
  即一项未偿还贷款余额的平均利率。该利率是根
  据以前所有支付额的利率决定的,并在需要时进
  行加权,以进行不同级别的支付。
  running contract
  A contract for the supply of an approximate quantity
  over or below the approximate quantity mentioned
  in the contract. This reduces the holding cost and is
  normally applied to goods for which prices are not
  subject to appreciable market fluctuations.
  活动合同,不定量合同
  指一种供货合同,卖方可灵活提供与合同中所规
  定的近似数量或多或少的货物。这样可以降低存
  货成本,一般用于价格不易受市场波动影响的货
  物。
  running costs
  经营费用,日常费用,运行成本
  run-of-mine coal; mine run coal
  Ungraded coal of various sizes as it comes from the
  mine.
  未分等级的煤
  刚出矿还没有分等级的大小不一的煤。
  run-of-the-river hydroelectric power plant
  Hydroelectric power plant that uses water flow as it
  comes in the river, with little or no storage to allow
  for modifications in demand or water flow.
  水口电站
  利用河流中的水流进行发电的电站。由于没有或
  很少有蓄水,因此不能对需求或水量进行调节。
  runoff [water]
  水的径流,流量[水]
  runoff irrigation
  径流灌溉
  
  246
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - S -
  safe drinking water
  安全饮用水
  见 safe water
  Safe Motherhood Fund [IBRD/WHO]
  母亲安全基金[国际复兴开发银行/世界卫生组
  织]
  Safe Motherhood Initiative [IBRD/WHO]
  母亲安全动议[国际复兴开发银行/世界卫生组
  织]
  safe water; drinking water; safe drinking water
  Drinking water. The terms drinking water, safe
  water and safe drinking water are used
  interchangeably.
  安全饮用水
  饮用水。以上三个英文名词可相互替代使用。
  safety net
  安全网
  salaries and wages
  薪水和工资
  saleability [securities]
  可销售性[证券]
  saleable assets
  可出售资产
  sale from portfolio
  有价证券的出售
  sale of loan maturities
  到期贷款出售
  sales tax
  营业税,销售税
  salt lick; mineral lick
  牲畜舐用矿盐
  salt water intrusion
  Salt water entering fresh water, thereby destroying
  freshwater sources.
  盐水侵入
  指盐水流入淡水中,使淡水资源遭到破坏。
  salvage value
  残值
  sample survey [statistics]
  抽样调查[统计]
  sanitation
  卫生
  Saudi Arabian light (crude oil); light Arabian crude
  The world's most prolific crude oil, frequently used
  as a marker crude in establishing the prices of other
  crudes.
  沙特阿拉伯轻油(原油);阿拉伯轻质原油
  世界上储藏量最广的轻原油,常常用作其它原油
  定价时的基准原油。
  savings and loan association
  储蓄与贷款协会
  scarcity value
  稀缺价值
  scatter chart, diagram; scattergram
  分布图,散点图
  scattered plotting
  散点标绘
  schedular tax; scheduled tax
  收入分类税,居地税
  schedule
  时间表,一览表,程序表,清单
  schedule contract
  进度合同
  schedule of rates contract
  A type of unit price contract, paid on the basis of a
  schedule of rates. It is similar to a bill of quantities
  contract but used where the quantity of work to be
  performed is difficult or impossible to estimate in
  advance, such as maintenance, drilling or dredging.
  费率表计价合同
  一种单位价格合同,按费率明细表付款。与工程
  量合同相似,但在工作量难以或不可能事先估计
  时使用,如维修、钻井或疏浚。
  scheduled tax; schedular tax
  收入分类税;居地税
  247
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  school mapping
  校区布局
  scrap, to
  废弃,报废
  scrap value
  残余价值
  SDR currencies
  特别提款权货币
  Sea Island cotton; West Indian cotton; Egyptian
  cotton; kidney cotton
  海岛棉;西印度群岛棉;埃及棉;肾型棉
  seasonal credit
  季节性信贷
  seasonally adjusted
  按季节调整的
  seasonal movements
  季节性运动
  seasonal peak
  季节性高峰
  seasoned securities
  稳妥的证券
  second-best optimum
  If one of the conditions for Pareto optimality cannot
  be fulfilled, then the best attainable situation (the
  second-best optimum) can, in general, only be
  achieved by departing from all the other Paretian
  conditions.
  次佳论
  如果达到帕累托最佳状态的各种条件之一得不
  到满足,那么,一般来说只有脱离帕累托所有其
  他条件才可能达到的最好状态(次佳)。
  second-best policy
  次好政策
  second generation special account - SGSA
  Special account set up for use by a specific
  implementation unit that cannot readily access the
  special account to meet eligible expenditures as they
  occur.
  第二代专用帐户(简写为SGSA)
  为特定执行单位设立的特别帐户,以便使该单位
  在不能使用专用帐户前对已支出的合格费用进
  行报销。
  second lowest bidder
  居第二位的最低报价者,次低报价投标者
  seco nd tier bank
  1. Bank used as secondary source for funds.
  2. Smaller lenders, i.e. banks other than the main
  commercial banks. Used particularly in Latin
  America.
  二级银行
  1.作为二级资金来源的银行。
  2.较小的贷款者,即除主要商业银行以外的银
  行。特别用于拉丁美洲国家。
  second tier country
  A classification proposed by OECD which covers
  those countries below the newly industrialized
  countries but above other developing countries.
  They are exporters of between $100 million and $2
  billion worth of manufactured goods. Include Chile,
  Cyprus, Haiti, Indonesia, Jordan, Macau, Malaysia,
  Malta, Mauritius, Morocco,, Peru, Philippines, Sri
  Lanka, Thailand, Tunisia and Uruguay.
  二级国家
  经经济合作与发展组织提出的一钟分类法,指低
  于新兴工业化国家或地区但高于其他发展中国
  家的那些经济体,即制成品出口在1亿到20亿美
  元之间的国家。这些国家包括:智利、塞浦路斯、
  海地、印度尼西亚、约旦、中国澳门、马来西亚、
  马耳他、毛里求斯、摩洛哥、秘鲁、菲律宾、斯
  里兰卡、泰国、突尼斯和乌拉圭。
  secondary education
  中等教育
  见 lower secondary education; upper secondary
  education
  secondary energy; final energy
  二次能源;最终能源
  secondary market
  二级市场
  secondary market mortgage institution
  二级市场抵押机构
  secondary recovery
  二次回收,二次开采
  248
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  secondary reserves
  次生储层,二次可采储量
  secondary securities
  次级证券
  secondary transmission line; subtransmission line
  Transmission line in a subtransmission system, i.e.
  one which supplies distribution substations from
  bulk power sources, such as large transmission
  substations or generating stations.
  二级输电线路;次级输电线路
  一个二级输电系统中的输电线路,即从大容量电
  源(如大型输变电站或发电站)给配电所供电的
  输电线路。
  secondment
  借调
  sector adjustment loan - SECAL; SAD
  A loan aiming at major policy improvements in a
  sector.
  部门调整贷款(简写为SECAL; SAD)
  旨在改进一个部门的主要政策的贷款。
  sector GDP
  The contribution to GDP generated by a particular
  sector.
  部门国内生产总值
  一个具体部门产生的国内生产总值份额。
  sector implementation review - SIR
  部门执行情况检查(简写为 SIR)
  sector investment and maintenance loan - SIM
  Loan aimed at investing in a particular sector
  maintaining the level of activity in that sector.
  部门投资和维持贷款
  指为向一个特定部门的投资提供的贷款,用以维
  持该部门的一定水平的活动。
  sector loan
  A loan geared towards a particular sector.
  部门贷款
  对某一特定部门的贷款。
  secular trend
  Long-term average of a statistical series, usually
  understood to cover at least three or four
  generations.
  长期趋势
  一个统计系列的长期平均趋势,通常理解为跨越
  至少三代至四代人口。
  secure a loan, to
  取得一笔贷款,担保一笔贷款
  secured loan
  抵押贷款
  securities (custody) account
  证券(保管)帐户
  securities dealer; securities firm
  Firm acting as a principal rather than an agent in the
  securities market.
  证券商,证券商行(公司)
  证券市场中,作为自营商而不是代理商的商行。
  securities market
  The primary and secondary market for negotiable
  equity (stocks) and long-term debt instruments
  (bonds).
  证券市场
  从事可流通的股本(股票)和长期债务工具(债
  券)交易的初级和二级市场。
  securitization
  1. Issue of securities in exchange for debt. The
  Bank has used it to specifically refer to “the
  packaging and selling of a pool of creditor risks in
  the form of a security”.
  2. The tendency on financial markets to make
  greater use of securities, i.e. firms issue securities
  rather than borrow directly from banks.
  证券化
  1.发行证券以交换债务。世界银行用来专指“以
  一种证券的形式将债权人的一批风险组合起来
  并予以出售”。
  2.金融市场更多地利用证券筹资的趋势,即企
  业通过发行证券而不是从银行直接借款来筹资。
  security
  1. Document giving title to property or claim on
  income.
  2. Income-yielding paper traded on the stock exchange
  or secondary market.
  有价证券,抵押品,担保品
  1.赋予财产所有权或对收入的求偿权的文书。
  2.在证券交易所或二级市场上交易的能产生收
  益的票据。
  security agreement
  担保协议
  249
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  security lending
  Lending of securities which the IBRD owns (typically
  a U.S. Government obligation) against receipt
  of cash or similar securities as collateral in amounts
  equal to or higher than the market value of the
  security lent.
