知识与资讯
专业词汇
 
世界银行业务词典(5)
发布时间:2011-7-18 10:45:00||  点击:5090次||  文章分类:专业词汇||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)



  outlay account
  支出帐户
  见 income and outlay account
  outlier
  Datum that is greater than five standard deviations
  from the mean.
  非正常值
  指大于均数5个标差的数。
  outlier project
  A one-off project.
  外部项目
  指一个主体之外的项目。
  out-migration; rural exodus*
  人口外流;农村人口外流
  out-of-school education
  Education taking place outside of schools, colleges
  and universities and aiming to develop knowledge,
  skills and attitudes that are not normally given
  prominence in formal educational institutions.
  校外教育
  在校园外进行的,旨在开发知识、提高技术和改
  善态度的学院或大学教育。这是正式教育机构一
  般不太重视的。
  参见monfoimal education
  out-of-season crop; off-season crop
  不合农时作物
  outpatient treatment
  203
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  门诊治疗
  outplacement
  (解雇前的)调职;
  ( 解雇后的 )新职介绍
  output
  产量;产出;产出物
  outreach activities
  Activities by a central authority (government, World
  Bank) to establish contact with and assist people or
  small business in provincial areas.
  拓展活动
  由中央部门(政府、世界银行)组织的一种活动,
  旨在与地方上的群众或小工商企业建立联络或
  提供援助。
  outreach post
  Local representative for an outreach program.
  拓展职务
  从事拓展计划的地方代表。
  outreach program
  Program by a central authority (central government,
  World Bank) to establish contact with and assist
  people or small business in rural areas.
  拓展计划
  由中央部门(政府、世界银行)组织的计划,旨
  在与农村地区的群众或小企业建立联系和提供
  援助。
  outreach worker
  Worker engaged in an outreach program.
  拓展计划工作人员
  从事拓展计划的工作人员。
  outright sale
  直接销售,无附带条件的销售
  outsourcing; sourcing
  The process whereby an institution, corporation, etc.
  has an entire service carried out by an external
  company or purchases its entire needs in a specific
  area from an outside company.
  外部采购
  一个机构、公司等将整项劳务由一个外部公司承
  包,或从一家外部公司采购某个特定领域的全部
  需求。
  outstanding bonds, securities, shares, stock
  Capital stock in the hands of the public.
  已发行(未偿还) 的债券,已发行(流通中) 的证券、
  股票
  指在公众手中的证券。
  outstanding drawings [IMF]
  In the International Monetary Fund, the total amount
  of credit outstanding under the different Fund
  policies and facilities.
  未偿还提款[国际货币基金]
  国际货币基金在不同融资政策及办法下发放在
  外尚未偿还的信贷总额。
  outstanding external debt
  未偿还外债,外债余额
  outstanding loans
  未偿还贷款,贷款余额
  outward-looking, outward-oriented country
  外向型国家
  overaccruals
  Recording more money than was actually spent in a
  set of accounts, for an item.
  超计
  记帐时,一个科目的计入额大于实际支出额。
  overage loan
  A special loan issued to cover excess costs on a
  project.
  超支贷款
  一笔补足某一项目超支费用的特别贷款。
  overdesign
  超度设计
  overdraft facilities
  透支手段
  overemployment
  过度就业
  overexpenditures
  超支
  overexposure
  业务量过多,风险过大
  overflow basin
  Swampy area between river levees and valley sides,
  set aside for the diversion of floodwater.
  溢洪谷地
  204
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  指在河堤与溪谷之间留作分洪之用的沼泽地带。
  overgeared
  超量
  overgrazing
  过度放牧
  overhang
  Excess, normally of supply over demand.
  过剩额
  一般指供应过于需求的余额。
  overhaul [equipment]
  大修[设备]
  overhead capital
  间接资本
  overhead costs; overheads
  An actual cost of doing business that cannot be
  associated directly with the production of a certain
  product.
  间接成本;间接费用
  业务经营中的一种实际成本,但不能与某一产品
  的生产产生直接联系。
  overinvestment
  过度投资
  overlay [highways]
  路面覆盖层[公路]
  overnight funds
  Short-term funds borrowed to be returned by the
  following business day.
  隔夜资金,日拆资金
  在下一个工作日偿还的短期资金借贷。
  overnight maturity
  隔夜到期
  overseas allowance
  海外津贴
  overshoot
  超限度
  overshooting
  超限度
  overstaffed
  人员超编
  oversubscription [capital markets]
  超额认购[资本市场]
  oversupply
  供给过多,供应过剩
  over-the-counter market; curb market
  Market for securities not listed in any of the
  exchanges (about 80 percent of total securities in the
  U.S.). In the U.S. includes U.S. Government and
  agency issues, state and local government bonds,
  railroad bonds and shares, many public utility bonds
  and shares, and most corporation and bank shares.
  场外交易市场
  指对_____没有在任何证券交易所上市的证券(在美国
  它们占证券总额的80%)进行交易的市场。在美
  国,它们包括美国政府和机构发行的证券,州和
  地方政府债券,铁路债券和股票,许多公用事业
  债券和股票,以及大部分公司和银行的股票。
  over-the-counter securities
  场外交易证券
  own, to
  E.g. the Government must own the program.
  认承,视为己有
  例如,政府必须认承该计划。
  owner (of a project ); implementing agency;client*
  (项目)业主,执行部门,项目单位,客户
  owners' equity
  股东权益
  见 stockholders' equity
  ownership (of a corporation)
  (股份公司的)所有权
  ownership (of programs)
  (计划、规划)认承、视为己有
  ownership structure (of a company)
  (公司的)所有制结构
  own price elasticity; price elasticity
  The change in quantity (demanded or supplied)
  which results from a given change in price.
  自身价格弹性,价格弹性
  指价格上的一定变动所导致的数量(需求或供
  应)变动。
  205
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  ozone-depleting potential - ODP
  A measurement of the potential harm of the ozone
  layer of each chlorofluorocarbon, based on the life
  span of the CFC and the number of chlorine atoms it
  contains.
  臭氧消耗潜能(简写为ODP)
  衡量每个氟氯烃对臭氧层的潜在损害的一种尺
  度,其基础是氟氯烃的生命期和它包含的氯原子
  数量。
  ozone-depleting substance - ODS
  Substance that contributes to destruction of the
  ozone layer.
  臭氧消耗物质(简写为ODS)
  破坏臭氧层的物质。
  参见greenhouse gas: ozone depletion
  ozone depletion
  The destruction of ozone molecules in the ozone
  layer by chemical reaction with materials released
  from human activities, including chlorofluorocarbons
  and halons.
  臭氧消耗
  从人类活动中释放出来的物质(包括氟氯烃和卤
  代烷哈龙)同臭氧层中的臭氧分子发生化学变
  化,导致其破坏。
  ozone hole
  A large area over Antarctica discovered to have a
  seasonal reduction of some 50% in stratospheric
  ozone as a result of the release of ozone-depleting
  substances. Subsequent discoveries suggest an
  ozone hole may be forming in the Northern
  Hemisphere.
  臭氧洞
  由于臭氧消耗物质的释放,南极洲上空大片区域
  发现温层臭氧有季节性的减少50%。后来的发现
  表明北半球可能在形成一个臭氧洞。
  ozone layer
  An area of the stratospheric ozone about 12 to 30
  miles in altitude where the intensity of short
  wavelength ultraviolet light from the sun is high
  enough to convert normal oxygen (02) to ozone (03).
  臭氧层
  指近12到30英里厚的同温层臭氧区域。在那里,
  来自太阳的短波长紫外线的强度足以使氧气
  (O2)转变成臭氧(O3)。
  ozone sink
  Atmospheric zone where ozone reacts with nitric
  oxide to form nitrogen dioxide and oxygen.
  臭氧沉井
  大气层中的一个区域,在这里臭氧与氧化氮反
  应,形成二氧化氮和氧气。
  __
  
  206
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - P -
  Pacific Rim countries
  环太平洋国家,太平洋周边国家
  package
  一揽子,一整套
  亦见bid package; financial package; minimum
  package project; new money packages; policy
  package; rescue package; slice and package
  package coverage [MIGA]
  Coverage of a combination of types of risk.
  一揽子担保[多边投资担保机构]
  指对多种类型风险的担保。
  package deal contract
  A variant of the turnkey contract.
  一揽子交易合同
  系交钥匙合同的另一种说法。
  package loan [IFC] *
  一揽子贷款,组合贷款[国际金融公司]
  paid-in (share) capital; called up (share) capital
  The total amount of cash, property and services
  contributed to a corporation by its stockholders and
  constituting a major balance-sheet item.
  已缴(股份)资本;已催交(股份)资本
  公司股东已缴入的现金、财产和劳务的总额。它
  构成该公司资产负债表的一个主要科目。
  paid-in capital subscriptions [IBRD]
  已缴(实缴)认购股本[国际复兴开发银行]
  paid-up capital
  That part of the issued capital of a company which
  the subscribers have been required to pay.
  已交资本,实缴资本
  一个公司要求其认购股东缴付的那部分已认购
  资本。
  paid-up stock; fully paid stock
  Stock fully paid for (i.e. upon which no further
  subscription installments are due)
  已缴股份;全部缴清的股份
  指股款已全部缴清的股份,即没有分期缴付而尚
  未缴清的股款。
  panel data set
  Set of survey respondent data, obtained from the
  same group of respondents over a period of time.
  定点调查数据组
  在一段时期内从同一被调查组获得的一套调查
  结果数据。
  Panel member [ICSID]
  (调解或仲裁)小组成员[解决投资争端国际中心]
  Panel of Conciliators, Arbitrators [ICSID]
  调解/仲裁员小组[解决投资争端国际中心]
  panel of experts
  专家小组
  paper [financial]
  证据、票据、纸币[筹资]
  paper profit
  帐面利润,预期利润
  parallel economy; black economy; underground
  economy; submerged economy
  Transactions for goods and services not declared to
  the tax authorities and not appearing in the gross
  national product.
  平行经济;黑市经济;地下经济;隐蔽经济
  指没有向税务当局申报和没有体现在国民生产
  总值上的货物和劳务的交易。
  parallel financing
  Cofinancing, but with the partners financing different
  parts of the project.
  平行融资,平行筹措资金
  联合融资的一种类型,参加融资的伙伴各自对项
  目的不同部分进行融资。
  parastatal [noun]
  半官方机构,半国营机构[名称]
  parchment coffee
  Coffee which is dried but unhulled.
  干咖啡
  干燥但未去壳的咖啡。
  parent body
  上级机构,母机构
  parent company
  母公司
  Pareto optimum
  207
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  A state of the economy in which all economic
  resources are allocated and used efficiently, such
  that it is impossible to make anyone economically
  better off without making someone else
  economically worse off.
  帕累托最佳状况
  指一种经济状况,其中所有的经济资源都得到有
  效的配置和利用,其结果是,除非使一个人的经
  济状况恶化,否则另一人的经济状况不可能改
  善。
  pari passu clause
  Clause in loan agreement precluding subordination
  of the loan to other debt. In the issue of new shares,
  it states that the new shares will rank equally for
  dividend with an existing similar issue.
  同等优先清偿权
  贷款协议中的一项条款,排除本贷款对其它债务
  的从属性。在发行新股时,说明新股在股利分配
  上与现存同类股份享有同等权利。
  parity price
  A price which is sought or maintained. For an
  agricultural product, quantity of the goods and
  services which could have been purchased with the
  proceeds of a given amount of the product in a
  reference period is determined. Parity exists today if
  the proceeds from the same amount of that product
  can purchase the same goods and services.
  平价
  一种希望得到或维持的价格。在某一对照期内,
  购买一定数量的农产品和劳务所需的一定的产
  品收入额是确定的。如果同一数量产品的收入额
  今天仍然可以购买同样的货物和劳务,即表明平
  价的存在。
  Part I countries [IBRD]
  In the World Bank, those member countries who are
  considered as developed countries and no longer
  entitled to Bank lending.
  第一类国家[国际复兴开发银行]
  在世界银行,指那些被认为是发达的已不再有资
  格向世界银行借款的会员国。
  Part I countries [IDA] *
  第一类国家[国际开发协会]
  Part II countries [IBRD]
  In the World Bank, those member countries that are
  considered as developing and therefore entitled to
  borrow from the Bank.
  第二类国家[国际复兴开发银行]
  在世界银行,指那些被认为是处于发展中阶段、
  因而有资格从世界银行借款的国家。
  Part II countries [IBRD]*
  第二类国家[国际开发协会]
  partial budget
  A budget that addresses itself to only part of an
  enterprise.
  局部预算
  只包括企业部分活动的预算。
  participation certificate; pass-through certificate
  Certificate representing an interest in a pool of funds
  or in other instruments.
