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专业词汇
 
世界银行业务词典(4)
发布时间:2011-7-18 10:46:00||  点击:5171次||  文章分类:专业词汇||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)



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  letter of comfort
  A written instrument issued by A, where A agrees to
  make every effort to assure B's compliance with the
  terms of a contract, but without committing A to
  perform B's obligation in the event that B is unable
  to fulfil his obligation. Usually issued by a parent
  company on behalf of a subsidiary in another
  country.
  告慰信
  A发出的一份书面文件,其中A同意尽一切努力
  保证B对合同条件的遵从,但没有承诺在B不能
  完成其义务时由A去完成B的义务。这通常是由
  一个母公司代表在另一个国家的子公司发出的。
  letter of credit (L/C)
  Form of documentary credit whereby a bank
  promises to honor drafts payable to one party, drawn
  on it by another party.
  信用证(简写为L/C)
  指银行应一方要求,保证给另一方付款的信用凭
  证。
  letter of development policy - LDP [IBRD]
  Letter from the Government of a country receiving a
  structural adjustment loan to the President of the
  Bank, setting out the Government's medium-term
  objectives for structural change and the range of
  measures that it intends to take over several years to
  achieve these objectives.
  发展政策书(简写为LDP)[国际复兴开发银行]
  接受结构调整贷款国家的政府致世界银行行长
  的信,信中列出政府结构改革的中期目标和为达
  到这些目标在今后数年内打算采取的一系列措
  施。
  letter of intent - LOI
  Used to put in writing a preliminary understanding
  of parties who intend to enter into a contract.
  意向书(简写为LOI)
  由打算签订一项合同的各方所达成的初步谅解
  组成的书面文件。
  letter of no objection - LNO [imports]
  In some countries, a letter sent by the Government to
  a domestic company, asking that company if it has
  any objection to specific items being imported. The
  company may make an objection, thereby
  preventing the goods from being imported.
  无异议信(简写为LNO)[进口]
  指在有些国家,政府写给国内某一公司的信,征
  求该公司对进口某种商品有无反对意见。该公司
  可以提出异议,从而制止该商品的进口。
  letter of sectoral policy [IBRD]
  Letter from the Government of a country receiving a
  sectoral adjustment loan to the President of the
  Bank, setting out the Government's medium-term
  objectives for sectoral change and the range of
  measures that it intends to take over several years to
  achieve these objectives.
  部门政策书[国际复兴开发银行]
  指接受一项部门调整贷款国家的政府致世界银
  行行长的一封信,列出政府部门改革的中期目标
  和为达到这些目标在今后几年内打算采取的一
  系列措施。
  letter of understanding
  谅解书
  Levant cotton; herbaceous cotton; American short
  staple cotton; Arabian cotton
  列凡特海棉,草本棉,美国短绒棉,阿拉伯棉
  leveling off
  拉平,使平均
  level annuity system
  The level annuity system entails equal aggregate
  payments of principal and interest (i.e. with
  principal repayments made in gradually ascending
  amounts). This system was used by the World Bank
  prior to 1975.
  均等年金制
  在均等年金制中,每年本息支付总额是均等的
  (即还本额逐年增加)。世界银行曾在1975年以
  前采用过这一制度。
  level border irrigation
  畦地漫灌,水平畦灌
  见 basin irrigation
  level repayment
  Repayment scheme where repayments are at a fixed
  168
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  level, even though the interest rate may change.
  均额支付
  一种偿还本金的计划,即不论利率是否变化,偿
  还额固定不变。
  leverage (ratio) [US]; gearing (ratio) [UK]
  Ratio of debt/liabilities to equity/assets. Includes
  debt and debt-equity ratios. 杠杆(率)[美国];搭
  配(率)[英国]
  债务/负债与股本/资产之间的比率。包括债务和
  债务/股本比率。
  亦见guarantee leverage
  leverage, to
  运用杠杆手段
  leveraged buyout - LBO
  Purchase of a company by a small group of
  investors, often including management, mostly with
  borrowed funds. The debt is usually repaid from the
  company's cash flow or from the sale of assets.