  借出证券
  国际复兴开发银行把自有证券(通常为美国政府
  债券)作为抵押品出借,以换取现金或类似的证
  券,其金额等于或略高于借出的证券的市场价
  值。
  security of tenure
  使用期保障
  security sharing agreement [IFC] *
  抵押品或保险金等分享协议[国际金融公司]
  sedimentation ponds
  Pond where waste water is temporarily stored to
  allow the solids to settle out.
  沉淀池
  暂时贮存废水以沉淀其中固体物质的水池。
  seed
  种子
  见 breeder seed; certified seed; field seeds;
  foundation seed; registered seed
  seed capital; seed money
  种子资本,原始资本;种子资金,
  seed farm
  育种农场
  seed garden
  育种园
  seed money; seed capital
  种子资金
  seed plant
  种子作物
  seedling
  秧苗,树苗
  seine fishing
  围网捕鱼
  seismic survey
  地震勘查,地震调查
  seizure [legal]
  Act or process of seizing property by virtue of a writ
  or other legal order to satisfy a judgment made by a
  court under the authority of a legal order.
  没收,扣押,查封[法律]
  在法律决议授权下,根据令状或其他法律命令查
  封(或扣押)财产,以完成一项法院判决的行为
  或过程。
  selection felling, cutting
  Harvesting of only a small proportion of the standing
  crop.
  间伐,有选择地砍伐
  对生长中的作物的一小部分进行收获。
  Selective Capital Increase - SCI
  An increase in the Bank's capital which does not
  apply equally to all shareholders. The most recent
  one was in 1984. Though always referred to as
  Selective Capital Increase, the legal document calls
  it Special Capital Increase.
  选择性增资(简写为SCI)
  世界银行的一种不是对所有股东同等适用的增
  资。最近的一次是在1984年。虽然通称为选择性
  增资,但法律文件称之为特别增资。
  self-adjustment
  自动调整
  self-care; self-treatment
  自我护理;自我治疗
  self-contained; free standing
  (设备)配套齐全的;独立的,自给自足的
  self-determination
  自决(权),自立决定
  self-employed person
  个体劳动者,自谋职业者
  self-financing
  自筹资金
  self-financing-ratio - SFR
  The rate at which a project is financed from internal
  resources.
  自筹资金比率(简写为SFR)
  一个项目内部自筹资金所占的比重。
  250
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  self-help
  自助
  self-help housing scheme
  自助建房计划
  self-insurance
  自我保险
  self-liquidating assets
  Assets that will pay for themselves over a period of
  time.
  自偿资产
  在一段时间内可自行偿还的资产。
  self-liquidating project
  Credit reimbursed by the income from the operation
  for which it was lent.
  自偿项目
  用贷款业务的收入进行清偿的贷款。
  self-reliance
  自力更生
  self-restraint
  自我限制、节制;自我控制
  self-sufficiency
  自给自足
  self-sustaining growth
  自我维持的增长
  self-sustaining state
  自我维持状态
  self-targeting (commodity)
  Basic foodstuffs that are mainly consumed by the
  poor. So-called because their target is obvious.
  有特定对象的(商品)
  指主要由穷人消费的基本食品。之所以如此命名
  是由于其对象是显而易见的。
  self-treatment; self-care
  自我治疗;自我护理
  self-weighting sample
  自行加权样本
  sell down
  The transfer of a credit from a bank within a
  syndicate to a bank outside the syndicate.
  信贷转让
  把银团内的一家银行的信贷转让给银团外的一
  家银行。
  seller's market
  卖方市场
  selling consortium, group, syndicate
  A group of bank or securities dealers involved in
  placing a security as sellers.
  (证券)销售集团,推销联营
  参与证券销售的一组银行或证券经销商集团。
  selling rate
  Price proposed (for a security).
  卖价
  (证券的)建议价格。
  selling value
  销售价值
  semiannual coupon equivalent basis, on a [bonds]
  以等值半年息票为基础的[债券]
  semiknocked down - SKD
  部分拆装(简写为SKD)
  seminar see Board seminar
  研讨会
  seminar paper
  研讨会文件,论文
  semipermanent housing
  半永久式住房
  semipublic company
  半国营公司,公私合营公司
  semiskilled manpower
  半熟练劳力
  semiskilled worker
  半熟练工人
  senior debt, loan
  Debt for which claims on the assets of the borrower
  rank ahead of other debts in case of liquidation.
  优先债务,优先贷款
  清算时,资产求索权优先于其他债务的债务。
  senior economist
  251
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  高级经济学家
  senior level staff
  高级职员
  senior management
  高级管理当局
  senior manager
  高级经理,主任
  Senior Policy Seminar [EDI]
  高级政策研讨会[经济发展学院]
  Senior Policy Seminar on... [EDI]
  关于……的高级政策研讨会[经济发展学院]
  sensitive product
  敏感产品
  sensitivity analysis
  A study of the impact that changes in costs and
  benefits would have on the profitability or present
  value of a project.
  敏感性分析
  对成本与效益的变化可能给一个项目的赢利或
  现值带来的影响的研究。
  separation [employment]
  解雇,离职,分离[就业]
  septic tank
  化粪池,腐化池
  sequential cropping
  连续种植
  见 double cropping
  serial bond, loan
  1. Bond issues split into a series of maturities.
  2. Special type of serial bonds where
  reimbursement is decided by drawing in lots (used in
  France).
  分批到期分批偿还债券、贷款
  1.到期日错开的债券。
  2.以抽签方式决定偿还的特殊类型分期偿还债
  券(曾在法国使用)。
  service
  偿付(债务),服务,劳务
  见 debt service; fee-for-services basis
  service; service line; supply line; connection
  [electricity]
  辅线;供电线;连接线[电力]
  service a loan, to
  对贷款还本付息
  service and support fee [IFC]
  Fee paid by IFC to the World Bank for the services it
  receives from the Bank.
  服务和支持费[国际金融公司]
  国际金融公司付给世界银行的服务费。
  service charge
  服务费,手续费
  service industry
  服务行业
  service line; service; supply line; connection
  [electricity]
  辅线,供电线;连线[电力]
  service road
  辅助道路
  service station [livestock]
  配种站[畜牧]
  serviceable [highways]
  可用年限[公路]
  serviced area, lot, site
  Site having essential services.
  具备主要服务的工地,现场
  servicing [plots]
  建立基本设施 [场地]
  serving chairman
  执行主席,现任主席
  session [ICSID]
  (开庭)期,一届会议[解决投资争端国际中心]
  set aside agreement
  Agreement for payment receipts from a project to be
  designated for a specific purpose.
  留置协议
  把项目上收到的付款定做特殊用途的协议。
  settlement (of a dispute) [ICSID]
  252
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  (争端的)解决[解决投资争端国际中心]
  settlement date
  The date on which payment for a transaction must be
  made.
  结算、交割日
  一笔交易必须付款的日期。
  settlement of maintenance of value; maintenance of
  value settlement
  保值结算
  settling-in grant [IBRD]
  Grant provided to assist new staff members in
  meeting additional expenses (electrical appliances,
  furniture, car, etc.) associated with relocation to the
  Greater Washington Metropolitan Area.
  (迁入)安置费、安家费 [国际复兴开发银行]
  (世界银行)为帮助新职员支付迁入华盛顿市区
  的有关额外开支(电器、家具、汽车等)而提供
  的赠款。
  severance pay
  解雇金,离职金
  sewage disposal
  污水处理
  sewage (treatment) plant
  污水处理厂(站)
  sewerage project
  污水排放项目
  shadow discount rate
  The opportunity cost of capital.
  影子贴现率
  资本的机会成本。
  shadow exchange rate - SER; shadow pricing of the
  exchange rate
  The exchange rate that reflects the value of an
  additional unit of foreign exchange in terms of the
  domestic currency as used for domestic
  consumption.
  影子汇率(简写为SER);汇率影子价格确定
  指用本国货币表示的增加的一个单位外汇用于
  国内消费的汇率。
  shadow price
  The value used in economic analysis for a cost or a
  benefit when the market price is felt to be a poor
  estimate of economic value.
  影子价格
  在感到市场价格不能正确反映经济价值时,在成
  本或效益的经济分析中使用的价值。
  shadow project
  Project that would provide substitute environmental
  services to compensate for the loss of the original
  assets.
  影子项目
  可以提供环境替代服务来补偿原有资产的损失
  的项目。
  shadow rate of interest
  Rate of interest used as the discount rate in project
  analysis. Include consumption rate of interest and
  accounting rate of interest.
  影子利率
  在项目分析中作为贴现率使用的利率,包括消费
  利率和会计利率。
  shadow wages
  A wage rate that is used for measuring the
  opportunity cost of labor in project analysis. Three
  components are used to establish it: forgone
  marginal product, changes in consumption and
  savings and changes in leisure.
  影子工资
  在项目分析中,用来衡量劳动力机会成本的_____工资
  率。它是由三个部分来确定的:放弃的边际产品、
  消费和储蓄的变化以及休闲时间的变化。
  shakeout (of the market)
  1. A moderate stock market or business recession,
  usually corrective of an inflationary condition.
  2. Any movement in the market prices of securities
  that forces speculators to sell their holdings.
  (市场)轻度衰退;(市场)抛售
  1.轻度的证券市场衰退,通常是对通货膨胀情
  况的纠正。
  2.由于证券市场价格的变动,迫使投机者出售
  他们所持有的证券。
  share
  股,股票
  亦见 bonus share; common share; founder's share;
  membership shares; outstanding shares; publicly
  traded share; qualifying shares; registered share;
  stock
  share capital; registered capital
  Capital represented by shares of capital stock.