  参与证书
  一种表明在某一资金总库或其他金融工具中享
  有利益的证书。
  participation rate; labor force penetration
  The extent to which those of working age are
  actually working.
  参与率;劳动力参与率
  指劳动适龄人口中实际参加劳动的人口。
  participative management
  职工参与管理
  participatory development
  Development where people influence development
  decisions that affect them.
  参与性发展
  指群众对与他们有关的发展决策施加影响。
  participatory poverty assessment - PPA
  参与性贫困评价(简写为PPA)
  participatory rural appraisal, analysis - PRA
  参与性农村评估,分析(简写为PRA)
  particulate matter - PM
  In water, solid matter, in either solid or dissolved
  states. In air pollution, solid particles or drops of
  liquid carried by air or other gases.
  微粒物质(简写为PM)
  在水中指固体物质,无论其是固体或是处于溶解
  状态。在空气污染中,指固体微粒或由空气或其
  他气体乘载的液体点滴。
  partly knocked down - PKD
  Components of a piece of machinery that have only
  been partially assembled.
  208
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  部分组装完毕(简写为PKD)
  仅部分组装完毕的机器部件。
  partner countries
  合伙国家,伙伴国家
  partnership
  伙伴关系,合作关系
  party (to proceeding or to the dispute) [ICSID]
  (诉讼或争端的)当事人 [解决投资争端国际中心]
  par value
  When applied to capital stock, a stated amount of
  money by which the stock is known for accounting
  and tax purposes. The market value of the stock
  seldom bears any relationship to its par value. When
  applied to bonds sometimes used interchangeably
  with maturity value.
  票面价值
  用于股票时,表示该股票作为会计和计税而使用
  的货币金额。股票的市场价值很少与其面值有任
  何关系。用于债券时,有时可与该债券的到期价
  值交替使用。
  pass rate; promotion rate [education]
  升级率,[教育]
  pass-through audit [IBRD]
  简化程序的项目审计 [国际复兴开发银行]
  pass-through certificate
  参与证
  见 participation certificate
  pass-through effect
  转手效应,转嫁效应
  pastoral association - PA
  A legally recognized, voluntary association of
  pastoral livestock owners who use a common area
  for grazing and frequent the same water points for
  the purpose of managing natural resources (water,
  graze and other vegetation), for the procurement of
  inputs and services and the selling of products.
  畜牧协会(简写为PA)
  由使用同一牧场和同一水源的畜牧业主为了管
  理好自然资源(水、牧草和其他植被),采购投
  入物和劳务以及销售产品而自愿组成的、法律承
  认的组织。
  pastoralist
  畜牧者,放牧人
  patching; spot improvement, patching; road, surface
  patching [highways]
  修补,零补,路面修补[公路]
  pattern farm plan
  模式农场计划
  payable on demand
  索还时立即付款
  pay-as-you-earn - PAYE; pay-as-you-go [taxation]
  预扣所得税(简写为PSYE);现收现付[税收]
  pay-as-you-go system [social security]
  A method of accounting for an unfunded pension
  plan in which payments to the pension plan
  beneficiaries are made from current receipts and not
  from previous contributions.
  现收现付制 [社会保障]
  指一种无基金积累的养老金计划的会计方法。在
  这种制度下,对养老金计划受益人的支付来自于
  当前的收入,而不是以前的缴费。
  payback period
  回收期
  paying agency fee
  Fee paid by borrower in the financial markets,
  representing costs incurred in having the borrowing
  serviced by an agent.
  付款代理费
  金融市场上借款人因使用借款服务而支付给代
  理人的费用。
  payline
  The line connecting the midpoints of a given salary
  structure. Also used for the line connecting market
  pay data for several grades, at a given level.
  工资曲线
  指连结给定的工资结构中的若干中点的曲线。亦
  用于在一给定水平上连结若干级别市场工资支
  付数据的曲线。
  payload
  工资负担,净载重量
  payment arrears
  拖欠付款,到期未偿款项
  payment basis, on a
  209
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  有偿的,现款交易
  payment bond [US]
  A bond executed in connection with a contract to
  assure payment as required by law of all persons
  supplying labor and material under the contract.
  付款债券[美国]
  一种与某一合同相连带执行的债券,它保证对合
  同项下所有提供劳力和材料的人按法律要求付
  款。
  payment-in-kind - PIK
  实物支付(简写为PIK)
  payment guarantee
  A guarantee executed in connection with a contract
  to assure payment as required by law of all persons
  supplying labor and material under the contract.
  付款保证
  一种与某一合同相连带执行的保证。它保证对合
  同项下所有提供劳力和材料的人按法律要求付
  款。
  payment schedule
  Timetable for payment by the purchaser to the
  supplier/contractor.
  付款安排表
  采购者对供应商或承包商付款的时间表。
  payments position (of a country)
  (一个国家的)国际收支状况
  payout date
  Date on which a due periodic payment, such as
  payment on a bond or a stock dividend, is made.
  支付日期
  定期进行支付(如支付债券本息或股票分红)的
  日期,
  payout price
  Difference between the face value of a bond and the
  net value received by the bondholder, after
  deducting commission.
  支付价格
  债券的面值与债券持有人实际收到(在减除佣金
  以后)的净值之间的差额。
  payroll
  工资单,发放的工资额
  payroll contributions
  从工资中扣缴
  payroll tax
  薪税
  peak load
  高峰负荷,最大负荷
  peak (load) shaving [electricity]
  峰荷脱落,峰荷分离[电]
  peer monitoring
  Having neighbors who are in a good position to
  monitor the borrower be required to pay a penalty if
  the borrower goes bankrupt.
  同业监测
  指使用地位较好的“邻居”来监视借款人,如借
  款人破产,该监视人将被处以罚金。
  peg, to (prices, interest rates)
  钉住(价格,利率)
  peg out, to [surveying]
  桩定,定线,定界[测量]
  penalty clause
  A clause in a legal instrument providing for the
  assessment of a penalty under certain stated
  conditions.
  (违约)惩罚条款
  法律文件中的一个条款,为在已经订明的条件下
  对一项惩罚的估价进行指导。
  pension finance unit*
  养老金财务部门
  penstock [hydroelectricity]
  A closed conduit which supplies water under
  pressure to a turbine.
  压力管道 [水电]
  一条封闭的渠道,以压力对涡轮机供水。
  pent-up demand
  被抑制的需求
  P/E ratio; price/earning ratio
  价格收益比率
  per capita income
  人均收入
  percentage (fee) contract [consultants]
  A contract where the cost of consulting services are
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  directly related to project construction costs or a
  ceiling thereof. A percentage of the approved
  construction costs is paid and, once approved, no
  matching of inputs to payment is required.
  (费用)提成合同[咨询顾问]
  一种咨询合同,其咨询服务费直接同项目建设成
  本相联系,或按该成本的一个比例设定上限。咨
  询费按项目成本的一个百分比计付,一旦批准,
  不再要求提供与支付相配套的投入物。
  percentage point
  百分点
  perfect competition; pure competition
  完全竞争;纯竞争
  perfection (of security)
  Registration of a security.
  (证券的)完善
  指证券的注册。
  performance
  执行,履行;业绩;工作进度
  亦见 economic performance; financial performance;
  institutional performance; project performance
  (audit) report; tax performance ratio
  performance audit
  业绩审计,履约审计
  performance bond
  A bond put up by a contractor to protect the
  employer from any breach of contract. This practice
  is particularly prevalent in the United States, where
  performance bonds are provided by insurance
  companies. The bond usually gives the guarantor
  the option of remedying a specific default by the
  contractor, performing the contract in his place or
  paying the beneficiary what it costs to have the
  contract performed, up to a certain limit of money.
  履约保证
  由承包商提供的一种保证,以保护业主不受任何
  违约行为的损害。这种做法在美国特别盛行,履
  约保证由保险公司提供。这种保证通常在承包商
  发生某项具体违约时,给予担保人以补救的选择
  余地,即或由他代理履行合同,或向受益人支付
  一定的金额,使其能够继续履行合同。
  performance budget
  A budget of outputs, as in a planning, programming,
  budgeting system (PPBS) but often without the
  accompanying relations to longer range
  accomplishments that form an integral part of most
  PPBS budgets.
  职能预算
  一种产出预算,如在计划、规划和预算系统(简
  写为PPBS)中,但它常常与大多数PPBS预算中
  不可分割的长期任务部分没有相伴随的关系。
  performance chart; working table; management
  chart
  A chart comprising numerical data which indicates
  the current performance of an organization or part of
  an organization or an individual.
  业绩图表;工作进度图表;管理图
  一种数据图表,它表示一个组织、或一个组织的
  一部分、或某一个人当前的工作进度。
  performance contract
  履约合同
  performance evaluation [personnel]
  工作评价,考绩[人事]
  performance guarantee [consultants]
  A security in the form of a performance bond, bank
  guarantee, cashier's check, certified check or cash at
  an amount specified in the bidding documents
  required in a contract to protect the owner in case of
  breach of contract by the contractor.
  履约担保[咨询专家]
  指一种保证,其形式为履约保证金、银行担保、
  银行本票或现金,其数额按照合同要求在招标文
  件中进行规定,目的是在承包商违约的情况下保
  护业主的利益。
  performance indicators
  工作业绩指标
  Performance Management Process - PMP
  World Bank personnel evaluation system.
  考绩管理方法(简写 为PMP)
  世界银行人事评价制度。
  performance monitoring
  履约监测,业绩监测
  performance period
  During a workout program for a country with
  protracted arrears, the period prior to clearance of
  arrears when the country's performance, including
  compliance with a Bank-approved structural
  adjustment program, is monitored by the Bank. This
  performance period must be satisfactorily completed
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  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  before the country is eligible for regular Bank
  lending.
  业绩检验期,表现期
  指长期拖欠贷款的国家,在“解决方案”实行过
  程中清偿完欠款以前的这段时间。在此期间,世
  界银行将一直对该国的业绩表现,包括对世界银
  行批准的结构调整方案的执行情况进行监视。只
  有在表现期圆满结束后,该国才有资格获得世界
  银行的正常贷款。
  Performance Planning and Review - PPR [IBRD]
  System set up by the Bank for evaluating staff
  performance. An individual performance plan is set
  up every year and reviewed at the end of that year.
  Now replaced by the Performance Management
  Process (PMP).
  工作计划和考核制度(简写为PPR)[国际复兴开
  发银行]
  世界银行为评价职工的工作成绩而设立的一种
  制度。每年对每个人建立一个工作计划,到年底
  时加以评审。现在该制度已被“考绩管理办法”
  (简写为PMP)所取代。
  performance requirements [contracts]
  履约要求[合同]
  performance security [contracts]
  A security in the form of a performance bond or
  bank guarantee at an amount specified in the bidding
  documents required in a contract to protect the
  owner in case of breach of contract by the
  contractor.
  履约保证金[合同]
  指一种保证金,其形式可以是履约保证金或银行
  担保,其数额在合同中按招标文件规定的要求订
  立,目的是在承包商违约的情况下保护业主的利
  益。
  performance specifications
  对执行工作的具体要求
  performance work statement - PWS
  Statement defining the contractual performance
  required of a vendor providing labor service
  requirements such as custodial services,
  construction trades, etc.
  履约工作说明书(简写为PWS)
  这种说明书确定对一个提供劳务的承包人(或卖
  主)的合同履行要求,如保管服务、建筑购置等。
  performing assets
  正在产生效益的资产
  periodic health assessment - PHA
  定期健康评价(简写为PHA)
  (periodic) review clause
  A clause in a loan agreement, particularly
  policy-based lending, which gives the lender the
  right to determine periodically whether the stated
  objectives are being met and whether any problems
  have been encountered. If problems occur, further
  disbursement may be withheld.
  (定期)检查条款
  贷款协议(特别是在政策性贷款)中的一项条款,
  它给予贷款人定期检查的权利,以确定协议中规
  定的目标是否达到,以及是否遇到问题。如果发
  生了问题,进一步的支付有可能停止。
  permanent assets
  固定资产
  见 capital assets
  perpetual bond
  A bond which pays agreed-upon interest
  indefinitely. It has no maturity date.
  无期限债券
  指一种无限期地按照约定的利息付息的债券。该
  债券没有到期日。
  personal exemption[ tax] *
  个人免税[税收]
  personal history [medicine]
  病历[医疗]
  personal stock
  个人股
  见 registered share, stock
  Personnel Manual Statement
  人事手册说明
  pest and disease control
  虫害和疾病控制
  phase out, to
  逐步结束(停止)
  phase out period [IBRD]
  Gradual period by which a country is graduated from
  the Bank.
  逐步结束期[国际复兴开发银行]
  指一个会员国从世界银行逐步毕业的时期。
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  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  phase out program [IBRD]
  Gradual program by which a country is graduated
  from the Bank.