  杠杆收购(简写为LBO)
  即由一小批投资者(常常包括管理人员在内)收
  购一个公司,大多数情况下使用的是借入资金,
  其债务通常通过公司的现金流量或资产出售来
  偿还。
  levy
  征税;收费
  liabilities
  The credit half of a balance sheet.
  负债
  资产负债表中的贷方。
  liability management
  负债管理
  LIBOR [London interbank offered rate]
  The interest rate at which banks in London are
  prepared to lend funds to first-class banks. It is used
  to determine the interest rate payable on most
  Eurocredits.
  伦敦银行同业拆放利率(简写为LIBOR)
  位于伦敦的银行向一等银行拆借资金采用的利
  率,用于确定大多数欧洲信贷的利率。
  licensing agreement
  许可证协议
  lien; charge [legal]
  扣押权,留置权[法律]
  life (of a project)
  (项目的)使用寿命
  life cycle cost evaluation
  Evaluation of equipment over its whole life,
  including initial purchase, maintenance and
  operation.
  寿命周期成本估值
  对设备整个使用寿命,包括初始购置、维修和运
  行周期的估值。
  life expectancy
  预期寿命
  lifeline tariff
  A special low tariff for a commodity (e.g. gas or
  electricity) made available to disadvantaged groups
  (e.g. poor or elderly) or to all consumers but only up
  to a certain amount.
  命脉物资
  以特殊的低价向处于不利地位的群体(如穷人或
  老年人)提供某种商品(如煤气或电),或对所
  有消费者,但只使用于一定数量范围内。
  lifelong education; continuing education; recurrent
  education
  终身教育,继续教育,再教育
  life of a loan
  贷款期限
  lift, remove credit restrictions; decontrol*
  取消信贷限制,取消控制
  light Arabian crude; Saudi Arabian light crude
  The world's most prolific crude oil, frequently used
  as a marker crude in establishing the prices of other
  crudes.
  阿拉伯轻原油;沙特阿拉伯轻原油
  这是世界上最多的一种原油,常常用来作为确定
  其他原油价格的标准原油。
  light gray cotton
  浅灰棉
  light industry
  轻工业
  light spotted cotton
  轻度污染棉
  169
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  limited international bidding - LIB
  International competitive bidding by direct
  invitation without open advertisement.
  有限国际性招标(简写为LIB)
  只作直接邀请而不公开招标的国际竞争性招标。
  limited liability company
  有限责任公司
  limited recourse finance
  Finance arranged on the basis of the lender having
  recourse to the borrower only in certain
  circumstances (e.g. the loan to British Petroleum
  (BP) to finance the Forties oil field in the North Sea,
  where the lenders had no recourse to BP if there was
  insufficient oil).
  有限追索权融资
  一种只有在特定的情况下贷款人才有权向借款
  人进行追索的融资安排。[例如:向英国石油公
  司(BP)提供的资助北海弗蒂斯油田的贷款,如
  果那里石油不充足,借款人不能向英国石油公司
  提出追索]。
  line breeding
  Special form of inbreeding to maintain a high
  genetic relationship to a desirable ancestor.
  直系繁殖
  特殊形式的同系交配,旨在与理想的原种保持一
  种高度的遗传基因关系。
  line department
  业务领导部门
  亦见 line ministry
  line-haul [transportation]
  长途运输[运输]
  line item [budget]
  A specific revenue or expenditure separately
  detailed in a budget.
  专列收支项[预算]
  在预算中单独详列的专向收入或支出。
  line kilometer [surveying]
  A kilometer as measured by the line of flight of an
  aircraft. Used to measure the distance covered by an
  aircraft when taking remote sensing images.