  253
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  股份资本;注册资本
  由股份所代表的资本。
  share capital, to supply
  提供股份资本
  share premium account [IFC]
  Account of a corporation, in which IFC has a
  holding and in which the premiums obtained on new
  shares are deposited.
  股票(发行)溢价帐户[国际金融公司]
  一个公司的帐户,其中国际金融公司持有股份,
  并存入从新股中获得的溢价。
  share retention agreement [IFC]
  Agreement, under which a company agrees not to
  sell the stock of another company in which IFC has
  an interest, until the loan has been reimbursed.
  保留股份协议[国际金融公司]
  一家公司同意在一家国际金融公司拥有权益的
  另一公司未偿付其贷款之前,不卖出该公司股票
  的协议。
  share cropping
  以谷物交租,交谷租种
  shareholder's equity
  股东股本
  见 stockholder's equity
  sharing clause
  Clause in loan agreement that states that if one
  participant fails to receive payment, the others will
  share receipts with the participant(s) not receiving
  payments.
  共享条款
  贷款协议中的条款,规定如果某一参与方未收到
  付款,另一参与方将与未收到付款的参与方共享
  收到的付款。
  shell (of a building)
  (建筑物的)外壳
  shell company
  Company which exists on paper but does not
  apparently trade or operate, possibly being used as a
  cover for illegal or unethical activities.
  虚设的公司,皮包公司
  指只存在于纸上而无实际交易或业务的公司,很
  可能是被用来掩盖非法或不道德的活动的。
  shifting cultivation
  轮作,轮流易地耕作
  shifting of tax
  Changing the tax burden so that someone other than
  the person or firm on whom the tax is levied pays all
  or part of it.
  税负转嫁
  把税负转嫁给纳税人或企业以外的其他人,由他
  们支付全部或部分税款。
  shift parameter
  Parameter leading to a movement to the left or right
  of a curve, e.g. a demand curve.
  移位参数
  引导一条曲线(如需求曲线)向左或向右移动的
  参数。
  shipping
  水运,航运
  shipping conference
  班轮公会
  见 liner (shipping) conference
  shopping [procurement]
  A procurement method based on comparing price
  quotations obtained from several foreign or local
  suppliers, usually at least three, to ensure
  competitive prices. It requires no formal bidding
  documents and is an appropriate method for
  procuring readily available off-the-shelf goods or
  standard specification commodities that are small in
  value.
  询价采购[采购]
  在把几家外国和本国供应商(通常不少于三家)
  提供的报价进行比较的基础上进行的采购,以保
  证价格具有竞争性。这种方法不需要正式的招标
  文件,适合于采购现货或小额标准规格商品。
  shortfall
  缺额,短缺
  short form audit report
  A succinct report or letter prepared by an auditor
  following an audit. It is addressed to the
  management or directors. The short form is
  standard.
  简短审计报告
  审计师在完成一项审计后写给管理当局或董事
  会的一个简要的报告或信函。是标准的简短格
  式。参见long form audit report
  254
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  short list
  短名单,经过筛选的名单
  short season (crop)
  生长期短的(作物)
  short staple cotton
  Cotton with fibers of 3/8 to 1 inches long.
  短纤维棉花
  纤维为3/8到1英寸长的棉花。
  Short Term Economic Monitor [IBRD]
  短期经济监测[国际复兴开发银行]
  showcase project
  Project designed for prestige, with high unit and/or
  recurrent costs. The Bank does not normally support
  such projects.
  样板项目
  为树立声望而设计的项目,有较高的单位成本和
  (或)经常性费用。世界银行一般不支持这种项
  目。
  Siam cotton; tree cotton; Ceylon cotton; China
  cotton
  暹逻棉;木棉;锡兰棉;中国棉
  SIBOR [= Singapore Interbank Offered Rate]
  新加坡银行往来利率 [=新加坡银行间同业拆借
  利率]
  side letter; supplemental letter
  附信,补充信件
  sight assets
  即期财产
  sight deposit
  Deposits held in banks and similar deposit-taking
  institutions which are transferable by check or
  withdrawable in cash without notice.
  活期存款,短期存款
  存在银行或类似储蓄机构的存款,可用支票进行
  转移,或无须事先通知即可提取现款。
  sight liabilities
  即期债务
  simplified sewerage
  A modified design of sewer so that the sewers are
  smaller, shallower and flatter, with fewer manholes,
  with no decline in performance but with cost savings
  of about 30 percent over the costs of conventional
  sewerage.
  简易下水道
  一种经修改设计的下水道,其污水管较细、较浅、
  较平,检修口较少,但作用不减,且成本比常规
  的下水道低30%。
  single-crop economy
  单一作物经济
  single currency loans, [IBRD]
  IBRD program where selected borrowers are offered
  a choice of currencies on their loans as an alternative
  to the existing standard multicurrency loan product.
  The program offers United States dollars, yen,
  deutschmarks, French francs, and pounds sterling.
  Its interest rate will be tied to six-month LIBOR in
  each loan currency (PIBOR in the case of French
  francs).
  单一币种贷款[国际复兴开发银行]
  国际复兴开发银行对有选择的借款国提供贷款
  货币选择的方案,作为现行的标准多种货币贷款
  的一种替代办法。该方案提供美元、日元、德国
  马克、法国法郎和英镑供选择。各贷款货币的利
  率均与伦敦6个月同业拆借利率挂钩(法国法郎
  则与巴黎银行同业拆借利率挂钩)。
  single-entry accounting
  A system of accounting in which only records of
  cash and of personal accounts are maintained.
  单式会计
  一种只对现金和个人帐户进行记载的会计制度。
  single factorial terms of trade
  Terms of trade incorporating productivity changes
  in the exporting country. Provides a useful indicator
  of changes in the amount of real resources, in the
  form of capital and labor services, which a country
  must give up in order to purchase a given volume of
  imports.
  单要素贸易条件
  一个出口国包括生产率变化因素在内的贸易条
  件。它是反映以资本和劳务为形式的实际资源数
  量变化(即一个国家购买一定数量商品所必须放
  弃的资源)的一个有效指标。
  single fertilizer
  A fertilizer containing only one nutrient.
  单一成份肥料
  仅含有一种养料的肥料。
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  single parent family, household
  单亲家庭
  sink (e.g. of greenhouse gases)
  Receptacle, or receiving area, for materials
  translocated through a system (e.g. the oceans are
  the sink into which many water-borne pollutants are
  drained; the seed of a plant is the sink in which
  nutrients are stored).
  沉井(如温室气体沉井)
  对通过一个系统转移的物质进行存贮的容器或
  接收场所( 如海洋是许多水携带污染物的排放沉
  井;植物的种子是养料贮存的沉井)。
  sinking fund
  A fund created by a borrower for the purpose of
  redeeming bonds. The borrower is obliged to
  redeem specified amounts of the bond within
  specified periods.
  偿债基金
  借款人为赎回债券而建立的一种基金。借款人必
  须在规定的时期内赎回规定数额的债券。
  sinking fund factor
  The level deposit required each year to reach 1 by a
  given year. The reciprocal of the compounding
  factor for 1 per annum. Generally obtained from a
  set of compounding and discounting tables. This
  factor permits calculating the equal installment that
  must be set aside each year, to be invested at
  compound interest, in order to have a predetermined
  sum at a given time. It is primarily used to determine
  how much must be put into a fund in order to have
  recovered the amount of an investment at the end of
  its useful life.
  偿债基金系数
  要在某一既定年份达到“1”,每年所需存款的
  水平。亦即 “1”的每年复计系数的倒数。这一
  系数一般可从一套复利和贴现表中查到,可用于
  计算为了在某一既定时间取得预定的数额,每年
  需要拨出作复利投资的等额资金。主要用来确定
  为了在一项投资的使用寿命结束时收回投资额
  所需要投入于一项基金的数额。
  sister companies
  姊妹公司
  site
  地点,厂址,工地,场所
  site coverage
  工地范围
  site development
  场地开发
  site plan
  场地平面图
  sites and services
  The provision of land and basic public services, to
  enable housing projects to get off the ground.
  场地与服务
  提供土地和基本的公共服务,以使住房建设项目
  得以启动。
  sitting [ICSID]
  开会,开庭,会期,庭期 [解决国际投资争端中
  心]
  sketch plan [architecture]
  草图,初步计划[建筑]
  skidding
  急剧下降,下滑
  skilled manpower
  熟练劳动力
  skilled worker
  熟练工人,技术工人
  skills
  专门技术,技能
  skills development
  技能发展
  skills mix
  技术组合
  skill training center
  技能培训中心
  slack [economy] [noun]
  发展缓慢 [经济][名词]
  slash-and-burn cultivation
  Agricultural method involving slashing undergrowth
  at ground level and felling trees with axes at any
  convenient height. The area is then thoroughly
  burned and crops planted.
  刀耕火种
  一种农耕方法,其中包括砍去地面上的植物并在
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  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  任何信手可为的高度砍伐树木,然后将砍伐过的
  区域彻底焚烧,用以种植作物。
  slice [contracts]
  In contracts, an individual contract for which a
  contractor or a manufacturer may bid, rather than
  having to bid for the whole project.