  逐步结束方案[国际复兴开发银行]
  指一个会员国从世界银行逐步毕业的方案。
  Philippines formula [MOV]
  A formula (named after the first country to use it)
  whereby under the maintenance of value system a
  country may repurchase the local currency value of
  its capital subscription with a currency acceptable to
  the Bank.
  菲律宾公式[货币保值]
  世界银行货币保值制度(名称来自第一个使用这
  一手段的国家)。在这一制度下,一个国家可用
  一种世界银行能接受的货币重新购回该国认购
  项下的本国货币总值。
  phosphate rock; rock phosphate
  磷酸盐岩
  physical contingencies
  物质方面不可预见的情况
  physical facilities
  有形设施,实物设施
  physical infrastructure
  物质基础设施
  physical investmen
  物质投资
  physical planner
  实物计划者
  physical planning
  实物计划的制定
  Physical Quality of Life Index - PQLI
  Indexes which attempts to evaluate quality of life by
  combining life expectancy at age one, infant
  mortality rate and literacy rate, each with equal
  weight.
  物资生活质量指数(简写为PQLI)
  指试图用来评价生活质量的一种指数。该指数把
  一岁儿童的预期寿命、婴儿死亡率和识字率相结
  合,并给每项以同等权数。
  piggyback financing
  Financing studies for a future project as part of a
  loan to finance another project usually in the same
  sector.
  附带贷款
  作为一项贷款的一部分,为研究一个未来的项目
  提供资金。两个项目通常是同一部门内的。
  piggyback project
  附带项目
  pioneer industry
  先行产业
  pioneering research
  开创性研究
  piped water
  管道水
  pipeline loan, credit
  备选贷款(信贷)
  pipeline of projects; lending pipeline; project
  pipeline
  Projects which have advanced beyond the stage of
  appraisal mission departure, i.e which are expected
  to be in the forthcoming year's lending program.
  备选贷款项目
  指那些评估团已经离开,可望列入下一年贷款方
  案中的项目。
  pipeline project
  Project in pipeline of projects.
  备选项目
  一系列备选贷款项目中的一个项目。
  pipeline ratio, lending
  Projects past appraisal as a percentage of next year's
  lending program.
  备选项目比率
  已经过评估的项目占来年贷款规划的百分比。
  pit latrine
  茅厕,蹲坑式厕所
  pit privy
  室内蹲坑式厕所
  pithead power plant
  坑口电站
  planning
  计划
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  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  见 aggregative planing; blueprint planning;
  comprehensive planning; development planning;
  family planning; indicative planning figures; land
  use planning; mandatory planning; manpower
  planning; Performance Planning and Review;
  physical planning; planning forecasts
  planning forecasts
  计划预测
  planning, programming , budgeting system - PPBS
  A budget, usually for a government agency, in which
  the budget items are grouped under various
  programs.
  计划,规划和预算系统(简写为PPBS)
  指一种预算,通常为一个政府机构所采用,其中
  各预算科目在不同方案中分组列出。
  plant
  厂,站
  见 base load station; biogas plant; boimass (power)
  plant; coal fired power station; diesel (fired) power
  plant; oil fired power station; pithead power plant;
  steam plant; step-down power station; step-up power
  station
  plant and equipment
  厂房与设备
  plant breeder
  繁殖用植物
  见 breeder
  plant breeding
  植物育种
  plant cover
  作物覆盖物
  plant population
  作物总数
  planting material
  种植材料,种植物资
  pleadings [ICSID]
  辩护书,起诉书[解决投资争端国际中心]
  pledge (of shares) [IFC]
  (股份)抵押[国际金融公司]
  pledging
  抵押,抵押品
  plot servicing
  为建筑工地提供基础设施
  plowed-back profits
  已用作再投资的利润
  plus sum game; positive sum game
  正收益策略
  point
  点,基点
  见 basis point
  point source [environment]
  An identifiable and confined source of discharge of
  pollutants.
  污染源头[环境]
  指一个可以认定的、范围明确的污染物排放源
  头。
  policy-based assistance
  政策性援助
  policy-based lending; policy loans [IBRD]
  Loans made in support of policy and institutional
  changes, rather than for specific projects. Normally
  given under the structural adjustment and sector
  adjustment lending programs.
  政策性贷款[国际复兴开发银行]
  指用于支持政策和制度改革,而不是支持某一特
  定项目的贷款。一般是在结构调整和部门调整贷
  款方案项下贷出。
  policy framework
  政策框架
  policy package
  一揽子政策
  policy instrument*
  政策手段
  policy-oriented sector lending*
  政策性部门贷款
  policy paper
  政策文件
  political entrepreneurship
  Having a “political entrepreneur” who motivates
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  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  others, engenders trust, and mobilizes tangible
  benefits to cooperation in the interest of collective
  action. It is a key element in common property
  management.
  政治型企业家素质
  即“政治型企业家”,此人能够调动他人的积极
  性,获得信任,并能结合集体行为的利益动员有
  形利益。这是共同财产管理的一个关键因素。
  poll tax; head tax; capitation tax
  人头税
  polluter
  污染环境者
  polluter-pays principle - PPP
  Principle whereby a polluter has to pay to clean up
  the damage his pollution causes.
  污染者偿付原则(简写为PPP)
  由污染环境者偿付清理所需的费用,这种环境损
  害是由他释放的污染物造成的环境损害。
  pollution haven
  Country which allows companies to pollute with few
  or no restrictions.
  污染庇护所
  指允许公司释放污染物而没有或极少限制的国
  家。
  polychlorinated biphenyl - PCB
  Aromatic compounds used as insulating and cooling
  agents, plasticizers and in paper and ink
  manufacture. They are very stable and are found
  extensively in the environment.
  聚氯联苯,多氯联苯(简写为PCB)
  一种芳香属化合物,用作绝缘和冷却剂、增塑剂,
  并用于造纸和油墨生产。它们非常稳定,在环境
  中广泛存在。
  polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAH
  Aromatic ring compounds found in coal, tar and
  petroleum. They are emitted by combustion-related
  activities, including cigarette smoking.
  多环的芳香属烃(简写为PAH)
  存在于煤炭、焦油和石油中的芳香属环状化合
  物。它们是在燃烧过程中(包括抽烟)释放到大
  气中的。
  polycyclic management
  Forest management system which is designed to
  limit the damage to advanced regeneration of
  commercial species that will become the final timber
  crop after 20-30 years. It relies on efficient
  monitoring of stand development, with thinning
  where necessary to favor the growth of promising
  individual timber trees.
  多轮管理
  一种森林管理制度,旨在限制对商业树种前期再
  生的损害,使它们能在20到30年后成材。_____它有赖
  于对林木发展有效的监测,在需要时进行间伐,
  以利于有望成材的树木的生长。
  pool
  总库,统筹
  亦见 borrowing pool; currency pool
  Pool-Based Lending Rate System [IBRD]
  Lending rate system using the pool-based variable
  lending rate.
  总库贷款利率制[国际复兴开发银行]
  使用总库可变贷款利率的一种贷款利率制。
  pool-based variable lending rate [IBRD]
  IBRD lending rate where the lending rate on all
  outstanding balances is adjusted every six months to
  achieve a given spread above the average cost of
  outstanding borrowings.
  总库可变贷款利率[国际复兴开发银行]
  国际复兴开发银行贷款利率,该利率每6个月对
  所有未偿还贷款的利率作一次调整,以求实现一
  个高于未偿还借款平均成本的利差。
  pooled loan
  A loan included in the currency pooling system.
  总库制贷款
  指参加货币总库制的贷款。
  pooling
  联营,集资经营,统筹,(资金)汇集,汇入总库
  pool unit
  A synthetic currency unit used as the numeraire for
  the currency pool. In practice, it is the constant 1980
  dollar.
  货币总库的记帐单位
  作为货款总库记帐单位的一个假定的复合货币
  单位。在实践中,使用1980年不变美元。
  "poor man" crop*
  “穷人”作物
  port authority
  港务局
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  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  port charges, tariffs
  港口费
  port dues; harbor dues, fees
  Charges for the use of the port by the ship and its
  cargo.
  港口费
  为船及其货物使用港口所收取的费用。
  port of entry price
  到港价,到岸价
  见 cost, insurance and freight port of entry/border
  point price
  port of shipment price
  起运口岸船上交货价
  见 free on board port of shipment price
  port tariffs, charges
  Specific charges for port services such as berth
  occupancy, aids to navigation, pilotage, towage,
  cargo handling, power and water supply, etc.
  港口税
  各种港口服务(如泊位占用、导航服务、引水、
  牵引、货物装卸、水电供应等)所收取的费用。
  portfolio cleanup
  证券投资组合清理
  portfolio equity
  证券组合投资
  portfolio equity investments
  Investment in money market funds, depository
  receipts, and direct purchases of shares by foreign
  investors.
  证券组合投资
  指在货币市场基金、存单的投资以及外国投资者
  直接购买股份。
  portfolio income
  证券投资收入
  portfolio sale
  证券出售
  portfolio securities
  有价证券,投资证券
  positive list
  List of imports defined as critical to a specific
  program.
  正单,准许进口的货物清单
  对某一特定规划至关紧要的进口货物清单。
  positive sum game; plus sum game
  正收益策略
  post appraisal mission
  后评估团
  posted price [oil]
  A written statement of crude petroleum prices
  circulated publicly among sellers and buyers of
  crude petroleum in a particular field in accordance
  with historic practices and generally known by
  sellers and buyers within the field.
  牌价,标价[石油]
  一个油田内,在原油销售商和收购商之间公开发
  放的原油价格书面通知。这是油田内的销售商和
  收购商普遍知晓的一种传统做法。
  posted values
  标值
  postgraduate studies
  研究生学业
  postqualification of bidders
  Determination of capability and financial resources
  of a successful bidder who has not been prequalified.
  投标者资格后审
  对一个没有参加资格预审的成功的投标商的能
  力和财务资源进行认定。
  pour flush latrine
  冲水厕所
  poverty gap
  It measures the transfer that would bring the income
  of every poor person exactly up to the poverty line,
  thereby eliminating poverty.
  贫困差距
  用以衡量为消除贫困而把每一个穷人恰好提高
  到贫困线以上所需要的资金转移。
  poverty income threshold; poverty line
  The minimum acceptable level of standard of living
  in a given country or region.
  贫困线
  某一国家或地区的最低的可以接受的生活标准
  水平。
  power plant, station
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  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  电站
  见 base load station; biogas plant; biomass (power)
  plant; coal fired power station; diesel (fired) power
  plant; oil fired power station; pithead power plant;
  steam plant; step-down power station; step-up power
  station
  power system
  电力系统
  power takeoff - PTO
  An attachment, usually consisting of a shaft and two
  or more universal joints, which is used to transmit
  power from a tractor to an attached unit such as a
  combine or hay baler.
  动力输出装置(简写为PTO)
  一个动力的附属装置,通常包括一个排档和两个
  或以上的万相节,用来从一个拖拉机输送动力至
  一个附属部件,如联合收割机或干草压捆机。
  practical nurse
  有实际工作经验但没有经过正规训练的护士
  practice school
  实验学校,示范学校
  见 demonstration school
  preamble to an agreement; recital of an agreement
  协议(协定)的序言;协议中陈述事实的部分
  preappraisal
  预评估
  preappraisal mission
  预评估团
  prearranged sale of participations [IFC]*
  根据事先安排出售所参加的投资(或贷款)[国
  际金融公司]
  precedent conditions [legal]
  Conditions which must occur for a subsequent event
  to take place. Frequently found in international
  contracts.
  先行条件[法律]
  某一后续事件发生的必要条件。常常在国际合同
  中出现。
  precipitator; dust collector; dust separator
  An air pollution control device usually using
  mechanical/electrical means to collect particulates
  from an emission.
  静电滤尘器;尘埃收集器;尘埃分离器
  一种空气污染控制装置,一般使用机械或电力方
  法从排放物中收集微粒。
  predatory price
  掠夺性价格
  predevelopment work [oil]
  开发前工作[石油]
  predicated variable; predictor
  预计变量;预计因素
  predictor; predicated, independent, explanatory
  variable; fixed variate; regressor [statistics]
  If a relationship between two variables x and y is
  interpreted in a causal way such that changes in y are
  said to be caused or explained by changes in x, then
  x is the predictor.
  预计因素;预计变量,自变量,说明变量;固定
  变量;回归数[统计]
  假如两个变量X和Y之间的关系可以解释为因果
  关系,就是说Y的变化是由于(或可以解释为)
  X的变化引起,则X当是预计因素。
  preemptive rights
  优先购买权
  见 first refusal rights
  preference, preferential margin; margin of
  preference
  Preference given to certain goods and services of
  local origin in a contract.