  航线公里[测量]
  指按一架飞机飞行路线度量的一公里。用来度量
  飞机进行遥感摄像所覆盖的距离。
  line management
  业务领导
  line management position
  业务领导职位
  line manager
  业务主管
  line ministry, department
  A Government ministry responsible for
  implementing a program or group of programs as
  opposed to one responsible for general planning and
  administration, e.g. would include Agriculture,
  Social Security but exclude Finance, Planning.
  业务部、局
  一个政府的部(局),负责实施一种规划或一组
  规划,而不是负责总体计划和总行政管理。如农
  业部、社会保障部等等,但不包括财政部、计划
  部。
  line position
  业务岗位
  line staff
  业务人员
  linear expenditure system [mathematical model] *
  线性开支制度[数学模型]
  linear programming
  A mathematical procedure to obtain an optimal
  answer to a series of equations that usually specify
  resources available; technological relationships of
  the production process; goals of the society; relevant
  constraints to any solution that is found.
  线性规划
  一种数学方法,用于求得一系列等式的最佳答
  案。这类等式一般具体表明可供资源的情况,生
  产过程中的各种技术关系,各种社会目标,对已
  知解决方法的诸多制约等。
  liner (shipping) conference
  A combination of shipping companies or owners
  which sets common liner freight rates on a particular
  route and which regulates the provision of services.
  班轮公会
  由轮船公司或船东组成,制定一条具体航线上统
  一的班轮运价率,并调节管理班轮提供的服务。
  link
  连接
  见 UHF link; VHF link
  170
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  linkage
  联系
  见 backward-forward integration, linkage;
  backward integration, linkage
  liquefied natural gas - LNG
  液化天然气(简写为LNG)
  liquefied petroleum gas - LPG
  液化石油气(简写为LPG)
  liquid assets; quick assets
  Cash in banks and on hand and marketable
  securities.
  流动资产;速动资产
  即在银行或手头的现金,以及可在市场出售的证
  券。
  liquid assets portofolio; liquidity portfolio [IFC]
  流动资产组合;流动性有价证券组合[国际金融
  公司]
  liquid ration
  可变现率
  见 acid test ratio
  liquidated damages
  A sum of damages agreed upon in advance between
  parties to a contract, to be paid by the party who
  breaches the contract, as opposed to unliquidated
  damages, which are not fixed in advance, and are
  liable to be overturned by the courts.
  约(预)定的损害赔偿金
  缔结合同的双方事先约定的一笔赔偿金,由违约
  的一方支付。相对于“未约(预)定的违约损害
  赔偿金”,后者由于未事先在合同中约定,所以
  很可能_____在法庭上被推翻。
  liquidation value; forced sale value
  The price obtainable from an immediate sale, where
  the seller is under either legal or voluntary
  compulsion to sell.
  清算价值;迫售价值
  指在迫切出售下所能取得的售价,这是出售者在
  法律或自愿的强迫情况下进行的出售。
  liquidity management; liquidity portfolio
  management
  清偿力管理;流动资产管理
  liquidity portfolio [IFC]; liquid assets portfolio
  流动性有价证券组合[国际金融公司];流动资产
  组合
  liquidity position
  流动头寸
  liquidity ratio
  The ratio of the actual level of liquidity to projected
  three year net cash requirements.
  易变现比率(现金比率)
  指实际的易变现水平与预测的三年内净现金需
  要之间的比率。
  liquidity shortage
  头寸短缺
  liquidity squeeze
  流动性(清偿力)紧缩
  listing (of securities)
  The process of public quotation on a Stock
  Exchange of a share or bond.
  上市、挂牌(证券)
  指一种股票或公债在一个证券交易所公开上市
  的过程。
  literacy; literacy education
  识字、读写能力;文化水平
  literacy level
  读写水平,文化水平
  live fencing
  The use of live trees as boundary markers for the
  production of fruit, fodder or other products, instead
  of wooden fences.
  树栅
  用活树代替木篱笆作水果、饲料或其他作物生产
  的界限标记。
  live storage, capacity
  活载容积、容量
  living area
  生活区
  load
  负荷
  见 peak load
  load, base
  荷载,基底负荷
  171
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  load bearing capacity; traffic bearing capacity
  负荷能力;路面承载能力
  load factor [electricity]
  The ratio of the average load over a designated
  period of time to the peak load occurring in that
  period.