  单项投标[合同]
  一种合同,其中承包商或制造商可以对单项合同
  投标而不必对整个项目进行投标。
  slice and package [procurement]
  Project where contractors and manufacturers may
  bid for an individual contract (slice) or group of
  similar contracts (package) rather than the whole
  project.
  单项和整批投标[采购]
  一种项目,承包商或制造商可对单项或一批相似
  的合同进行投标,而不需对整个项目进行投标。
  “slice and package” contract
  Contract allowing use of slice and package
  technique.
  “单项和整批”合同
  允许使用“单项和整批投标”技术的合同。
  sliding-scale clause
  滑动条款,按情况变动条款
  slippage; lag
  滞后
  slow onset emergency; quiet emergency
  Emergency which occurs over a period of time, such
  as a drought, and which rarely causes much
  destruction of physical assets.
  缓慢出现的灾害
  持续发生于一段时间的灾害(如干旱)。这种事
  件很少对有形资产造成很大的破坏。
  sluggish growth
  缓慢增长
  sluice price; sluice gate price; lock gate
  A theoretical cif price used in calculating European
  Communities supplementary levies on imports of
  pork, poultry and eggs.
  闸口价格,最低进口价格
  一种理论上的到岸价格,用以计算欧共体对进口
  猪肉、家禽和蛋品的附加税。
  slum
  贫民区
  slum clearance
  拆除贫民区
  slump
  经济衰退
  slumpflation
  Harsh economic conditions created by a
  combination of simultaneous recession and growing
  unemployment as well as rapid price inflation.
  通货膨胀下的经济衰退
  由于经济衰退和失业人数增加以及快速的通货
  膨胀并发而造成的严峻的经济情况。
  slum upgrading
  贫民区改善
  small and medium enterprises - SME; small- and
  medium-scale enterprises - SMSE
  中小型企业(简称SME或SMSE)
  small and medium industries - SMI; small- and
  medium-scale industries - SMSI
  中小型工业(简称SMI或SMSI)
  small-bore sewerage
  小口径排污系统
  见 effluent sewerage
  smallholder
  小土地所有者,小农
  smallholding
  拥有小量土地
  small-scale enterprise - SSE
  小型企业(简称SSE)
  small-scale industry - SSI
  小型工业(简称SSI)
  small-scale irrigation
  小型水利
  smoothness ratio
  平滑率
  snatching effect
  The effect of creating incidental beneficiaries to a
  project as well as those intended.
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  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  兼得效应
  一个项目除预期受益人以外,产生意外受益人的
  效应。
  social accounting matrix - SAM
  A system of accounts in which the various incomings
  of each and every account are represented by an
  ordered row and the corresponding outgoings by a
  similarly ordered column. They describe the
  financial flows that take place within and among
  various institutions and sectors of the economy, each
  of which is disaggregated according to local
  conditions and policy relevance. They integrate data
  on income distribution and production and are
  suitable vehicles for studying the impact of
  macroeconomic policy action on the level of living
  of different household groups.
  社会会计矩阵(简写为SAM)
  一种帐户系统,其中每个帐户的不同收入都以一
  种有序的横栏表示,而相应的支出以类似的有序
  竖栏表示。它们说明各种不同机构和经济部门之
  间发生的资金流动,每一项都根据当地情况和有
  关政策进行分解。它们综合了收入分配和生产的
  数据,是研究宏观经济政策行为对不同居民群体
  生活水平的影响的适当工具 。
  social accounts
  The systematized treatment of social indicators
  which represent quality of life conditions in a
  country, region or other geographical unit.
  社会核算
  对代表一个国家、地区或其它地理单位的生活条
  件质量社会指标的系统化处理。
  social advantages
  社会优势,社会优越性
  social benefit-cost ratio - SBC
  社会的效益-成本比率(简写为SBC)
  social benefits
  社会福利
  social costs
  社会成本,社会代价
  social dimensions of adjustment - SDA
  调整对社会的影响(简写为SDA)
  social discount rate; social rate of discount
  社会折现率
  social forestry
  Forestry used for community use as opposed to
  private sector forestry.
  公有林、集体林
  供社区使用的森林,区别于私有部门的森林。
  social goods*
  社会货物
  social impact assessment - SIA
  A kind of ex ante evaluation of a project, where a
  sociologist examines a development project
  prepared by a group of other experts and is asked to
  make an assessment about whether or not it will have
  positive or adverse social repercussions.
  社会影响评估 (简写为SIA )
  对项目的一种事先评价,即聘请一位社会学家考
  察一个由一批其他专家准备的发展项目,要求他
  对该项目是否会产生积极的或不利的社会后果
  做出评估。
  social infrastructure; community facilities
  社会基础设施;公共设施
  social insurance
  社会保险
  social marketing program [population]
  A program of sales of goods with reduced prices for
  special groups.
  社会销售方案[人口]
  将货物折价售予特殊群体的方案。
  social mobility*
  社会流动性
  social net present value - SNPV
  The net present value of a project after incremental
  income flows generated by the project have been
  weighted to reflect social income-distribution
  priorities.
  社会净现值(简写为SNPV)
  项目产生的增量收入流经过加权以后的净现值,
  反映社会收入分配的优先顺序。
  social opportunity cost
  The opportunity cost to society of diverting
  resources from marginal private sector projects to
  public sector ones.
  社会机会成本
  把资源从边际私人部门项目转向公共部门项目
  的社会机会成本。
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  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  social overhead capital
  社会间接资本
  social overhead investment
  Investment in social facilities.
  社会间接投资
  对社会设施的投资。
  social price
  The price that reflects the value to the country of
  inputs and outputs and takes into consideration
  “non-efficiency” but socially important goals such
  as reduction of consumption of alcohol, tobacco and
  fancy cars or expanded production of goods to meet
  basic needs, etc.
  社会价格
  这一价格反映收入和产出对国家的价值,其中考
  虑到“无效益”但有重要社会意义的目标,如减
  少酒类、烟草和高档小汽车的消费,或扩大对满
  足基本需要的货物的生产等。
  social pricing
  A method of economic analysis which takes into
  account savings and consumption.
  社会定价,社会计价
  一种考虑到储蓄和消费的经济分析方法。
  social rate of discount; social discount rate
  社会折现率
  social rate of return - SRR
  The economic rate of return in social prices. Social
  prices are shadow prices which incorporate social
  factors such as scarcity of savings, income inequality
  and poverty.
  社会收益率 (简写为SRR)
  以社会价格衡量的经济收益率。社会价格是影子
  价格,其中包涵了储_____蓄的稀缺性、收入不均和贫
  困等社会因素。
  social security contributions*
  社会保障缴款
  social returns [projects]
  社会收益[项目]
  social safety net
  社会安全网
  social security benefits
  社会保障福利
  social security fund
  社会保障基金
  social security scheme
  社会保障方案
  social shadow wage rate - SSWR
  Shadow wage rate (= shadow price for labor,
  generally set by estimating the marginal value
  product of labor) in social prices.
  社会影子工资率(简写为SSWR)
  指以社会价格计算的影子工资(等于劳动力影子
  价格,一般是通过对劳动力的边际价值产品的估
  计来确定的)。
  social time preference rate
  A rate, usually expressed in the form of a
  percentage, that expresses the preference of a
  society as a whole for present returns rather than
  future returns and that sometimes is proposed as a
  discount rate for project analysis.
  社会时间偏好率
  一个通常用百分数形式来表示的一个比率,表示
  就社会整体而言,偏重于当前的收益而非未来的
  收益,有时还被建议用作项目分析的折现率。
  social wants
  社会需要
  social welfare
  社会福利
  social welfare function
  社会福利功能
  socialization of risks*
  风险社会化
  socioeconomic status - SES
  社会经济状况(简写为SES)
  soft component [projects]
  (项目的)软成分
  soft currency
  A currency with a falling exchange rate due to
  continuing balance of payments deficits.
  软通货
  由于国际收支持续赤字而汇率下跌的货币。
  soft loan
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  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  A loan with no rate of interest or a rate of interest
  below the cost of the capital being lent.
  软贷款
  一种没有利率或利率低于借出资本成本的贷款。
  soft loan affiliate
  软贷款附属机构
  soft loan window
  软贷款窗口
  soft project
  A project of a social nature.
  软项目
  一种社会性项目。
  soft technical assistance
  软技术援助
  见 institution-related technical assistance
  software
  软件
  softwood forest
  针叶树森林
  soil conservation
  水土保持
  soil study, survey
  土壤研究,土壤调查
  sole cropping; monoculture
  Cultivation of a single crop as wheat or cotton to the
  exclusion of other possible uses of the land.
  单一作物耕种法
  种植一种单一作物(如小麦或棉花)而排除其他
  可能的土地使用方式。
  sole source procurement
  Procurement from a single vendor, without benefit
  of competitive bidding.
  单一来源采购
  从单一的供应商那里采购,没有竞争性招标的优
  点。
  solids-free sewerage
  固体过滤排污系统
  见 effluent sewerage
  solid state technology
  固态工艺,固态技术
  sound loan
  健全的贷款,好的贷款
  sour gas discharge
  酸性气体排放
  source and use of funds statement 资金来源与运用
  表
  见 statement of changes in financial position
  sources and application of funds statement 资金来
  源与运用表
  见 statement of changes in financial position
  sourcing; outsourcing
  The process whereby an institution, corporation, etc.
  has an entire service carried out by an external
  company or purchases its entire needs in a specific
  area from an outside company.