  优惠;优惠幅度
  指在合同中对来源于国内的某些货物和劳务给
  予的优惠。
  preferred provider organization (PPO) system
  Health care system where care is provided by
  allowing participants to choose among participating
  professional, who are paid on either a fee for service
  or capitation (fixed amount per participant per year)
  basis.
  自选医生医疗组织(简写为PPO)制
  一种医疗卫生制度,该制度允许参加者自行选择
  参加该制度的专业医生,按次或按人收费(每一
  参加者每年按固定金额缴费)。
  preferred stock
  Stock which has a claim upon the earnings (and
  sometimes upon the assets and control) of a corporation
  prior to the common or other class stock.
  217
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  优先股
  优先股对公司收益(有时还在资产和控制方面)
  的要求权先于普通股或其他种类的股份。
  prefinancing
  预先提供(融通)资金
  preinvestment study, survey
  投资前研究(调查)
  preliminary application for guarantee [MIGA]
  An initial application for a MIGA guarantee, to be
  made before the investment is made or irrevocably
  committed. It sets forth the information MIGA
  needs to make a provisional determination that the
  investor and the investment appear eligible for
  MIGA guarantees. 初步担保申请[多边投资担保
  机构]
  在进行投资或不可撤回的投资承诺以前,向多边
  投资担保机构提出的初步担保申请。其中提供多
  边投资担保机构所需要的信息,以便使其据此作
  出临时性的决定,认定该项投资商和投资有资格
  取得多边投资担保机构的担保。
  亦见notice of registration, definitive application for
  guarantee
  preliminary design, engineering
  初步设计
  preliminary estimates of quantities
  对数量的初步估计
  preliminary question [ICSID]
  先决问题[解决投资争端国际中心]
  prematured loan
  Loan that matures before time initially specified.
  提前到期贷款
  在原先确定的时限以前到期的贷款。
  prematuring
  提前到期
  premier borrower
  主要客户
  见 prime borrower
  premium
  升水,加价,溢价
  亦见 inflation premium; price premium; quality
  premium; standby premium
  premium
  保险费,奖_____金,酬劳金,佣金
  premium, at a
  按保险费标准,按溢价
  premium [MIGA]
  Sum charged by MIGA for each guarantee,
  calculated on an annual basis as a percentage of the
  amount of guarantee.
  保险费[多边投资担保机构]
  多边投资担保机构对每一笔担保收取的费用,它
  是以年为基础,按担保额的一定百分比计收的。
  premium [securities]
  The difference between the par value and the higher
  market value of a security expressed as a percentage
  of the par value.
  溢价,升水[证券]
  指某一证券的较高的市场价值同面值之间的差
  额,以面值的百分比表示。
  premium [stocks]
  Difference between the face value and the selling
  price of the share when the selling price is higher.
  溢价,升水[股票]
  指股票的卖价高于面值时的差额。
  premium on prepayment [IBRD]
  提前还款溢价[国际复兴开发银行]
  premium sale
  增价出售
  preparatory school; feeder school; contributory
  school
  预科,补习学校
  prepayment [IBRD]
  预付[国际复兴开发银行]
  prepool loan
  Loan made before the introduction of the currency
  pool (prior to 1980).
  实施货币总库制以前的贷款
  指在实施货币总库制(1980年)以前世界银行所
  作的贷款。
  prequalification documents
  资格预审文件
  prequalification of bidders
  218
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  In procurement, determination of the technical and
  financial capacity of potential bidders to perform the
  contract.
  对投标人的资格预审
  在采购业务中,对潜在的投标者的技术和财务能
  力加以审查,以确定其是否有能力履行合同。
  pre-reading
  Learning about the nature and function of print,
  reading commons signs and labels, learning letters
  and some sounds and writing one's name.
  读前教育
  这种教育包括掌握印刷材料的性质和功能,认识
  普通的记号和标志,学习字母和一些发音,以及
  书写自己的名字。
  present value, worth
  An amount which, taking into account the earning
  power of capital over time and the difference in time
  between the present and some future date, would be
  equivalent today to an expenditure or receipt at such
  a future date; the result of discounting a future value
  to the present by the appropriate discount rate.
  现值
  现值是在考虑到资本随时间的增长而产生的获
  利能力以及在现在和将来不同时日之间的差别
  等因素的情况下,使将来某一时日的一笔费用支
  出或收入等于现时的一笔数额。现值的求得是用
  适当的贴现率把一个将来的价值贴现成现在的
  价值。
  present worth of an annuity factor
  How much 1 received or paid annually is worth
  today.
  一个年金系数的现值
  指每年支出或收入为“1”的现值是多少。
  preservation forest
  Forest designated for total protection of
  representative forest ecosystems in which all forms
  of extraction are prohibited.
  保护林,保留林
  为全面保护有代表性的森林生态系统而特定的
  森林,该处禁止任何形式的采伐。
  pre-shipment inspection
  Inspection of procured goods before they are
  shipped.
  运前检查
  对所采购的货物在运输以前进行的检查。
  pre-shipment price inspection
  A new Bank requirement in international
  competitive bidding, whereby prices are checked,
  prior to shipping, by a third party inspection
  company, to ensure that they are accurate and
  competitive.
  运前价格检查
  这是世界银行对国际竞争性招标提出的一个新
  的要求,即在货物运输前要由一个第三方检查公
  司对价格进行检查,以确保它们是准确并有竞争
  力的。
  President's Contingency
  A fund, usually one percent of the Budget, used to
  meet resource demands during the budget year that
  were not and could not have been fully anticipated at
  the time of budget preparation.
  行长应急准备金
  一笔基金(一般是预算的百分之一),用来解决
  在作预算时没有或不可能完全预料到的预算年
  度内的资金需求 。
  presumptive taxation
  Lump sum taxation paid in advance.
  推定税制
  提前一次性总数缴纳的税款
  prevailing market rate
  现行市场利率
  prevalence [disease]
  流行[病]
  price adjustment clause; price escalation clause;
  escalation clause
  Clause in a contract that states that price adjustments
  will be made in the event changes occur in major
  cost components of the contract such as fuel, labor,
  equipment and materials.
  价格调整条款;调整条款
  合同中的一项条款,它规定在合同的主要成本组
  成部分(如燃料、劳力、设备和材料)发生变化
  时,价格将作调整。
  price contingencies
  价格方面不可预见的情况
  price differential, spread
  价差,价格级差
  price-earning ratio; P/E ratio - PER
  Market price per ordinary share divided by earnings
  per ordinary share after tax. It expresses the market
  219
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  value placed on the expectation of future earnings.
  价格-收益比率(简写为PER)
  即每一普通股的市价除以每一普通股的税后收
  益。它是根据将来预期收益来表示的市场价格。
  price effect
  价格效应
  price elasticity; own price elasticity
  The change in quantity (demanded or supplied)
  which results from a given change in price.
  价格弹性
  由一定的价格变动所带来的数量(需求或供给)
  的变动。
  price escalation clause
  价格调整条款
  见 price adjustment clause
  price ex factory
  卖方工厂交货价格,出厂价格
  见 factory price
  price fixing
  定价,限定价格;操纵价格
  price freeze
  价格冻结
  price incentives
  价格激励
  price inelasticity
  When there is no change in quantity (demanded or
  supplied) as a result of a change in price.
  价格无弹性
  指在价格变动时,货物的数量(需求或供应)不
  起变化。
  price leader, setter, maker
  领头定价者,市场操纵者
  price level accounting; general price level
  accounting
  价格水平会计
  price maintenance
  维持价格
  见 resale price maintenance
  price maker, setter, leader
  A seller who dominates to the extent that when it
  changes prices, its competitors make similar
  changes.
  领头定价者,市场操纵者
  指在市场上居支配地位的卖主,每当该卖主变动
  价格时,其他竞争者也相应变动价格。
  price premium
  价格附加,增价
  price quotations [contracts]
  报价[合同]
  price range
  价格幅度
  price schedule [procurement]
  A document containing an itemized breakdown of
  the goods or services to be provided with a statement
  of the unit prices applicable.
  价目表[采购]
  一种货物或劳务供应的细目表,其中表明每一单
  位货物或劳务所适用的价格。
  price setter, maker, leader
  价格领头人,市场操纵者
  price spread, differential
  差价
  price support
  价格支持
  price swing
  物价波动
  price taker
  A party to a transaction in which the price was
  determined by natural forces of competition. The
  seller wanted a higher price, while the buyer wanted
  a lower price; neither could influence the price
  because it was determined by the market.
  随行就市商人
  在价格由自然竞争力量决定的交易中的一方。卖
  方希望高价,买方希望低价,但各方都无法影响
  市场价格,因为价格是由市场决定的。
  price to factory
  到厂价
  priced bill of quantities
  Detailed list of the work to be done, as priced by the
  contractor, based on quantities estimated by
  220
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  employer and engineer.
  报价的数量清单
  以业主或工程师估计的数量为基础,由承包商报
  价并详细列举各种需做工作(工程)的清单。
  pricing policy
  定价政策
  pricing system [financial markets]
  定价制度(金融市场)
  priced offer
  报价发盘
  primal city
  主要城市
  primary commodity, product
  A commodity which has not yet undergone any
  significant degree of processing, e.g. natural rubber,
  raw wool, etc.
  初级商品,初级产品
  指没有经过任何程度加工的商品,例如天然橡
  胶、生羊毛等。
  primary deficit; noninterest deficit
  Deficit which excludes all interest payments and
  which therefore only measures current deficit rather
  than current and past deficits.
  基本赤字;非利息赤字
  不包括任何利息支付的赤字,因此它只能用于衡
  量目前的赤字,而不是现在和过去所有的赤字。
  primary exporting country
  初级产品出口国
  primary equity*
  主要产权
  primary health care
  Health care based on practical, scientifically sound
  and socially acceptable methods and technology,
  made universally accessible to individuals and
  families in the community through their full
  participation and at a cost that the community and
  the country can afford to maintain.
  基本保健,初级保健
  一种建立在实际的、科学的、健全的和社会可接
  受的方法和技术上的保健制度,社区中个人和家
  庭通过他们的充分参与能普遍享受,而其成本是
  社区和国家能够承受得起的。
  primary lender*
  首要贷款人,原始贷款人
  primary producing country
  初级产品生产国
  primary product, commodity
  初级产品,初级商品
  primary reserves
  Funds which a bank keeps for immediate use as
  opposed to secondary reserves which are not for
  immediate use but can be quickly converted to
  money.
  第一准备金,原始准备金
  银行储备的可以立即使用的资金。它是相对于第
  二准备金而言的,后者不是为立即使用准备的,
  但可以很快变现成现金。
  prime bill
  A bill of exchange in which the parties have high
  credit ratings.
  上等汇票,优等汇票
  指有关各方都享有很高的信用级别的汇票。
  prime borrower; premier borrower
  The most creditworthy type of borrower.
  基本客户,主要客户
  信誉最好的借款人。
  prime contractor; principal, main contractor
  主要承包商
  prime rate
  优惠利率
  principal
  资本,本金
  principal contractor; prime, main contractor
  主要承包商。
  principal (income) earner
  主要经济收入者,养家活口的人
  principal economist
  首席经济学家
  principal exchange rate linked securities notes
  同主要汇率挂勾的证券票据
  Principles of Staff Employment [World Bank]
  221
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  职员聘用原则[世界银行]
  printout
  印刷品
  prisoner's dilemma [economics]
  Theory which compares naked self-interest with
  cooperation.
  囚犯的困境[经济学]
  一种在赤裸裸的私利与合作之间进行比较的理
  论。
  private benefit-cost ratio - PBC
  私人效益成本比率(简写为PBC)
  private final consumption expenditure - PFCE
  Discretionary expenditure by individuals.
  私人最终消费支出(简写为PFCE)
  指个人可自由支配的支出。
  private sector assessment - PSA
  Assessment carried out by the Bank to identify
  opportunities and obstacles facing private sector
  development.
  私人部门评估(简写为PSA)
  世界银行对私人部门进行的评估,以确定私人部
  门发展的机会和障碍。
  private voluntary organization - PVO
  私人自愿组织 (简写为PVO)
  privatization vouchers
  Vouchers used in the voucher privatization system.
  私有化凭单
  指“凭单私有化”制度中使用的单具。
  privy
  厕所
  见 aqua privy; pit privy
  privity [legal]
  The principle whereby only the two parties to a
  contract have a contractual relationship and no third
  party is involved in this relationship.
  非当事人利益[法律]
  指一项原则:只有合同双方有契约关系,此关系
  不涉及第三方。
  problem loan [IFC]
  问题贷款
  problem project*
  问题项目
  procedural law; adjective law
  The bodies of principles and rules of law other than
  the substantive law dealing not with the rights and
  duties of persons but with the means whereby those
  rights and duties may be declared, vindicated or
  enforced, or remedies for their infraction ensured.