  负荷系数[电力]
  在预定时间内,平均负荷与该期内出现的高峰负
  荷之间的比率。
  load fund
  Mutual fund which charges a handling fee.
  成本基金
  收取手续费的共同基金
  loan account
  贷款帐户
  loan agreement
  贷款协议
  loan application
  贷款申请
  loan assumption agreement
  承接贷款协议
  loan capital
  借入资本,借贷资本
  loan commitment
  贷款承诺
  loan costing
  贷款成本定价
  见 loan pricing
  loan equivalency pricing
  Pricing procedure adopted in Bank cofinancing,
  whereby credit alternatives offered by the Bank,
  such as loans and guarantees, are all priced
  comparably and do not compete among themselves.
  贷款均等定价[世界银行]
  世界银行对联合融资采取的定价程序。其中,世
  界银行提供的可替代信贷(如贷款和保证)都是
  通过比较而不是相互间竞争定价的。
  loan investment
  贷款投资
  loan officer
  放款员
  loan origination fee
  The fee typically charged by a DFI to recover the
  cost of investigating and granting a request by a
  borrower for a loan.
  贷款创始费
  指发展金融机构一般征收的一笔费用,用以回收
  应借款人提出的贷款要求而进行的调查研究和
  批准贷款的成本。
  loan portfolio
  The unpaid loans of a lending organization.
  贷款业务量
  指贷款机构尚未得到偿还的贷款。
  loan pricing, costing
  Establishing the interest rate of a loan.
  贷款定价,贷款成本定价
  对一笔贷款的利率进行确定。
  loan processing
  办理贷款手续
  loan proceeds
  贷款资金
  见 allocation of loan proceeds
  loan recovery
  贷款回收
  local area network - LAN
  本地区网络系统(简写为LAN)
  local authority; local government
  地方当局;地方政府;本国政府
  local competitive bidding - LCB
  国内竞争性招标(简写为LCB)
  见 competitive bidding in accordance with local
  procedures
  local cost; onshore cost
  国内费用,国内成本
  local currency
  本国货币
  local employee [IBRD]
  国内雇员[国际复兴开发银行]
  local government; local authority
  172
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  地方政府;国内政府;地方当局
  local shopping
  Procurement based on comparing price quotations
  obtained from several local suppliers.
  国内询价采购
  在通过对国内数家供应商的报价进行比较的基
  础上进行的采购。
  localization
  Use of local staff.
  本国化,本地化
  使用本国人员_____。
  localization economies
  Agglomeration economies which are external to a
  specific company but internal to a specific industry.
  They commonly result from the increased demand
  for goods and services from specific industries.
  Increased demand leads to increased competition
  and efficiencies among firms intending to provide
  inputs to production. It also includes vertical and
  horizontal integration of specific industries, where
  ancillary industries within the same area provide
  inputs or complementary services to other industries
  and firms. Cf. urbanization economies.
  地区化经济
  指在一个特定公司之外、一个特定产业之内的集
  中化经营的经济。其产生一般是由于一些特定产
  业对货物和服务的需求增加所造成的。需求的增
  加导致想提供生产投入的厂商间竞争加剧和效
  率提高。也包括某些产业的纵向和横向结合,使
  同一地域内的辅助产业向其他产业和厂商提供
  生产性投入或辅助性服务。
  参见urbanization economies
  locked in capital gains
  被占用资本收益,搁置资本收益
  locked in interest rate
  被锁住利率,被套住利率
  locked-up capital
  Capital that is unavailable as it is committed to other
  uses.
  被占用资本
  已经向其它用户承诺但不可使用的资本。
  lock gate price; sluice price; sluice gate price
  A theoretical cif price used in calculating European
  Communities supplementary levies on imports of
  pork, poultry and eggs.