  外部采购
  指一个机构或公司的整项服务由一个外部公司
  承包,或从一家外部公司采购其在某个特定领域
  的全部需求品。
  Southern Cone
  南部锥形地区
  sovereign act doctrine
  Legal theory according to which the courts of one
  country should abstain from passing judgment about
  the legality of a sovereign act by a foreign state.
  主权行为学说
  法律理论,认为一个国家的法院应该避免对一个
  外国主权行为的合法性作出判断。
  sovereign credit, loan
  A borrowing guaranteed by the state.
  政府(主权)信贷、贷款
  由政府担保的借款
  sovereign creditor
  政府(主权)贷款者
  sovereign risk
  The risk of changes in a borrowing country's overall
  foreign exchange position, which might affect its
  ability to repay a loan.
  借款国外汇风险
  一个借款国总的外汇头寸发生变化的风险,这种
  情况可能会影响它的偿贷能力。
  sovereign risk loan
  260
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  Loan to a State or loan where the State takes the
  responsibility for the loan.
  主权风险贷款
  对一个国家的贷款,或由国家承担责任的贷款 。
  spate irrigation
  漫灌
  见 flood irrigation
  Spearman's rank correlation coefficient
  A measure of the degree to which two variables are
  associated with each other, not necessarily in value
  but in rank. The coefficient will be between +1 (high
  association) and -1.
  斯皮尔曼氏等级相关系数
  用于衡量两个价值上未必相互关联但等级上相
  互关联的变量的关联程度。该系数介于+1(高度
  关联)和负1之间。
  Special Assistance Facility*
  特别援助贷款
  special budget; extraordinary budget
  特别预算;非常预算
  Special commitment charge*
  特别承诺费
  Special Joint Financing
  Special financing made by several countries
  (Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the United
  Kingdom initially) in addition to contributions made
  directly to the Special Facility for Sub-Saharan
  Africa using arrangements negotiated directly
  between IDA and the contributors to be used in
  countries meeting the eligibility requirements of the
  Facility with repayment terms at least equivalent to
  IDA terms and with procurement open at least to
  those countries under the Facility.
  特别联合融资
  几个国家(最初为德国、日本、瑞士和英国)在
  “对撒哈拉以南非洲地区的特别贷款”的直接捐
  赠以外的提供的特别融资。该融资采用国际开发
  协会和捐款国直接协商的安排,用于符合“特别
  贷款”资格的国家,还款条件至少相当于国际开
  发协会的条件,至少要在“特别贷款”项下的那
  些国家进行公开采购。
  special majority
  特殊多数
  special operational emphasis - SOE
  Concept introduced in FY88 which provided for
  attention to be focused on priority development
  objectives. Currently includes such areas as the
  environment, debt and adjustment, poverty
  reduction, food security and private sector
  development.
  特殊业务重点(简写为SOE)
  1988财政年度引入的概念,要求把重点放在优先
  的发展目标上。目前这些领域包括环境、债务和
  调整、减除贫困、粮食安全和私营部门发展。
  Special Project Preparation Facility-SPPF*
  特别项目准备贷款 (简写为SPPF)
  Special Reserve [World Bank]
  A reserve set aside by the Bank to meet liabilities
  such as defaulting loans, liabilities on borrowings or
  guarantees, contractual payments of interest, other
  charges or amortization on the Bank's ow, n
  borrowings or similar payments on loans guaranteed
  by the Bank.
  特别储备[世界银行]
  世界银行保留的一种储备金,用于债务(如拖欠
  的贷款、借款或担保负债、契约性利息支付、世
  界银行自身借款的其它费用或分期付款或世界
  银行担保的贷款的类似付款)的支付。
  specialized agency [UN]
  专门机构[联合国]
  specific (customs) duty
  从量关税
  specific investment loan - SIL [IBRD]
  World Bank loan for a specific investment project.
  特定投资贷款(简写为SIL)[国际复兴开发银行]
  世界银行对一个特定投资项目的贷款。
  specific performance
  具体执行情况
  spending ministry
  开支部,消费部
  spillover effect, impact; spinoff effect
  An effect that occurs when an economic unit not
  directly involved benefits from a transaction,
  project, etc.
  外溢效应、影响;连带效应
  与一笔交易或项目等没有直接关系的经济单位
  从该交易或项目中受益时所产生的效应。
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  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  spillover exports
  Goods normally consumed by the domestic market
  but available for export because of low domestic
  demand.
  “溢出性”出口
  通常为国内市场消费、但因国内需求小因而也可
  供出口的货物。
  spillway chute; tailrace
  溢洪道,回水渠
  spinning reserve [electricity]
  That reserve generating capacity connected to the
  bus and ready to take load.
  运转备用,热备用,施工储备[电力]
  与母线连接,随时准备承担电力负荷的备用发电
  能力。
  spinoff [financial market]
  The transfer by a corporation of a portion of its
  assets to a newly formed corporation in exchange for
  the latter's capital stock, which is thereupon
  distributed as a dividend to the stockholders of the
  first corporation.
  让产易股,抽资脱离[金融市场]
  一家公司把部分资产转移到一个新成立的公司
  以换取后者的股本,并将其作为股利分配给第一
  家公司股东的做法。
  spinoff effect; spillover effect, impact
  An effect that occurs when an economic unit not
  directly involved benefits from a transaction,
  project, etc.
  连带效应;外溢效应
  _____与一笔交易或一个项目等没有直接关系的经济
  单位从该笔交易或项目中受益时所产生的效应。
  splicing
  Linking different series of data based on slightly
  different definitions into a single series.
  拼接(数据系列)
  把定义略有出入的不同数据系列连成一个系列。
  split degree
  Higher education degree split between a local
  university and top-rated international university or
  other educational institution.
  分授学位
  一所本国大学和高级国际大学或其它教育机构
  分别授予的高等教育学位。
  sponsor
  发起人,主办人,保证人
  spontaneous lending
  自愿贷款
  见 voluntary lending
  spot exchange rate
  The exchange rate prevailing under a spot contract,
  i.e. delivery in one or two business days or less.
  即期汇率
  使用于即期合同(在一、两个营业日或更短时间
  内交割)的汇率。
  spot improvement, patching; road, surface patching;
  patching [highways]
  小块修补,路面修补,零补[公路]
  spot market; cash market [foreign exchange]
  Foreign exchange market where currency is sold for
  immediate delivery. 现货市场,现金市场[外汇]
  出售货币立即交割的外汇市场。
  见futures market
  spot market [commodities]
  Market where goods are sold for cash, for immediate
  delivery.
  现货市场[商品]
  出售货物收取现金并立即交货的市场。
  spot patching, improvement; road, surface patching;
  patching [highways]
  小片补坑,路面修补,零补[公路]
  spot price
  The price of a commodity available for immediate
  sale and delivery, the commodity being referred to
  as a “spot” commodity.
  现货价格
  可立即出售和交货的现成商品的价格。这种商品
  称为“现货”。
  spot quotation
  现货报价
  spotted cotton
  Cotton that has been changed in color to a brown,
  閏ru or yellow cast by unfavorable weather, wet
  bolls, stems, leaves or rainstorms. The spots affect
  the grading.
  斑污的棉花
  由于不良的气候、潮湿的棉铃、茎、叶,以及暴
  雨,致使颜色变成棕色、淡褐色或黄色的棉花。
  262
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  这种污点影响棉花的评级。
  spray irrigation
  Sprinkling water over land to be used for crops.
  Often used to dispose of wastewater from sewage
  treatment plants.
  喷洒灌溉 ,喷灌
  把水喷洒于准备种植作物的土地上。常常使用经
  过污水厂处理过的废水。
  spraying
  喷雾
  见 knapsack spraying
  spread (e.g. between borrowing cost and lending
  rates)
  Difference between rate at which bank borrows
  money and rate at which it onlends funds to its
  customers.
  利差 (如借款成本与放款利率之间的差额)
  银行借钱的利率与转贷给客户的资金的利率之
  间的差额。
  spread (between spot and forward quotations)
  (现货牌价与期货牌价之间的)利差
  spread of spreads
  利差之间的差额
  spreadsheet
  棋盘式计算表[会计]
  sprinkle irrigation
  A method of irrigation in which water (under
  adequate pressure) is sprinkled over the land
  through nozzle lines, perforated pipes or sprinklers.
  喷灌
  一种灌溉方法,使水(在适当压力下)通过喷管、
  有孔管道或喷水器对土地进行喷洒灌溉。
  squat, to
  占有公有场地,违章占地
  squatter
  占有公有场地者,违章占地者
  squatter area, settlement
  违章建筑区,违章居住区
  squeeze
  紧缩
  见 credit squeeze
  Stabex (System for the stabilization of ACP and
  OCT mining products) [European Communities]
  稳定非洲、加勒比及太平洋地区与海外国家和地
  区的矿产品制度[欧洲共同体]
  stabilization fund
  平准基金
  stabilizers
  稳定器
  见 built-in stabilizers
  staff
  工作人员
  staff, to
  配备工作人员
  staff appraisal report - SAR
  工作人员评估报告(简写为SAR)
  staff assistant
  工作人员助理
  staff audit
  Check by Personnel on staff management functions,
  e.g. performance reviews to see that they are being
  carried out properly.