  Includes court procedure, rules relating to the
  jurisdiction of different courts, pleading, evidence,
  appeal, execution of judgements, legal aid,
  conveyancing, costs, etc.
  程序法
  相对于实体法的一套法律原则和规则条例实体,
  它并不规定人的权利和义务,而是使这些权利和
  义务得以申明、维护或执行的手段,或是规定违
  犯补救手段。它包括法庭程序、各级法庭的管辖
  范围的规定、辩护、证据、上诉、判决的执行、
  法律援助、产权转让证书、费用等。
  procedural orders [ICSID]
  程序顺序[解决投资争端国际中心]
  proceedings
  诉讼,议事项目,会议记录,记录汇编
  proceeds
  收入,收益
  process chart
  流程图
  见 flow chart
  process control
  流程控制,程序控制
  process engineering
  加工技术
  processed
  Refers to a document that has been distributed in an
  unpublished form.
  已印发(文件)
  指已经按非出版形式印发的文件。
  processing of a loan
  办理一笔贷款
  processing
  加工,处理,起诉
  procurement
  222
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  采购
  见 bulk procurement
  procurement agent
  Firm which specializes in handling international
  procurement and acts on behalf of contract awarding
  authority in a bid.
  采购代理人
  专业进行国际采购活动并在招标活动中代理授
  标当局的公司。
  Procurement Manual Statement - PMS
  采购手册说明(简写为PMS)
  procurement (procedures)
  采购(程序)
  producer gas
  A low-energy gaseous fuel, generally produced from
  coal, whose principal combustible components
  (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) are generally
  diluted by air.
  发生炉煤气
  一种低能量的气体燃料,一般从煤中产生,其主
  要可燃成份(一氧化碳和氢气)一般由空气稀释。
  producer goods
  Goods manufactured for use in making other goods
  but which do not themselves continue through the
  manufacturing stream and are not used directly by
  consumers.
  生产资料,生产物资
  用来制做其他货物的制成品,但其本身不再继续
  通过制造流程,不直接供消费者使用。
  producer price
  The price of a unit of output of some commodity as it
  leaves the establishment of the producer. It includes
  any indirect tax or subsidy levied on that output
  before it leaves the establishment.
  生产者价格
  指某些商品离开生产企业时的单位价格。它包括
  离开企业前对该产品征收的所有间接税或补贴
  的价值。
  producer price equivalent - PPE
  The value of transfers to farmers generated by
  agricultural policy. These are paid either by
  consumers in the form of market price support or by
  taxpayers via direct payments and other support.
  Measures the aggregate assistance to producers
  before deduction of farm feed adjustment.
  生产者价格等值(简写为, PPE)
  指由农业政策导致的向农民的价值转移。它们或
  者由消费者以市场价格补贴形式支付,或由纳税
  人以直接和其他形式支付。用以衡量在减除对农
  业投入调整以前,对生产者的总的援助。
  producers' values [national accounts]
  The value in the market of the gross output on
  commodities, industries, etc at the establishment of
  the producers; or the sum of the values of direct
  inputs, intermediate inputs at purchasers' values and
  indirect taxes less subsidies in respect of the
  commodities, industries, etc.
  生产者价值[国民帐户]
  指商品、产业部门等的总产出的厂家市场价值;
  或者是直接投入的总价值、按购买者价值计算的
  中间投入和间接税收减去对商品或行业等的补
  贴的总和。
  product in hand contract
  Turnkey contract which determines the
  characteristics of the final product to be
  manufactured.
  成品到手合同
  确定将要生产的最终产品各种特征的交钥匙合
  同。
  production build up
  产量增长
  production forest
  Forest designated for sustainable production of
  forest products.
  生产林
  指定为可持续生产林产品的森林。
  production possibility curve; transformation curve
  A graphic representation of the various output
  combinations of two commodities which can be
  produced from a given quantity of resources.
  生产可能性曲线,变换曲线
  一种表示可用一项既定数量的资源生产的两种
  商品的不同产出组合的图表。
  production-sharing contract
  Contract where the contractor makes contributions
  to the investment project and his remuneration
  substantially (but not necessarily wholly) depends
  on a share of the production of the investment
  project, including his right to purchase such share at
  a predetermined price or a price to be determined
  under an agreed formula. Considered as a type of
  223
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  nonequity direct investment for the purposes of
  MIGA.
  产量分成合同
  这种合同是指承包商对项目作投资,其报酬主要
  (但不一定是全部)根据投资项目产量的份额来
  确定,他有权按事先确定或按双方同意的公式确
  定的价格购买这种份额。多边投资担保机构认为
  是非股本直接投资的一种形式。
  productive capacity
  生产能力
  product mix
  产品组合,产品结构
  product wage
  产品工资
  profit and loss account [UK]; income statement [US]
  损益帐户[英国],损益表 [美国],
  profit center [accounting]
  A responsibility center which accumulates revenues
  as well as costs.
  利润中心[会计学]
  指积累成本和收入的责任中心。
  profit making
  赢利
  profit margin
  利润率,利润幅度
  profit on sales of investments
  投资利润
  profit sharing
  利润分享,分红
  profit-sharing contract [MIGA]
  Contract where the contractor makes contributions
  to the investment project and his remuneration
  substantially depends on the revenues or profits of
  the investment project.
  利润分享合同[多边投资担保机构]
  在这种合同中,立约人对项目进行投资,而其报
  酬在很大程度上取决于投资项目的收入或利润。
  pro forma invoice*
  估价单,形式发票,样本发票
  profit squeeze
  套取利润,利润缩减
  profits tax
  利润税
  program aid
  方案援助
  program budget
  A PPBS budget which emphasizes long-range
  planning and associated accomplishments and
  resource requirements.
  方案预算
  一种“计划、规划和预算系统”(PPBS)预算,
  它强调长期性计划,并把任务的完成与所需资源
  联系起来。
  program contract
  A concept developed in France and now used in
  Senegal, Cameroon and other former French
  colonies. They are performance contracts between
  Government and companies generally covering a
  period of three years, which set annual targets for the
  company (covering physical production, operating
  efficiency, billing recovery, employee training, etc.)
  and establish reciprocal commitments by the
  Government (e.g. agreement on tariff levels,
  investment support, increased managerial
  autonomy, etc.). They are indicative rather than
  legally binding.
  规划合同,方案合同
  这一观念首先在法国产生,现在已用于塞内加
  尔、喀麦隆和其他前法国殖民地。它们是一种在
  政府和公司间签订的“履约合同”,一般为期三
  年,每年都对公司订有一些目标(包括实物生产、
  营运效率、回收帐单、雇员培训等等);政府也
  作出相应的承诺(例如税率水平协议、投资支持、
  增加管理自主权等)。这种合同是指导性的,并
  不具有法律约束力。
  program evaluation and review technique - PERT
  A tool of managerial economics used both in
  planning a project and in monitoring it. A PERT
  chart shows each task to be performed, the time each
  will require, the prerequisites and other information.
  统筹方法,规划评审法(简写为PERT)
  一种管理经济的工具,既用于项目计划,也用于
  对它的监测。一项“规划评审法”图表可显示每
  一项应完成的任务、完成每项任务需要的时间、
  先决条件和其他信息。
  program loan, lending
  224
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  Bank loan given not for a specific project but to help
  a country overcome unforeseen temporary
  difficulties which would otherwise result in
  inappropriate long-term policy adjustments to
  correct short-term balance of payments problems.
  方案贷款
  世界银行的一种贷款,不是贷给某一具体项目,
  而是用于帮助一个会员国克服某种未能预见到
  的暂时困难。这种困难如不予解决,可导致用不
  恰当的长期政策调整来纠正短期的国际收支问
  题。
  program objective category - POC
  The main areas covered by the Bank's operation
  program. Currently they are poverty reduction,
  adjustment and debt, human resources development,
  private and public sector development, environment
  and forestry, financial intermediation, natural
  resources, infrastructure and urban development and
  economic management.
  规划目标种类(简写为POC)
  指世界银行业务规划覆盖的主要领域。目前它们
  是:减除贫困,调整和债务,人力资源开发,私
  人和公共部门发展,环境和森林,金融中介,自
  然资源,基础设施和城市发展,以及经济管理。
  program of special emphasis - PSE
  Program that the Bank is giving special priority to,
  covering such areas as debt management, human
  resources, women in development, environment,
  food security, poverty alleviation and private sector
  development.
  特别重要的规划
  世界银行列为特别优先的规划,它们包括诸如债
  务管理、人力资源、妇女在发展中的作用、环境、
  食品保障、贫困减除以及私人部门发展等领域。
  Program of Targeted Interventions - PTI
  目标干予计划(简写为PIT)
  progress certificate [IBRD]
  进度证明[国际复兴开发银行]
  progress chart
  进度表
  progress payment
  Payment made as work progresses under a contract
  on the basis of costs incurred, percentage of
  completion or a particular stage of completion.
  按进度分期付款,进度款
  在一项合同项下,按工程(或工作)进度实际发
  生费用,或是按整个工程完成的百分比,亦或是
  按工程在完成过程中的某特定阶段进行付款。
  progress report; status report
  进度报告,进程报告
  project advance account
  项目预付款帐户
  project agency
  项目代理人
  project agreement
  项目协定
  project aid
  项目援助
  project appraisal
  项目评估
  project area
  项目地区
  project audit, evaluation
  项目审计、评价
  project brief
  In Bank projects, the basic issues-oriented
  operational document relating to the early part of the
  project cycle. It is short (2-6 pages) and focuses on a
  project's development objectives, policy or other
  issues and the preparation work required.
  项目简介,项目摘要
  就世界银行项目而言,项目简介是一种项目周期
  早期阶段的问题分析性业务文件。它写得比较简
  短(2-6页),重点介绍项目发展的目的、政策
  或其他问题,以及要求做的准备工作。
  project completion report - PCR
  A report prepared within six months of the
  completion of loan/credit disbursements which
  highlights strengths and weaknesses of the project
  and draws appropriate lessons for the Bank for
  future projects.
  项目完成报告
  项目完成报告在贷款/信贷支付完毕6个月内写
  好,着重强调项目的长处和弱点,并为世界银行
  未来的项目提供适当的教训。
  project cycle
  The sequence of analytical phases through which a
  225
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  project passes.
  项目周期
  项目所经历的各个连续性的分解阶段。
  project design
  项目设计
  project enterprise [MIGA]
  A corporation, association, partnership or any other
  entity which holds title to, or the power to dispose of,
  the assets contributed to the Investment Project.
  项目企业[多边投资担保机构]
  指拥有权利或权力来处置投入到投资项目的资
  产的公司、联合体、合伙人或其他任何经济实体。
  project evaluation, audit
  项目评价、审计
  project fund agreement
  Agreement whereby a lender agrees to lend funds for
  a specific project.
  项目融资协议
  贷款者同意向某一项目进行贷款的协议。
  project identification
  项目认定
  project implementation review - PIR
  Semi-annual Bank-wide report on how projects have
  been implemented.
  项目实施情况检查(简写为PIR )
  指每半年世界银行范围内的对项目执行情况的
  检查报告。
  Project Information Brief - PIB
  项目情况简要介绍(简写为PIB)
  project life
  项目寿命,项目期限
  project loan, lending
  项目贷款
  project management
  项目管理
  project management unit - PMU [IBRD]
  项目管理单位(简写为PMU)[国际复兴开发银
  行]
  project manager
  项目负责人,项目经理[联合国开发计划署译法]
  project officer
  项目官员
  project performance audit memorandum - PPAM
  项目实施情况审计备忘录(简写为PPAM)
  project performance audit report - PPAR
  A report which provides a preliminary review and
  evaluation of a project at the end of the execution
  phase.
  项目实施情况审计报告(简写为PPAR )
  在一个项目执行期末,对项目进行初步审查和评
  价的报告。
  project pipeline; pipeline of projects; lending
  pipeline
  备选项目
  project preparation
  项目准备
  Project Preparation Facility - PPF*
  项目准备贷款基金(简写为PPF)
  Project Preparation Facility advance*
  项目准备贷款基金预付款
  project rent
  income derived from a project.
  项目收益
  从项目中产生的收益。
  project supervision
  项目监督
  project unit
  项目单位
  promissory note
  An unconditional promise in writing made by one
  person to another signed by the maker, engaging to
  pay, on demand or at a fixed or determinable future
  time, a sum of money to or to the order of a specified
  person, or to bearer.
  本票,期票
  指某人向另一人出具并签字的无条件付款的书
  面票据,规定立即或在一个固定日期或在一个可
  确定的未来日期,向某人或其指定人或持票人支
  付一定的金额。
  promotion rate; pass rate [education]
  226
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  Rate at which students pass to the next higher grade.