  闸门价格;水闸价格
  理论上的到岸价格,用来计算欧共体对进口猪
  肉、家禽和鸡蛋征收的附加费。
  logging [forestry]
  砍伐 [林业]
  long form audit report
  A detailed report or letter prepared by an auditor
  following an audit. It is addressed to the
  management or directors.
  详细审计报告
  指审计人员在完成一项审计以后,写给管理当局
  或董事会的一个详细的报告或函件。
  long-run average incremental cost - LRAIC
  长期平均增量成本(简写为LRAIC)
  long-run marginal cost - LRMC; efficiency price;
  efficient price [electricity tariffs]
  The cost of meeting an increase in consumption,
  sustained indefinitely into the future, when needed
  capacity adjustments are possible.
  长期边际成本(简写为 LRMC);效率价格;有
  效价格[电力收费]
  这是为在无限的将来,当消费需求增加时,进行
  电量调整的成本费用。
  long staple cotton
  Cotton with fibers of 1 1/8 inches long or more.
  长绒棉花
  指纤维长度在1 1/8英寸或以上的棉花。
  long-term blended cost rate - LTB [IFC]
  A rate used by IFC to assist in determining the
  performance of its loan portfolio, it is based on three
  parts of average costs of borrowed funds and one
  part capital resources.
  长期混合成本比率(简写为LTB)[国际金融公司]
  这是国际金融公司用来帮助确定其各种贷款综
  合效益的一个比率,它是以三份借入资金的平均
  成本和一份资本金为基础计算出来的。
  long-term debt ratio
  Ratio of long-term debt to total assets.
  长期债务比率
  指长期债务对总资产的比率。
  Long-term Facility for Financing Purchases of
  Capital Goods by Developing Countries [IBRD]
  资助发展中国家购买资本货物的长期贷款基金
  [国际复兴开发银行]
  173
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  long-term liabilities
  Liabilities that will become due in the future, usually
  more than one year.
  长期负债
  指将来到期的负债,一般期限为一年以上。
  long-term prime rate - LTPR
  Prime rate used in Japan.
  长期优惠利率(简写为LTPR)
  即日本使用的优惠利率。
  longitudinal survey
  Surveys of limited populations in purposively
  selected areas, recording events as they actually
  occur (as opposed to making estimates).
  纵向调查
  在有目的选择出来的地区对有限人口进行的调
  查,并按实际发生的情况进行登录(相对于进行
  估计)。
  loss in weight; waste [commerce]
  短重,重量损失;耗损[商业]
  loss leader
  (招揽顾客的)亏本出售商品
  loss of load probability - LOLP
  A measurement of the probability of power outages.
  负荷亏损概率(简写为LOLP)
  一种对断电概率的测算法。
  loss payee
  In insurance, a third party suffering the actual loss
  named as beneficiary of the policy.
  损失赔偿受款人
  在保险业务中,实际受到损失的第三方被_____提名作
  为保险单的受益人。
  loss provision; provision for losses; reserve for
  losses
  亏损准备金
  losses and write-offs*
  亏损与销帐
  low absorber [country]
  Oil exporting capital surplus country that has been
  able to make very limited use of oil revenues for
  domestic development. Includes Saudi Arabia and
  Kuwait.
  低吸收能力国家[国家]
  指石油输出资本剩余国,这些国家利用石油出口
  收入对本国进行开发的能力非常有限。其中包括
  沙特阿拉伯和科威特。
  lower heating value; net heating value - NHV; net
  calorific value - NCV
  低热值;净热值(简写为NHV);净卡路里值(简
  写为NCV)
  lower middle income country - LMIC
  Developing country with a per capita income in
  1980 exceeding $600 but below $1200. Include
  some Latin American countries, some South-East
  Asian ones (such as Philippines and Thailand),
  Mediterranean countries (such as Morocco and
  Tunisia) and some sub-Saharan African countries
  (such as C魌e d'Ivoire and Nigeria).