  管理职能审计、评价
  人事部门对员工管理职能的检查(例如业绩评
  审),看其业务是否得到适当的执行。
  staff department
  人事部门
  staff development
  人员开发
  staff house
  工作人员住房
  staff-month
  工作人员-月
  staff rule
  员工条例
  Staff Rules [IBRD]
  《员工条例》[国际复兴开发银行]
  Staff Working Paper-SWP*
  263
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  (世界银行)工作人员工作文件(简写为SWP)
  staffing
  人员配备
  staffing ratio
  人员配备比率
  staffyear equivalent - SYE
  工作人员年等量(简写为SYE)
  stagflation
  滞胀
  stagnation (of the economy)
  (经济)停滞
  stakeholders
  利益持有者,利益相关者
  stall feeding
  圈养
  stand [forest]
  一片林木[林业]
  stand-alone project
  独立的项目
  standard charge section
  The basis of the Bank's budgetary system, it
  comprises five basic attributes of all administrative
  expenditures (managing unit, source of funds,
  expense category (type of goods or services), task
  category (Bank function) and product. All
  administrative commitments and expenditures are
  related to the standard charge section.
  标准费用项
  世界银行预算制度的基础,包括所有行政开支的
  五项基本属性:管理单位、资金来源、开支类别
  (货物或劳务的类型)、任务类别(世行职能)
  和产出。所有行政承诺和开支都与标准费用项有
  关。
  standard conversion factor - SCF
  A number, usually less than 1 that can be multiplied
  by the domestic market price, opportunity cost, or
  value in use of a nontraded item to convert it to an
  equivalent border price that reflects the effect of
  trade distortions on domestic prices of that good or
  service. A standard conversion factor is the
  reciprocal of 1 plus the foreign exchange premium
  stated in decimal form.
  标准换算系数(简写为SCF)
  通常为一个小于“1”的数字,可以通过与国内
  市场价格、机会成本或非贸易项目的值相乘,换
  算成一个边境价格的等量值。该价格反映了贸易
  扭曲对该商品或劳务的国内价格的影响。一个标
  准换算系数是“1”加上以小数表示的外汇溢价
  的倒数。
  standard cost accounting
  A method of accounting whereby standard costs (i.e.
  forecast costs under projected conditions) are the
  basis for credits to work-in-process accounts
  标准成本会计
  指一种以标准成本(即预期条件下的预计成本)
  作为在制品帐户贷方记录基础的会计方法。
  standard deduction [taxation]
  标准扣除额[税收]
  standard deviation
  A commonly used measure of the degree to which a
  variable is dispersed around its mean value.
  标差
  一个常用的度量标准,用以衡量一个变量的分布
  位置与其均值的偏离程度。
  Standard International Trade Classification - SITC
  国际贸易标准分类(简写为SITC)
  standard of living
  生活标准,生活水平
  standard rate (of interest)
  标准利率
  standard recovery
  Recovery of currency used in lending operations
  subject to maintenance of value. Recovery takes
  place on the first recall date of the Bank's fiscal year
  following the ninth anniversary of the disbursement
  of the currency by the Bank and every ten years
  thereafter。
  标准回收
  为保值目的而进行的贷款业务货币回收。回收在
  世界银行货币支付满9周年以后的财政年度的第
  一个回收日进行,此后每10 年进行一次。
  standard values [trade]
  标准值[贸易]
  standardized occupational streams
  264
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  标准化职业类别
  standby agreement [IFC]
  备用协定[国际金融公司]
  standby amount of guarantee
  The amount of guarantee provided under standby
  coverage.
  备用担保额
  指在备用承保额项下提供的担保额度。
  参见maximum amount of guarantee
  standby arrangement [IMF]
  备用安排,备用信贷协定[国际货币基金组织]
  standby commitment [IFC]
  备用承付款项[国际金融公司]
  standby coverage [MIGA]
  An option to obtain coverage for additional
  contributions to the investment project. Under
  MIGA rules, this standby coverage may not exceed
  fifty percent of the initial amount of the guarantee
  and shall in no case exceed one hundred percent.
  备用承保额[多边投资担保机构]
  为投资项目增加的投资额取得承保的一种选择。
  根据多边投资担保机构的规定,这种备用承保的
  承保额不应超过首次承保额的50%,并在任何情
  况下不得超过100%。
  standby equity [investment]
  In investment an agreement that is conditional on
  stock purchase.
  备购股本[投资]
  在投资中以购买股票为条件的协议。
  standby loan
  Loan which is not part of the current schedule but
  which can be presented to the Board if other projects
  slip.
  备用贷款
  没有列在目前计划表内,但在别的项目落选的情
  况下,可以报送执董会审批的贷款。
  standby (lending) program [IBRD]
  Lending operations that are under preparation and
  are likely to be ready for the fiscal year following the
  fiscal year in question but may be ready sooner and
  which could substitute for projects in the fiscal year
  in question.
  备用(贷款)计划[国际复兴开发银行]
  指目前正在准备中并有可能在本财年后的财年
  准备好的贷款项目。这种项目也可能提前准备
  好,并有可能取代本财年中的一些项目。
  standby premium [MIGA]
  Additional premium charged for standby coverage.
  后备保险费[多边投资担保机构]
  对备用承保额另外收取的保险费。
  standby underwriting commitment [IFC]
  候补包销承诺[国际金融公司]
  standing, financial standing
  资信状况,资信等级
  见 creditworthiness
  standing instructions, orders
  长期有效的规定
  standpipe; standpost; hydrant
  立式取水管;直立水管
  standstill
  In GATT, means no new trade restrictions
  inconsistent with GATT, no new trade restrictions
  which go further than necessary to remedy specific
  situations provided for in GATT and no trade
  measures taken to improve negotiating positions.
  维持现状
  关贸总协定用语,意为不采取与关贸总协定不一
  致的新的贸易限制,不采取超过关贸总协定中规
  定的补救特定情况所必需的新的贸易限制,不采
  取旨在改善谈判地位的贸易措施。
  standstill agreement
  维持现状协议,冻结协定
  staple (food)
  主食(食物)
  staple (food crop)
  主食作物(粮食作物)
  staple (good)
  大宗(货物)
  starchy root crop
  淀粉质根茎作物
  start-up cost
  开办费,启动费
  state of the art [noun] *
  265
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  工艺水平[名词]
  state eligible to sign (the Convention) [ICSID]
  有资格签署(公约)的国家[解决投资争端国际
  中心]
  statement
  (财务)报表,清单,声明,报告
  statement of account
  帐目表,帐目清单
  statement of changes in financial position; sources
  and application of funds statement; funds statement;
  working capital statement; source and use of funds
  statement; funds flow statement; changes in working
  capital statement; statement of sources and
  applications of funds; statement of cash flows
  [World Bank]
  A statement used in conventional accounting which
  summarizes the financing and investing activities of
  an entity, including the extent to which the enterprise
  has generated funds from operations during the
  period and for completing the disclosure of changes
  in financial position during the period. The first
  English term is the one recommended by the U.S.
  Accounting Principles Board (APB) since 1971; the
  second and last terms are the ones found most
  frequently in the World Bank and IFC; and the third
  is the most common one used in the U.S. prior to the
  APB recommendation. The other terms are also
  found.
  财务状况变动表;资金来源和运用表;资金报告;
  流动资金表;资金来源和用途表;资金流动表;
  流动资金变动表;资金来源和运用表;现金流量
  表[世界银行]
  传统会计中使用的报表。它总结了一个实体的筹
  资和投资活动,包括在报告期内该企业从其业务
  活动中产生资金的数量,并对报告期内财务状况
  变动进行披露。第一个英文词条是美国会计准则
  委员会(APB )1971 年以来推荐使用的;第二
  个和最后一个词条是世界银行和国际金融公司
  频繁使用的;第三个词条是美国在APB推荐之前
  最常用的。其它的词条也见使用。
  statement of condition [IDA]
  A statement of IDA's financial situation.
  财务状况报告[国际开发协会]
  指国际开发协会的财务状况报告。
  statement of expenditure - SOE
  开支报告(简写为SOE)
  statement of sources and applications of funds
  资金来源与运用表
  见 statement of changes in financial position
  state-owned enterprise - SOE
  国有企业(简写为SOE)
  state-trading countries
  国营贸易国家
  static efficiency
  The efficiency with which current outputs are
  produced.
  静态效率
  指目前的产品生产效率。
  Static Life Index [commodities]
  Index in years of reserves of a commodity assuming
  no growth in rate of production.
  静态寿命指数[商品]
  在假定生产率无增长的情况下,一种商品储量的
  储存年数。
  static welfare analysis*
  静态福利分析
  status
  状况
  status report; progress report
  状况报告;进展报告
  statutory body
  法定实体,法定团体
  statutory ceiling
  法定最高限额,法定上限
  statutory lending limit - SLL
  The maximum amount of total outstanding
  guarantees, participations in loans and direct loans,
  equal to one hundred percent of the unimpaired
  subscribed capital, reserves and surplus of the Bank.
  法定贷款限额(简写为SLL)
  指总担保余额、贷款参与和直接贷款的最大限
  额。相当于世界银行未减损的认缴资本、储备金
  和盈余的百分之百。
  stay of enforcement [ICSID]
  停止执行[解决投资争端国际中心]
  266
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  steady state lending
  Lending position whereby the total amount
  disbursed and outstanding equals the sum of the
  annual amounts disbursed and outstanding.
  恒稳状态贷款
  指已支付和未偿还的贷款余额与每年发放的已
  支付未偿还贷余额相等的情况。
  steady state operations*
  恒稳状态运行
  steam coal
  Coal intermediate in rank between bituminous coal
  and anthracite. Typical steam coals have a
  carbon/hydrogen ratio of about 20% (more =
  anthracite less = bituminous coals). Some steam
  coals are used for smelting and coke making while
  others are specifically suitable for steam generation.