  升级率[教育]
  学生升入高一年级的比率。
  property income [government]
  财产收入[政府]
  property income [individuals, corporations]
  财产收入[个人的,公司的]
  proprietary good, item
  专利品
  proprietary interest
  An ownership interest, as in the interest held by an
  equity holder in a company or a patent holder who
  licenses use of the patent by others.
  业主利益
  指一项所有权的利益,如一个股东在公司内持有
  的利益,或一个批准别人使用专利的专利持有
  者。
  proprietary rights
  所有权,专利权
  proprietary training
  Training offered by private, for-profit firms.
  私营业主培训
  由私营的,以赢利为目的的商号提供的培训。
  pro rata commitment authority limitations
  按比例承诺的贷款授权限额
  pro rata recall
  Currency recalls for outstanding loans whereby
  major currencies would be recalled in proportion to
  the amounts that remain outstanding on each of these
  loans (as opposed to the previous system where the
  order of the currency recalled was determined by the
  Bank). This new system was introduced in January
  1990.
  按比例回收
  在回收未偿还贷款的货币时,主要币种应根据每
  笔未偿还贷款余额按比例回收(不同于以前由世
  界银行决定货币回收次序的制度)。这项新制度
  是在1990年1月开始实行的。
  pro rata rules [IDA]
  Rules which state that other donors may maintain
  proportionality vis- -vis the US in the amount of
  contribution released for commitment.
  按比例的规则[国际开发协会]
  在已提出的承诺中,说明其他捐赠国可能同美国
  保持一定出资比例的规定。
  prospectus [financial markets]
  A document containing all the pertinent information
  about a public offering of securities and about the
  borrower. It is made available to the appropriate
  legal authorities, stock exchanges, and the
  prospective investors by the lead manager.
  招股说明书,募股说明书 [金融市场]
  指一种包括有关公募证券和关于借款人的所有
  相关信息的文件。它由牵头经理提供给适当的法
  律当局、证券交易所和可能的投资者。
  protected forest
  受保护的森林
  provision [accounting]
  备付[会计]
  proxy borrowing*
  委托借款
  provision for losses; reserve for losses; loss
  provision
  亏损备付(金)
  provisional measure [ICSID]
  临时措施[解决投资争端国际中心]
  proxy
  委托,代理人
  proxy [IBRD lending rates]
  委托利率[国际复兴开发银行贷款利率]
  prudential constraints
  谨慎限制条例
  prudential supervision and regulation
  谨慎监管和调控
  prudent man rule
  In a trust arrangement, one of the frequent
  limitations of the trustee's actions; it states that the
  trustee may make investments “only in such
  securities as would be acquired by prudent men of
  discretion and intelligence in such matters who are
  seeking a reasonable income and the preservation of
  their capital.”
  审慎者通例,谨慎投资通例
  指在信托投资安排中,一项通常使用的限制受托
  227
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  人行为的通例。它表示受托人在进行投资时,
  “只应投资于有判断力和精明的审慎者(这种人
  寻求合理的收益并保全他们的资本)所选择的证
  券和投资方向”。
  prudent shopping
  精明的询价采购,谨慎选购
  public borrowing, offering
  公开筹资,公开发售债券或股票
  public (capital) expenditure
  政府(基建)开支
  public corporation
  股票上市公司
  public debt
  政府债券,公共债券
  public economics
  公共经济学
  public enterprise rationalization loan - PERL
  World Bank loan to help rationalize the finances of a
  public enterprise.
  公共企业合理化贷款(简写为PERL)
  世界银行帮助某一公共企业财务合理化的贷款。
  public enterprise reform loan - PERL
  World Bank loan to help reform the finances of a
  public enterprise.
  公共企业改革贷款(简写为PERL)
  指世界银行帮助某一公共企业财务改革的贷款。
  public enterprise rehabilitation loan - PERL
  World Bank loan to help rehabilitate the finances of
  a public enterprise.
  公共企业恢复贷款(简写为PERL)
  指世界银行帮助某一公共企业财政恢复的贷款。
  public offering, borrowing
  公开发售债券或股票
  public sector borrowing requirement - PSBR
  The total excess of expenditure over revenue for all
  government entities, which must be financed by new
  borrowing net of repayment of previous debts.
  公共部门借款要求(简写为PSBR)
  所有政府实体的总支出超过总收入的余额,它必
  须以新的借款(去除偿还先前债务后的额)来弥
  补。
  public tender; open tender
  公开投标
  public utilities
  公共事业
  public utility corporation
  公用事业公司
  public works; civil works
  市政工程,公共工程
  publicly guaranteed debt
  政府担保的债务
  publicly held government debt
  公众持有的政府债务
  publicly issued (bonds, etc.)
  (债券等的)公开发行
  publicly traded company
  股票上市公司
  pull-down menu
  可展开的“菜单”
  pull inflation
  拉动型通货膨胀
  见 demand-pull inflation
  pump priming policy [economics]
  government policy of spending during a recession in
  order to put money into the economic stream so that
  spending power will continue and economic
  expansion will follow.
  刺激经济的政策[经济学]
  指经济衰退时政府的开支政策,其目的是把钱注
  入经济活动中,维持支出能力,以期实现经济扩
  张。
  pumping station
  泵站
  见 booster pumping station
  pupil-teacher ratio - PTR; student-teacher ratio -
  STR; teacher-pupil ratio
  Total students enrolled in primary and secondary
  levels divided by number of teachers in the
  corresponding levels.
  师生比率(简写为PTR或STR)
  228
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  在小学和中学注册的学生人数除以这些学校的
  教师人数。
  purchase fund [sercurities] *
  购买基金[证券]
  purchasing power parity - PPP
  An exchange rate adjustment that changes a
  currency's foreign purchasing power after there has
  been a change in that currency's domestic purchasing
  power.
  购买力平价(简写为PPP)
  一种汇率调整机制,在一种货币的国内购买力发
  生变化以后,调整该货币的国外购买力。
  purchasers' values [national accounts]
  The cost of goods and services in the market to the
  point of delivery to the purchaser. Equals producers'
  values plus the trade and transport margins
  appropriate to the purchaser in question.
  购买者价值[国民帐户]
  指运到向购买者交货地点的货物和劳务的市场
  成本。等于生产者价值加上适合于该购买者的贸
  易和运输差价。
  pure competition; perfect competition
  完全竞争;彻底的自由竞争
  pure IDA countries
  只接受国际开发协会(IDA)信贷而不借国际复
  兴开发银行贷款的国家
  pure stand
  A stand of trees in which at least 80 percent of the
  trees in the main crown canopy are of a single
  species.
  单一林
  指一片主要树冠至少有80%属于同一品种的林
  木。
  pure time preference
  纯时间选择
  见 rate of pure time preference
  pure variety; true to type variety [agriculture]
  A variety that is like the parental type, without
  change.
  纯种,原始品种 [农业]
  一种与原系相同、没有变异的品种。
  push inflation
  推动型通货膨胀
  见 cost-push inflation
  put option
  A contract which entitles one party to it, at his
  option, to sell a specified amount of securities or
  commodities to the other party, at the price fixed in
  the contract, during the life of the contract.
  出售选择权
  一种合同,它赋予合同的一方在合同有效期内,
  有按照合同规定的价格出售一定数额的证券或
  商品给另一方的选择权。
  “put right” guarantee
  准确执行(条款、规定等)保证金
  __
  229
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - Q -
  qualifications*
  资格,合格证明
  qualified agreement to reimburse
  Agreement given by the Bank to a commercial bank
  to enable a borrower to make purchases under a loan
  agreement prior to disbursement of the funds. The
  guarantee is qualified and the Bank has the right to
  cancel its guarantee should the loan be suspended or
  cancelled.
  有条件偿付协议
  世界银行向某一商业银行签发的协议,使借款人
  得以在贷款协议下,在支付资金以前进行采购。
  这种保证是有条件的,即在该贷款暂停或取消的
  情况下,世界银行有权撤消它的保证。
  见irrevocable agreement to reimburse。
  qualified bidder
  A bidder for a contract who has prequalified, i.e.
  who has been deemed capable of performing a
  particular contract satisfactorily based on past
  performance, quality of staff and equipment and
  financial position.
  合格的投标人
  指经过资格预审的合同投标商。即根据过去的业
  绩表现、职工素质、设备质量和财务状况,被认
  为是能够令人满意地完成某项合同的投标商。
  qualified borrowing(s) [currency pool]
  Originally, borrowings by IBRD after July 1, 1982
  (i.e. based on the pool-based variable lending rate),
  using proxy borrowings. Under the current system
  (May 1989), they are defined to exclude borrowings
  that are determined by the Bank to fund investments
  and any new differentiated loan product should the
  Bank wish to offer one in the future. The extraction
  of borrowings that fund investments would be made
  separately for each currency. The term Qualified
  Borrowings 1982 is used to describe the old system.
  限定性借款[货币总库]
  原先是指在1982年7月1日以后使用受托借款的
  国际复兴开发银行借款(即以总库制资金可变利
  率为基础的借款)。按现行制度(1989年5月),
  限定性借款不包括世界银行用于投资和其他新
  的差别性贷款项目(如世界银行在将来拟提供的
  话)。用于投资的借款按每种货币分别进行提款。
  “1982年限定性借款”这个术语指的是旧制度。
  qualified guarantee
  附带条件的保证、抵押品
  qualified instrument of commitment
  Agreement by a member country to pay its
  subscription and contribution in part, with the
  remainder subject to enactment by its legislature of
  the necessary legislation.
  有条件的承诺协议
  一个世界银行会员国关于支付其认缴股份和捐
  赠款的有条件的承诺协议,同意先支付一部分,
  其余部分需俟其立法当局通过必要的方案以后
  再行支付。
  qualified majority
  合法多数
  qualified opinion [auditing]
  An auditor's opinion that indicates that the auditor
  has found deficiencies in the financial statements, as
  regards the accounting (e.g. reservations on
  acceptability of the accounting policies and their
  consistent application) or auditing (e.g. timing of
  appointment after valuation of inventories or other
  assets) or there is significant uncertainty due, e.g. to
  the outcome of major lawsuits or other contingent
  liabilities.
  附带条件的意见[审计]
  一项审计师意见,表示审计人在财务报表中发现
  一些问题,如会计(例如对会计政策和其应用的
  一致性方面有保留意见)或审计(例如在存货和
  其他资产估值后进行的及时委任)方面的问题,
  或存在诸如重要的法律诉讼结果未明的不定因
  素,等等。
  qualifying shares
  Stock, possession of which enables the holder to buy
  further stock at a predetermined (reduced) price.
  保证股
  拥有保证股意味着将来可按既定价格(折价)购
  买更多的股票。
  qualitative coinsurance
  Insurance involving two or more underwriters with
  the different underwriters underwriting different
  risks pertaining to the same project.
  (保险业)质量共保
  两家或两家以上保险商共同为一个项目下不同
  的险种进行保险。
  quality loan [IBRD]
  A Bank loan which has been carefully prepared and
  230
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  is financially viable.
  高质量贷款[国际复兴开发银行]
  指一项经过仔细准备并在财务上有活力的世界
  银行贷款。
  quality premium
  质量升水,质量增价
  quantitative coinsurance
  Insurance involving two or more underwriters with
  the different underwriters underwriting separate
  tranches of a single large risk.
  (保险业)数量共保
  两家或两家以上保险商共同为一个大险种下的
  不同部分进行保险。
  quantity surveyor
  (建筑工程)估料师,数量鉴定人
  quantity theory of money
  Theory holding that the overall level of prices is
  proportional to the size of the money supply. A key
  monetarist theory.
  货币数量学说
  这种学说认为,整个物价水平是与货币供应量的
  大小成比例的。这是一种主要的货币学说。
  quantum index
  数量指数
  quasi-equity
  Includes equity-like instruments and other forms of
  loans that have the form of equity or equity that has
  the form of loans. An example is equity with a put
  agreement, i.e. unlike normal equity, the investor
  requires return of the equity, for example, in five
  years at ten percent interest.
  准股本,准股权
  包括类股本票据和其它带有股本形式的贷款或
  带有贷款形式的股本。例子之一是带有卖方选择
  权协议的股本,与正规的股本不同,它的投资者
  要求股本有收益,如在5年之内按10%的利息收
  取报酬。
  quasi-money
  准货币
  见 near money
  quayage; wharfage; wharfage charges; dockage
  码头费,停泊费
  queuing theory, problem
  Mathematical techniques including probability
  theory used in operations research to identify,
  illustrate and, it is hoped, influence the
  characteristics of queues, whether of people,
  materials, work-in-progress, etc.