  锅炉用煤,蒸汽煤
  这种煤的等级介于烟煤与无烟煤之间。典型锅炉
  用煤的碳/氢比率约为20%(高于20%的为烟煤,
  低于20%的为无烟煤)。某些锅炉用煤适合熔炼
  和炼焦,其余的则特别适合蒸汽发电。
  steam plant
  蒸汽厂
  steelmaking
  炼钢
  见 open-hearth steelmaking
  steepness (of a curve)
  (曲线的)倾斜度
  stemming-from benefit
  A form of indirect benefit that accrues to purchasers
  of project outputs that are themselves intermediate
  products. The direct and indirect value added
  generated in forward-linked industries. For example,
  cotton that is produced by an agricultural project and
  that would be used in existing cotton gins having
  unused production capacity might allow those gins
  to create additional value added that would not exist
  without the project. Stemming-from benefits
  sometimes are calculated using specialized
  input- output multipliers. Would not normally exist
  where project outputs are traded, since the same
  stemming-from benefits could be had by increasing
  imports of the intermediate product or by diverting
  exports to local use.
  衍生利益,衍生收益
  通过购买本身是中间产品的项目产品而使买方
  获得的一种间接形式的收益。这种直接的或间接
  的增加值是由前向联系的行业产生的。例如,如
  果将一个农业项目所生产的棉花用于有剩余生
  产能力的轧花厂,那么就可使这些轧花厂产生在
  没有该项目的条件下不可能产生的额外的增加
  值。衍生效益有时使用专门的投入/产出乘数来计
  算。由于通过增加中间产品的进口或把出口产品
  转用于国内也可以得到同样的衍生利益,因此在
  项目产品进行贸易的情况下,(买方)衍生利益
  一般不存在。
  step-down power station
  Power station where the outgoing power from the
  transformers is at a lower voltage than the incoming
  power.
  降压变电站
  从变压器输出的电压低于输入电压的电站。
  step-down, step-up interest rates
  Interest rates which are below market rates in the
  early period of the loan and above market rate in the
  latter part of the loan.
  先低后高利率
  指一种贷款利率,在贷款初期低于市场利率,而
  在贷款后期则高于市场利率。
  stepped tariff structure
  分级关税结构,阶梯式费率结构
  step-up power station
  升压变电站
  stock accounting; stores accounting
  存货会计
  stock carrying capacity [livestock]
  牲畜喂养能力,载畜能力 [畜牧]
  stock corporation
  股份公司
  stock dilution, watering; dilution
  The lessening of an ownership share's earnings and
  assets equity, caused by the issue of more ownership
  shares without corresponding increases in earnings
  and assets.
  股份搀水
  指增发股票而在收益和资产方面没有相应的增
  加,从而导致的股票收益和资产股本的减少。
  stock dividend
  股息,股票红利
  267
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  stock exchange transaction
  股票交易所交易,证券交易所交易
  stock option
  股票购买选择权,股票购买权
  stock ownership
  股权
  stock rights [IFC]
  认股权,认股优惠权[国际金融公司]
  stock watering
  股份搀水
  见 stock lilution
  stock watering [livestock]
  牲畜饮水[畜牧]
  stockholders' equity; shareholders' equity; owners'
  equity; equity; net worth
  The value of assets less liabilities of a corporation.
  All the terms given here are generally synonymous,
  but accountants tend to give different slants to these
  terms in certain circumstances, so they may, on
  occasion, have slightly different meanings.
  股东权益(产权);产权;股本;净值
  一个股份公司的资产减去负债后的价值。这里所
  例举的所有词条一般都是同义词,但会计人员在
  特定的情况下对这些词条含义有不同的侧重,因
  此它们在不同的场合下含义略有不同。
  stocking rate [livestock]
  The relative number of livestock per unit area for a
  specific time.
  牲畜存有率[牲畜]
  在特定时间每一单位区域内牲畜的相对数量。
  stockpiling
  大量储存,积压
  stop and go growth
  时停时续的增长,停停长长
  stopgap measure
  终止措施
  stop-go, stop and go policy
  Action on the part of the government to curtail
  aggregate demand due to, for example, a balance of
  payments deficit, soon followed by action with the
  opposite effect to ameliorate the rise in
  unemployment caused by the first action.
  时停时进的政策,时紧时松的政策
  指政府为制止由诸如国际收支逆差引起的总需
  求而采取行动后不久,又为缓和前一行动引起的
  失业上升而采取效果相反的行动。
  storage dam
  蓄水坝
  store-of-value
  One of the functions of money in that it stores wealth
  or value. An individual can sell a good or a service
  and store the money until he needs something and
  can then use the money to purchase what he needs.
  价值储存功能
  是货币的基本功能之一,即储存财富或价值。一
  个人可以出售一项货物或劳务并把货币贮存起
  来,到需要某种东西的时候即可以用这些货币来
  购买。
  stores accounting; stock accounting
  存货会计
  storm water drainage system
  洪峰排水系统
  straight bond
  Bond with unquestioned right to repayment of
  principal at a specified future date, unquestioned
  right to fixed interest payments on stated dates, and
  no right to any additional interest, principal, or
  conversion privilege.
  直接债券
  对在将来某一特定日期得到本金偿还并在规定
  的日期得到固定利息支付具有无可置疑的权利
  的债券。但该种债券无权得到任何额外的利息、
  本金和转换方面的特权。
  straight-line depreciation; depreciation on a straight
  line
  Assignment of the service cost of any item to the
  benefits to be yielded by the item. In practice, a
  period charge for depreciation is usually substituted
  for a more exact measurement of benefits yielded.
  直线折旧法
  把一项产品的服务成本在该产品将来的产出收
  益上进行分摊。在实践中,往往以定期提取的折
  旧费来代替更为精确地衡量出来的产出收益。
  strategic investors
  Major investors who have a significant equity
  268
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  investment in a company and, by virtue of their
  specialized knowledge, play an active role in the
  management of the company.
  战略投资家
  指在一个公司里有相当大的股份投资,并靠其专
  业知识在公司管理中发挥积极作用的主要投资
  人。
  stratospheric ozone
  同温层臭氧
  stream, to go on
  投产(生产)
  streamed school
  按智力分班的学校
  streamlined project procedure
  A procedure adopted by IFC for more rapid review
  of investment projects. Projects must be for less
  than $25 million in loans or $10 million in equity,
  have no novel features and must be to countries in
  which IFC has invested in the last five years.
  简化的项目审批程序 [国际金融公司]
  指国际金融公司为更快地审查投资项目而采用
  的一种程序。这种程序所适用的贷款项目的条件
  是,贷款额必须低于2500万美元或股本投资低于
  1000万美元,没有新特点,而且必须用于国际金
  融公司最近5年内进行过投资的国家。
  streamlining
  合理化,精简
  streams of costs and benefits
  成本和收益量
  strength charge
  Charge levied for water pollution, based on
  concentration of pollutants in the water, rather than
  on volume of wastewater discharged. 按(废水排
  放)强度收费
  按水中污染物的浓度而不是按污水排放量进行
  的水污染收费。
  参见volumetric charge
  stretching mechanism*
  弹性机制
  strip check irrigation
  条灌
  见 border check irrigation
  strip cropping
  条播法
  见 alley cropping
  strip irrigation
  条灌
  见 border check irrigation
  strip mining; open pit, open cast, open cut mining
  露天采矿
  strip of maturities
  A time portion of each of the maturities of a
  multi-maturity loan.
  到期日分期,按到期日划分
  按到期日分期的一项多种到期日贷款。
  strip participation
  Participation in each of the maturities of a
  multimaturity loan.
  逐期参与
  在一项多种到期日贷款中,对每一个到期日进行
  参与。
  strip planting
  条栽法
  stripping
  流失
  见 asset stripping
  stripping ratio [mining]
  Unit amount of spoil or waste that must be removed
  to gain access to a similar unit amount of ore or
  mineral material.
  剥离比率[矿业]
  为取得相同单位的矿石或矿物量而必须剥离的
  沙土或废料的单位量。
  strong currency; hard currency
  硬通货
  Structural Adjustment Facility (SAF) within the
  Special Disbursement Account [IMF]
  Facility created by the International Monetary Fund
  in March 1986 to provide balance of payments
  assistance on concessional terms to low income
  developing countries. The resources will consist of
  assets received in the Special Disbursement Account
  as a result of the termination of the Trust Fund.
  特别支付帐户内的结构调整贷款(简写为SAF)
  [国际货币基金组织]
  269
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  指国际货币基金组织1986年3月设立的一种贷款
  形式,旨在以优惠条件对低收入发展中国家提供
  国际收支援助。由于信托基金的终止,该贷款的
  资金来源将由特别支付帐户收到的资产构成。
  structural adjustment lending - SAL
  结构调整贷款(简写为SAL)
  structural unemployment
  结构性失业
  structural work
  结构工程
  structured financing
  Financing using structured securities.
  结构性融资
  用结构证券进行融资。
  structured security
  Security that is a combination of derivatives and
  standard cash securities, with its reimbursement and
  risk terms structured according to the client’s needs.
  结构证券
  指由衍生和标准现金证券相结合的证券,其偿还
  和风险条件按客户的需要进行安排。
  stubble mulch farming
  茬地覆盖耕作法
  student flow
  学生流量
  student placement
  学生编班
  student-teacher ratio - STR; pupil-teacher ratio -
  PTR; teacher-pupil ratio
  师生比率 [简写为STR,PTR]
  stumpage fee
  立木采伐费
  stumpage price
  立木价格
  stunting; nutritional dwarfing
  Being smaller than the standard height based on a
  height-for-age formula, as developed by WHO.