  排队理论,排队问题论
  指一种包含概率论的数学技术,用于业务研究中
  对排队(不管是人、材料还是正在进行的工作,
  等等)特点的认定、描述并期望对其施加影响。
  quick assets
  流动资产
  见 liquid assets
  quick disbursing (loan); fast disbursing (loan)
  快速支付(贷款)
  quick maturing investments*
  短期投资,迅速到达偿还期的投资
  quick ration
  速动比率
  见 acid-test ratio
  quick yielding project [IBRD]
  A project which brings a more rapid return than
  usual, i.e. after only a few years, and often means
  faster disbursements.
  速见效益项目[国际复兴开发银行]
  一个比通常能带来更迅速收益的项目,如只需要
  几年时间;通常是指支付较快的项目。
  quiet emergency
  缓慢出现的灾害
  见 slow onset emergency
  
  
  231
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - R -
  radial reductions
  Method of reducing a tariff structure whereby at
  each stage all tariffs are reduced to an equal fraction
  of their previous levels.
  辐射状减税
  一种降低关税或费率结构的方法,即每一阶段所
  有税率都在以前的水平上按同一比例降低。
  radiative forcing
  Changes in the climate due to changes in solar
  radiation. Solar sunspots and the greenhouse effect
  are examples.
  辐射驱动
  由于太阳辐射的变化而导致的气候变化,例如太
  阳黑子变化和温室效应。
  rained agriculture*
  靠雨水浇灌的农业,旱地农业
  rainfed
  雨水灌溉
  rain forest
  热带雨林
  raise, to (funds, etc.)
  筹集(资金等)
  random sample
  随机抽样样本
  rangeland
  牧场
  range management
  牧场管理
  rank correlation coefficient
  等级相关系数
  见 Spearman's rank correlation coefficient
  ratchet effect
  The idea that at the beginning of a recession
  consumers try to maintain the same level of spending
  and investment.
  棘轮效应
  指在经济衰退的初期,消费者和投资者试图保持
  同以前一样的消费和投资水平。
  ratcheting up
  逐步上涨
  rate basis conversion
  Option in IFC loan that allows the borrower to
  convert from a variable rate to a fixed rate loan or
  vice versa.
  利率基础转换
  国际金融公司贷款的一种利率选择,它允许借款
  人把可变利率转换成固定利率,反之亦然。
  rate contract
  A contract for the supply of goods at specified rates
  during the period of the contract.
  价格(费率)合同
  一种规定在合同期内按照确定的价格供应货物
  的合同。
  rate of exchange
  汇率
  见 buying rate of exchanges
  rate of natural increase [animals] *
  自然增长率 [动物]
  rate of pure time preference
  The interest rate at which consumers are willing to
  forgo present consumption in order to save,
  presumably for future consumption.
  纯时间选择利率
  使消费者愿意放弃现时的消费,将资金储蓄起来
  以待将来消费的利率。
  rate of return
  收益率,利润率
  rated capacity
  额定容量,额定功率
  rating agency
  Organization that evaluates the credit rating of
  prospective borrowers on the securities markets.
  评级机构
  评定证券市场上预期借款人资信等级的机构。
  ratio
  比率
  见 accounting ratio; acid-test ratio; affordability
  ratio; Bruno ratio; capital-labor ratio; capital-output
  ratio; capital-service ratio; cost-benefit ratio; current
  ratio; debt-equity ratio; debt-to-capital ratio;
  232
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  debt-to-equity ratio; debt ratio; debt-service ratio;
  dependency ratio; enrollment ratio; entrepreneurial
  benefit-cost ratio; equity ratio; feed conversion
  ratio; fill ratio; financial ratios; gearing ratio; grade
  ratio; gross (primary) enrollment ratio; housing
  expenses/income ratio; import coverage ratio;
  incremental capital-output ratio; input-output ratio;
  interest coverage ratio; interest service ratio; land
  equivalent, equivalency ratio; land use ratio;
  leverage (ratio); liquidity ratio; liquid ratio;
  long-term debt ratio; minimum cash ratio; modified
  Bruno ratio; net energy ratio; operating ratio;
  price-earning ratio; private benefit-cost ratio;
  pupil-teacher ratio; quick ratio; reserve ratio; risk
  asset ratio; smoothness ratio; staffing ratio; stripping
  ratio; tax/GDP ratio; tax performance ratio; tax
  ratio; teacher-pupil ratio; volatility ratio; working
  capital ratio; working ratio
  rational expectations
  A theory based, first, on the assumption that individuals
  and companies will try to maximize their
  own welfare -- that is, they will try to make their own
  economic and other circumstances as desirable as
  possible -- and, second, that, as individuals and
  companies make economic decisions in their own
  interest, they do so in such a way that markets move
  towards equilibrium, easing inflation.
  理性预期
  一种理论,其根据是,首先假定个人和公司试图
  使他们的利益最大化,即试图使他们自己的经济
  环境和其他环境尽可能合乎理想;其次假定个人
  和公司会按他们自己的利益作出经济决策,也会
  按他们自己的利益使市场走向均衡、通货膨胀得
  到缓和。
  raw data
  原始数据,素材
  raw water
  生水,未经净化的水
  reafforestation; reforestation
  重新造林;再造林
  real assets
  实物资产,不动产
  real effective exchange rate
  Nominal effective foreign exchange value of the
  dollar (a trade-weighted exchange rate) multiplied
  by the ratio of the US consumer price index to the
  foreign consumer price index. Below 100 the dollar
  depreciates in real terms; above 100 it appreciates in
  real terms.
  实际有效汇率
  用美元的名义有效外汇价值(一种贸易加权汇
  率)乘以美国消费价格指数对外国消费价格指数
  的比率。如计算结果为100以下,美元属实际贬
  值;如结果在100以上则为实际升值。
  real estate developer
  房地产建筑商
  real estate equity
  不动产股本
  real sectors
  The nonfinancial sector.
  实际部门
  指非金融部门。
  real terms, in
  按不变价格
  realized price [oil]
  The price actually obtained on the world market for
  sales concluded.
  实现价格[石油]
  指在世界市场进行销售获得的实际价格。
  rebar [= reinforcing bar]
  Bar used for reinforcing concrete.
  钢筋
  钢筋混凝土中使用的钢筋。
  recall [MOV]
  回收(货币)[保值]
  recall installments [MOV]
  分期回收(货币)[保值]
  recall under loans [MOV]
  贷款项下的(货币)回收[保值]
  recapture clause
  Clause in a loan agreement that allows a lender to
  recover part or all of his previously lent assets if
  economic circumstances improve.
  收回条款
  指贷款协议中的一项条款:允许贷款人在经济情
  况改善时收回他的部分或全部借出资产。
  recasting (e.g. a loan) *
  重新计算(一笔贷款)
  233
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  receivables; accounts receivables
  应收款,应收帐目
  received energy
  接收能量
  recession
  衰退
  recession crop
  Crop planted on land which has recently been
  flooded.
  灾后抢种作物
  在遭受水灾后的土地上补种的作物。
  recession, recessive cultivation
  Cultivation in an area where the amount of land
  available for cultivations is being reduced due, e.g.
  to desertification.
  后退式耕作
  在可耕种的土地不断缩减(如沙漠化所引起)的
  地域进行的耕作。
  recipient country
  受援国,接受国
  reciprocal debt
  互惠债务
  recital of an agreement; preamble to an agreement
  协议序言,协议的陈述部分
  reclaim
  开垦
  reclamation
  开荒,垦荒
  见 land reclamation
  recognition and enforcement (of award) [ICSID]
  (对于裁决的)承认和执行[解决投资争端国际中
  心]
  recommendation domain
  建议适用的范围
  reconciliation account
  Account which shows any difference between two or
  more accounts.
  调节帐户
  表明两个或两个以上更多帐户之间任何差额的
  帐户。
  reconciliation item [accounting]
  Item in account that reconciles the differences
  between two or more accounts.
  调节科目[会计]
  用于对两个或更多帐户之间的差额进行调节的
  会计科目。
  reconcile
  调节,对帐,轧平
  reconnaissance survey
  先头调查
  reconstitution
  Immediate conversion of interest payments received
  in a currency other than a pool currency into a pool
  currency.
  立即转换
  把作为利息收到的某一种货币(不是总库制内的
  货币)立即转换成总库货币。
  reconstruction import credit - RIC
  建设用进口信贷(简写为RIC)
  record owner
  A person who has title to a property, though not
  necessarily beneficial use of it.
  记录中的所有人
  对财产拥有权利,但不一定以其获取利益的人。
  参见beneficial owner
  recoupment [insurance]
  赔偿,补偿[保险]
  recovery
  复苏,恢复,回收,回采
  recurrent costs, expenditures
  Costs for items consumed immediately or used up in
  a comparatively short period, usually a year.
  经常性费用,经常性成本
  指即时消费掉的东西的费用,或在较短的时间内
  (通常是一年)使用掉的东西的费用。
  recurrent education; lifelong education; continuing
  education
  再教育;终身教育;继续教育
  recycling (of capital)
  (资本的)再循环
  234
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  redeemable
  可赎回的
  redemption
  赎回,股份变现
  redeployment cost
  The cost of switching one type of loan to another,
  e.g. from a fixed rate loan to a variable rate loan.
  重新调配费用
  把贷款从一种类型转换成另一种类型的费用,例
  如从固定利率贷款转换为可变利率贷款。
  redeployment cost [IFC]
  The cost levied by IFC and representing its cost of
  reinvesting a prepaid loan at a lower interest rate.
  重新调配费用[国际金融公司]
  国际金融公司收取的一种费用,它表示该公司把
  已预付的贷款以较低的利率重新投资所需的成
  本。
  redeployment (of funds)
  (基金的)重新调配
  red herring issue
  An issue of bonds made on an experimental basis.
  探索性发行
  在试验的基础上发行债券。
  rediscount
  Resale of instruments such as banker's acceptances
  already discounted by lender, usually with central
  bank or discount house, at a price less than the face
  value.
  再贴现
  把已由贷款人贴现过的票据(如银行承兑票据
  等)重新销售,一般是以低于面值的价格售予中
  央银行或贴现公司。
  rediscount ceiling
  再贴现上限
  reducing charge method
  收费递减法
  见 declining balance method
  redundancy [staffing]
  人员过多,冗员
  reference rate of exchange [MIGA]
  The effective average rate of exchange applied by
  the central bank or other foreign exchange
  regulatory authority of the host country for the
  exchange rate category concerned on the date of loss
  to conversion of the local currency into guarantee
  currency.
  参考汇率[多边投资担保机构]
  东道国中央银行或其它外汇管理当局使用的平
  均有效汇率,用于把当地货币按损失日的有关汇
  率类别转换成担保的货币币种。
  reference zone; target zone [foreign exchange]
  A wide zone of exchange rates, perhaps plus or
  minus 10 per cent, within which a currency can
  freely move against other currencies. Suggested at
  the New York Plaza Agreement at the Group of Five
  meeting, 9/85 and proposed by the French Treasury
  2/86, as a way to reduce major currency swings.
  参考区,目标区[外汇]
  一个大幅度的汇率浮动区间,可在正、负10%之
  间。此间,一种货币对其他货币的汇率可以自由
  浮动。这是在1985年9月五国集团会议纽约广场
  协议中提出的;1986年2月,法国财政部建议把
  它作为一种减少主要货币波动的方法。
  referral
  (对申请工作者的)工作分派,介绍
  refinancing
  再筹集资金,发行新债券以收回旧债券
  reflation
  恢复增长
  reflecting pool
  Concept of movements in the currency pool
  reflecting movements in the three main currencies
  constituting the pool (US dollar, yen, mark). This
  concept enables borrowers to predict changes in the
  currency pool by watching changes in these three
  currencies on the world markets.
  货币总库反应[货币总库]
  表示货币总库中的货币运动的一个概念,它反应
  组成货币总库的三种主要货币(美元、日元、马
  克)的运动。这一概念使借款人得以通过注视这
  三种货币在世界市场上的变化,预计货币总库的
  变化。
  reflows from the Trust Fund*
  信托基金回流
  reforestation; reafforestation
  Establishment of trees on ground that has been
  235
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  cleared of trees.
  重新造林
  在砍伐过的林地上种植树木。
  reform
  改革
  见 land reform
  “refresh”er course
  复习课程,进修课程
  refunding
  再筹款
  regional integration arrangements
  地区一体化安排
  register
  登记,注册
  见 land register
  Register [ICSID]
  登记簿(名册) [解决投资争端国际中心]
  registered [vehicle]
  已登记的 [交通工具]
  registered (e.g. tradesmen)
  已注册的(例如零售商)
  registered bond
  A bond whose ownership is recorded by the issuer.
  记名债券
  一种由发行人登记所有者名字的债券。
  registered capital; share capital
  注册资本;股份资本
  registered nurse
  有国家证书的护士,注册护士
  registered security
  A security whose ownership is determined by the
  name in which it is registered as opposed to a bearer
  security whose ownership is determined by who
  possesses it.
  记名证券
  一种证券,其所有权根据以登记的名字来决定。
  区别于所有权依持有人而定的持有者证券。
  registered seed
  The progeny of foundation or registered seed.
  注册过的种籽
  基础种籽或注册种子的后代。
  registered share, stock; personal stock
  Stock which cannot be transferred without placing
  the signature of the owner upon the books of the
  issuing corporation and delivery of the certificate.
  记名股票
  这种股票须经股票发行公司登记簿上的原记名
  人签署,并递交有关证书后才能转让。
  registrar [ICSID]
  书记官,登记官[解决投资争端国际中心]
  registration [Stock Exchange]
  登记,注册[证券交易所]
  regrading [highways]
  路面重修 [公路]
  regrading [personnel]
  重新定级或评级[人事]
  regraveling; graveling
  重铺砾石;铺砾石
  regress
  倒退
  见 economics of regress
  regression equation
  An equation expressing average relationships
  between two or more variables.
  回归等式[统计]
  表示两个或两个以上变量的平均关系的等式。
  regressor; predictor
  An independent variable in a regression analysis.
  回归自变量
  回归分析中的自变量。
  regrowth
  再生
  regular appointment [IBRD]
  正常录用,正常任命[国际复兴开发银行]
  regular budget
  One of three Bank budgets, it is for funds used to
  cover the administrative expenses of the Bank.
  固定预算
  世界银行三种预算之一,是用来支付世界银行行
  236
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  政费用的资金。
  regular lending program [IBRD]
  The Bank lending program that includes the base
  lending program and the standby program.
  正规贷款规划[国际复兴开发银行]
  指包括基本贷款规划和后备规划在内的世界银
  行贷款规划。
  regular share
  Share of IBRD capital stock other than those
  allocated as membership shares.
  正规股
  国际复兴开发银行股本中除会员股以外的其它
  股份。
  regular staff
  正式职工,长期雇用人员
  Regulations and Rules (of the Centre) [ICSID]
  (解决投资争端国际中心的)《规章制度》[解决投
  资争端国际中心]
  regulatory agency
  管理机构
  rehabilitation
  复兴,恢复
  rehabilitation import credit, loan - RIC, RIL
  Loan, credit to support policies to stabilize the
  economy and reactivate growth, following a period
  of economic decline caused inter alia by
  inappropriate policies.
  支持恢复进口信贷、贷款(简写为RIC,RIL)
  在由于不当的政策所引起的一段时间的经济下
  滑以后,用以支持稳定经济和重振增长的政策的
  贷款或信贷。
  reimbursable budget
  One of three Bank budgets, it is for funds used to
  cover costs on behalf of outside agencies under
  billing agreements.
  可偿还预算
  世界银行三种预算之一,是根据代付协议代表外
  部机构支付费用所用资金的预算。
  reinforcing bar; rebar
  钢筋
  reinsurance
  Form of insurance used by insurance companies for
  their own protection, whereby they share insurance
  risk with other insurance companies. The risk they
  share may either be in the form of an individual risk
  (facultative reinsurance) or a large number of risks
  (treaty reinsurance).
  再保险,分保
  保险公司为自我保护而使用的保险形式,以此与
  别的保险公司分担保险风险。其形式可以是分担
  单一风险(临时分保),也可以分担大量风险(合
  同分保)。
  release
  脱产
  见 block release
  release [ICSID]
  解除 [解决国际投资争端中心]
  release, to [capital]
  解除,解冻[资本]
  relend, to
  转贷
  relief
  解除,豁免,救济,援救,减轻
  relinquishment [legal] *
  放弃,放弃财产权利声明书[法律]
  relocation grant
  调动补贴,安家费
  remeasurement contract
  计量合同
  见 unit price contract
  remedy
  补救,补偿,制裁
  见 legal remedy
  remittances
  汇款(额)
  remote sensing
  遥感,远距离探测
  renewable energy
  可更新能源
  rent
  租金,收益
  237
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  见 economic rent; project rent
  rent recovery index [projects]
  The proportion of the economic rent created by a
  project that accrues to project beneficiaries and is
  recovered from them.
  租金收入指数,收益指数[项目]
  在项目受益人处累计,并从他们那里回收的项目
  所产生的经济租金。
  rent-seeking
  追求利润,求利,寻租
  repayment bond
  Form of performance bond issued by a bank as a
  repayment guarantee.
  偿还保证
  由一家银行发出的,作为偿还保证的履约保证
  书。
  repayment guarantee
  Form of guarantee whereby the guarantor
  undertakes, in the event of default by the principal,
  to pay the beneficiary an amount advanced or paid
  by the beneficiary to the principal in accordance
  with the contract between them. They are generally
  issued by banks.
  偿还保证
  指在委托人违约的情况下,担保人根据合同向受
  益人偿还一笔原先由受益人支付给委托人的金
  额。这种偿还保证一般是由银行签发的。
  repayment schedule
  还款时间表
  repeater loan
  重复贷款
  repeater project
  Project in the same sector and same country as a
  previous project.
  重复项目,相似的项目
  在同一国家同一部门所做的与以前某个项目相
  同的项目。
  repeater rate [education]
  The rate at which students repeat a grade.
  留级率[教育]
  学生在一个年级留级的比率。
  repeat financing
  再次提供资金
  rephasing of a debt; debt rephasing; rescheduling of
  debt
  重新安排还款期;重新安排_____还款时间表
  replacement cost
  重置成本
  replacement level [population]
  更替水平 [人口]
  replacement value
  重置价值
  见 current (entry) value
  replenish (an account), to
  补充,补足(帐户)
  replenishment of resources
  The addition of funds to IDA. The Eleventh
  Replenishment starts fiscal year 1997.
  补充资金
  指国际开发协会的增资。第11次增资始于1997财
  政年度。
  replicability
  可普及性,可推广性
  report (of Commission) [ICSID]
  (委员会)报告[解决投资争端国际中心]
  reported debt
  公布的债务
  reporting country
  申报国
  reporting requirement(s)
  申报要求
  reporting system [projects]
  报告制度[项目]
  representations
  代理,代表(权),意见,陈述,招待
  representative office [bank]
  代表处[银行]
  repression
  紧缩,抑制
  见 financial repression
  238
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  repurchase agreement
  Arrangement by banks and other institutions to
  borrow short-term (usually one day) money by
  transferring securities to the lender, with the agreement
  that they will buy them back.
  回购协议
  银行同其他机构通过把证券转给贷款人来借入
  短期(通常是一天)资金,并协议将来把它们购
  回的安排。
  request for proposal - RFP
  要求提出建议(简写为RFP)
  Requesting Organization [ICSID]
  提出请求的组织[解决投资争端国际中心]
  required rate of return - RRR
  应得收益率(简写为RRR)
  requited transfer
  Transfer of resource or financial item between two
  countries that is counterbalanced with a similar
  transfer in the other direction.
  对应转移,对冲交易
  指两个国家之间资源或财务科目方面的转移。这
  种转移为类似的反向转移所对销。
  resale price maintenance - RPM
  Agreement whereby manufacturers independently or
  collectively specify minimum prices at which their
  products could be resold by wholesalers and
  retailers.
  最低发售价协议(简写为RPM)
  厂商为他们的货物所单独或集体协定的最低批
  发和零售价。
  rescheduling of debt; rephasing of a debt; debt
  rephasing; debt rescheduling
  偿债期重新安排
  rescue package
  一揽子救助方案
  resealing [highways]
  再封层,重新填缝 [公路]
  research and development - R D
  研究与开发(简写为R &D)
  research-push innovations; upstream innovations
  研究推动的革新;上游革新
  reservation price (of labor)
  The minimum price at which an individual is willing
  to offer a good or service. Often applied to labor, it is
  the lowest wage at which an individual is willing to
  offer his or her services.
  (劳动力)的保留价格,最低价格
  指一个人愿意提供一种货物或劳力的最低价格。
  常常用于指劳动力,即某一个人愿意提供他或她
  的劳务的最低工资。
  reservation salary, wage
  The minimum wage at which a worker will accept
  work.
  最低薪金,工资
  指一个工人能接受工作的最低工资。
  reserve
  储备金
  见 legal reserve
  reserve against losses
  亏损准备金
  reserve asset
  Those funds which constitute reserves in a bank.
  储备资产
  在一个银行里组成储备的那些资金。
  reserve center
  Country or area where significant financial reserves
  are held.
  储备中心
  持有大量金融储备的国家或地区。
  reserve currency
  The name given to a foreign currency which a
  government is prepared to hold as part of its foreign
  exchange reserves. This is used for financing
  international trade.
  储备货币
  即一国政府准备作为其外汇储备来持有的某种
  外国货币,用以支付国际贸易。
  reserve for contingencies; allowance for
  contingencies; contingency allowance
  An amount of retained earnings earmarked for
  general undetermined contingencies or for any
  indefinite possible future losses.
  意外情况准备金;应急准备金
  从留存盈利中划出的一笔专项资金,用于一般未
  预计到的意外情况或将来可能发生的不定损失。
  239
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  reserve for depreciation; allowance for depreciation;
  depreciation allowance
  A valuation account set up to allow for the
  depreciation in an asset.
  折旧准备金,折旧备抵金
  为某项资产折旧而设置的计值帐户。
  reserve for losses; provision for losses; loss
  provision
  An amount of retained earnings earmarked for any
  indefinite future losses.
  亏损准备金
  从留存盈利中划出的一笔专项资金,用于弥补将
  来可能发生的不定损失。
  reserve money; base money
  储备货币;基础_____货币
  reserve operations [lending program]
  Lending operations on which initial preparation is
  being undertaken but which have not been
  appraised.
  备用项目[贷款规划]
  准备工作刚刚开始而尚未作评估的项目。
  reserve position
  储备状况,储备头寸
  reserve ratio [banking]
  The fraction of demand deposit money which a
  commercial bank must keep in its reserve account.
  This ratio determines the maximum amount of
  money a bank may loan out. In the United States, the
  legal reserve requirement is imposed by the Federal
  Reserve on depository institutions. The reserves
  (cash maintained in a bank's own vault or claims on
  cash on deposit with compulsory or optional
  depositories) for transaction accounts are 3% on $25
  million or less and 12% for larger sums.
  储备金比率,储备率[金融]
  指商业银行必须存在其储备帐户中的活期存款
  的一个比率。它决定一个银行可以贷出的资金的
  最大数额。在美国,联邦储备银行对存款机构实
  施强制性法定储备要求。对交易在2500万美元及
  以下的帐户,储备金(指银行库存的现金,或在
  强制性或一般性储蓄机构的可以提现的存款)要
  求为3%,对大于这个数额的帐户,储备金要求
  为12%。
  reserve requirement
  规定储备额,法定储备
  reserved procurement
  Under the Bank's procurement guidelines,
  procurement that the client wishes to reserve for
  local suppliers or contractors, where it would have
  been attractive to international competition.
  保留采购
  根据世界银行采购指南,借款人希望为本国供应
  商或承包商保留的采购,而这部分采购本来对国
  际竞争也具有吸引力。
  resettlement grant
  安置费
  resident mission
  驻地代表处
  resident office
  驻地办事处
  resource balance
  The difference between exports of goods and
  nonfactor services and imports of goods and
  nonfactor services.
  资源差额,资源余额
  货物和非要素劳务出口与货物和非要素劳务进
  口之间的差。
  resource based industries
  资源型工业
  resource envelope
  In budgeting, an overall expenditure limit for a unit.
  The unit can then decide how it allocates individual
  expenditures within this envelope.
  资金封套
  指预算中对一个单位支出规定的总限额。这个单
  位可以在这个“封套”之中筹划分配各项开支。
  resource(s) gap
  Imports of goods and nonfactor services minus
  exports of goods and nonfactor services, or the
  resource balance with the opposite sign.
  资源缺口
  指货物及非要素劳务的进口数减去货物与非要
  素劳务出口数,或负的资源余额。
  resource-neutral
  对资源无影响的
  responsibility center [accounting]
  Any organizational unit accountable to higher
  240
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  authority for performance of assigned functions,
  usually including its incurrence of specific costs
  under budget limitations and control.
  责任中心[会计]
  按权限履行职责并向上级部门负责的一个组织
  单位。通常包括在预算限额内和控制下的费用开
  支情况。
  responsive
  有反响的,有反应的
  restocking
  存量恢复
  restraint policy
  节制政策,紧缩政策
  restricted currency
  The portion of capital subscriptions paid in the
  currencies of members and usable by IBRD in its
  lending operations only with the consent of the
  respective members.
  限制性货币
  会员国以本国货币缴付部分认购股份,世界银行
  只有在取得该会员国的认可后,方能把这部分资
  金用于贷款业务。
  


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