  Below minus two standard deviations from median
  weight for height for age of reference population.
  生长不良;营养缺乏性身材矮小
  指身材低于世界卫生组织制定的年龄/身高公式
  中的标准身高。即年龄/身高与参照人口的中间值
  相比低两个标准离差以上。
  stylized fact
  A generalization about economic trends
  extrapolated from data or an individual or group of
  individual countries.
  引伸性事实
  从个别国家或一组单个国家的数据中归纳出来
  的一般经济趋势。
  subborrower
  A smaller loan which is a part of a larger loan, often
  one provided for onlending.
  分贷借款人
  一笔大贷款中的一小部分贷款,常常用于转贷。
  subcontract
  分包合同,分转承包
  subcontractor
  分包商
  subgrade [highways]
  路基[公路]
  subirrigation; subsoil irrigation
  地下灌溉;潜灌
  subject matter [education]
  专业题材[教育]
  subject matter specialist - SMS [agricultural
  extension]
  专题专家(简写为SMS)[农业推广]
  subloan
  A loan that has been onlent.
  分贷款,转贷款
  被转贷的贷款。
  submerged bridge
  水下桥梁,潜水桥
  submerged economy
  隐蔽经济
  见 parallel economy
  subordinated debt
  次要债务
  见 junior debt
  270
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  subordinated loan
  A loan where repayment is made subject to other
  conditions being met, normally repayment of other
  loans which are deemed to be “senior” (often
  because they are secured).
  非优先偿还贷款,次级贷款,后偿贷款
  指须在其他条件满足后才能得到偿还的贷款,一
  般是指被视为“优先”的其他贷款(这种贷款一
  般已被担保)得到偿还以后。
  subordinate lender
  Lender holding a subordinated loan.
  非优先偿还贷款放款人
  进行非优先偿还贷款的贷款人。
  subordination fee
  A fee IFC receives because its debt is subordinated
  to other debts.
  非优先偿还债务费用[国际金融公司]
  国际金融公司由于其债务在偿还方面次于其他
  债务而收取的费用。
  subproject
  分项目,子项目
  subscriber trunk dialing - STD
  用户中继线拨号(简写为STD)
  subsidiarity
  Principle according to which the higher levels of
  government should be as limited as possible and
  should be subsidiary to those of lower levels.
  辅助作用
  一种认为政府的高层机构应越小越好,并应对较
  下级机构起辅助作用的原则。
  subsidiary account
  An account maintained in a separate record and
  controlled by an account in the general ledger.
  辅助帐户
  一个单独记录并由总帐中的某个帐户控制的帐
  户。
  Subsidiary Agreement [IBRD]
  辅助协议[国际复兴开发银行]
  subsidiary loan
  辅助贷款
  subsistence allowance
  生活津贴
  subsistence economy
  仅能维持基本生存的经济,自给经济
  subsistence farming
  自给农业,生计农业,仅能维持基本生计的农业
  subsoil irigation; subirrigation
  地下灌溉,潜灌
  substantive law
  The major part of any legal system, concerned with
  the legal rights attributed to and legal duties imposed
  on particular legal persons in particular
  circumstances. Includes both primary or antecedent
  rights.
  实体法
  指任何法律制度的主体部分,侧重于对特定法人
  在特定的情况下被赋予的法律权利和被施加的
  法律责任。包括主要的或先行的权利。
  substitution effect
  The effect on the demand for a good of a change in
  price of that good assuming real income is held
  constant.
  替代效应
  在假定实际收入保持不变的情况下,某一货物的
  价格变动对该货物的需求产生的效应。
  subtractability
  How much one user’s consumption of a good or
  service subtracts from the ability of others to
  consume the good or service.
  减少量
  指一个使用者对某一货物或劳务的消费导致其
  他人对该货物或劳务的消费的能力减少的量。
  subtransmission line; secondary transmission line
  Transmission line in a subtransmission system, i.e.
  one which supplies distribution substations from
  bulk power sources, such as large transmission
  substations or generating stations.
  辅助输电线路,次级输电线路
  辅助输电系统中的输电线路。即从大容量电源
  (如大变电站或发电厂)向配电站输送电力的输
  电线路。
  subunderwriter [IFC]
  分包销商[国际金融公司]
  success fee
  Fee paid that is proportional to amount of funds
  271
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  obtained.
  成功费
  按获得的资金数额的一定比例支付的费用。
  successful bidder
  (投标)得标人
  summary account
  汇总帐户
  summary of project information
  项目信息摘要
  Summary Proceedings
  简易(诉讼)程序,即决裁判
  summary statement
  汇总表,总表
  sundry assets
  杂项资产
  sundry cash accounts
  杂项现金帐户
  sundry liabilities
  杂项负债
  sunk cost
  A cost incurred in the past that cannot be retrieved as
  a residual value from an earlier investment.
  旁置成本,隐没成本
  指一项过去已发生,但不能作为以前投资的残值
  收回的成本。
  sunset clause
  自动取消条款
  superannuation
  退休(金),退职(金)
  superintendency (of banks)
  (对银行的)监管、督察
  supervision mission
  监督团
  supervisory grades
  管理人员级别
  supervisory staff
  监督人员
  supplemental letter; side letter
  (贷款协议)补充信函
  Supplemental Reserve against Losses on Loans and
  from Currency Devaluations (Supplemental
  Reserve)
  A reserve established by the Bank in 1950, into
  which the Bank maintained a policy of automatically
  allocating all of its net income until FY64. It was
  renamed General Reserve in FY76.
  防备贷_____款和货币贬值造成损失的补充储备(补充
  储备)
  是世界银行1950年建立的一项储备金。为此,世
  界银行从1964财年以来一直保持着一项政策,即
  把它的净收入自动地分配进这项储备。在1976财
  年,它被重新命名为“一般储备”。
  supplementary contributions [IDA]
  补充捐款[国际开发协会]
  supplier industry
  供应行业
  supplier credit; supplier's credit
  Export finance made available to the supplier of the
  goods (as distinct from credits to the overseas buyer
  under buyer's credits)).
  卖方信贷,供应商信贷
  对货物供应商提供的出口信贷(不同于对国外买
  方提供的买方信贷)。
  supply curve
  A graphical representation of the relationship
  between the supply of a commodity and its price
  (usually with price on the vertical axis and quantity
  supplied measured along the horizontal axis). The
  positive relationship between these two variables is
  reflected by the fact that the supply curve slopes
  upwards from left to right.
  供应曲线
  表示某一商品的供应和其价格之间关系的图(通
  常竖轴代表价格,横轴代表供应量)。这两个变
  量的关系为正数时,供应曲线自左向右向上倾
  斜。
  supply line; service; service line; connection
  [electricity]
  供电线;辅线;接电线[电力]
  supply management
  供应管理
  272
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  supply-push factors
  Factors that encourage migrants to leave their own
  country.
  供应推动因素
  如鼓励移民离开自己国家的一些因素。
  supply side economics
  Economic policies and actions that will have
  long-term benefits even though they may be
  contractionary in the short-term. Supports the theory
  that money injected anywhere into the financial
  system expands the entire economy.
  供应派经济学
  认为经济政策和行为虽然在短期内可能会起紧
  缩作用,但也会有长期的效益。它支持这样一种
  理论,即无论在何处投进金融体制的钱都会给整
  个经济带来增长。
  supply side politics
  Political point of view favoring supply side
  economics.
  供应学派政治
  支持供应学派经济学的政治观点。
  supply system; delivery system
  供应系统;交货系统
  support department [IBRD]
  辅助局[国际复兴开发银行]
  support price
  支持价格;维持价格
  surface course; wearing course [highways]
  路面表层;磨损层[公路]
  surface dressing [highways]
  路面修整[公路]
  surface irrigation
  地面灌溉
  surface, road patching; spot improvement, patching;
  patching [highways]
  路面修补;零补[公路]
  surfacing [highways]
  铺设路面[公路]
  surplus country
  顺差国家
  surplus dividend
  Dividend paid over and above statutorily required
  dividend.
  超额股利
  指超过规定股利之上的股利。
  surplus on invisibles
  无形资产收入盈余
  surrogate market
  Similar markets to the target market that can be used
  for study purposes. For example, in assessing
  environmental damage, the property value of the
  target and similar, surrogate markets can be assessed
  to determine how much property values have been
  reduced as a result of environmental degradation.
  代用市场
  可作研究目的之用的市场与目标市场相类似。例
  如,在估价环境损害中,可以对目标市场和与其
  类似的代用市场的财产价值进行估计,以确定由
  于环境受到破坏而使财产价值减少的程度。
  survey
  考察,调查
  survey mission
  考察团
  survey of resources
  资源考察
  survival rate [education]
  The percentage of pupils enrolled in the first grade
  who reach subsequent grades.
  升级率[教育]
  在上一年级注册的学生升入下一年级的百分比。
  suspended matter
  悬浮物质
  suspended particulate matter - SPM
  Particulate matter suspended in a fluid.
  悬浮颗粒物质(简写为SPM)
  悬浮在液体中的颗粒物质。
  suspense account
  A temporary account for funds which have not yet
  been identified.
  暂记帐户
  记录尚未认定的资金的临时帐户。
  


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