  中等偏低收入的国家(简写为LIMC)
  指1980年人均收入超过600美元但低于1200美元
  的国家。包括一些拉美国家,东南亚国家(如菲
  律宾和泰国),地中海国家(如摩洛哥和突尼斯)
  和一些撒哈拉洲以南非国家(如科特迪瓦和尼日
  利亚)。
  lower quality old debt
  低质量旧债
  lower secondary education
  初中教育
  lowest bidder
  最低报价,最低递盘价
  lowest evaluated bid
  Bid which is considered to have the lowest price,
  taking into account factors such as time of
  performance, reliability of construction methods or
  efficiency of equipment, availability of maintenance
  services and other criteria disclosed to the bidder.
  The relative factors should be stated in the bidding
  documents and should be expressed in monetary
  terms or given a relative weight.
  最低评标价
  ,根据招标文件对投标人提出的若干条件(如开
  工时间,工程方法的可靠性或设备的效率,可提
  供的维修服务和其他评审标准)而确认的最低价
  格报盘。有关因素应在招标文件中写明,并标以
  价格或给以相应的权数。
  lowest priced bidder
  The bidder who offers a bid at the lowest price.
  最低价格投标者、递盘者
  174
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  指提供最低价格报盘的投标者。
  low income country
  低收入国家
  low load factor consumer [electricity]
  A consumer using a low amount of electricity.
  低负荷系数消费者[电力]
  指使用少量电力的消费者。
  low standard road
  低标准道路
  low voltage consumer [electricity]
  低压电力消费者[电力]
  lump sum borrowing [IFC]
  A currency-specific borrowing made in a lump sum
  by IFC from IBRD for its short-term future needs.
  整额借款[国际金融公司]
  指国际金融公司向世界银行筹措的指定货币整
  额借款,以支付短期之需。
  lump sum contract [consultants]
  Contract where payments are based on an agreed
  lump sum with no matching of inputs to payment
  being made once the figure has been agreed.
  总包合同,总付合同[聘用咨询专家]
  根据双方同意的一笔总额付款签订的聘用合同。
  总付金额一经同意,就不再将投入与付费额挂
  钩。
  lump sum loan
  One of two types of fixed rate loan made by the Bank
  to IFC involving currency-specific lump sum
  amounts to meet net cash requirements for the
  following six to twelve months.
  整额贷款
  指世界银行向国际金融公司所作的两种固定利
  率贷款类型之一,包括为应付将来6到12个月净
  现金需求的指定货币整额贷款。
  lump sum price
  一次性总付价格
  __
  175
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - M -
  macro-level accountability
  Macroeconomic accountability (including financial
  accountability and accountability for overall
  economic performance), e.g. congruence between
  public policy and actual implementation, the
  efficient allocation and use of public resources and
  external auditing and follow-up to this auditing.
  宏观责任
  宏观经济责任(包括财务会计责任和全面经济业
  绩责任),如保持公共政策和实际执行的一致性、
  公共资源的有效配置和利用、外部审计和这种审
  计的后续工作。
  macromanagement
  宏观管理
  main contractor; prime, principal contractor
  主要承包商;首位、牵头承包商
  mainframe computer
  计算机主机
  main power grid [electricity]
  主电网[电力]
  mainstream, to
  纳入主流,主流化
  maintenance of value - MOV (of IBRD capital)
  The provision in the Bank's Articles of Agreement
  requiring members to maintain the value of that
  portion of their paid-in capital that is subscribed in
  their own currency in terms of the subscription price
  (i.e. 100,000 gold dollars).
  (国际复兴开发银行股本金)保值规定(简写为
  MOV)
  国际复兴开发银行《协定》中规定,会员国要根
  据认购价格(即10万黄金美元)保持用本国货币
  认购的已缴股本的价值。
  maintenance of value settlement; settlement of
  maintenance of value
  保值结算;保值安排
  major currency
  主要货币
  malnourished
  营养不良的
  malnutrition
  营养不良
  manageable
  可控制的,可对付的
  managed costs
  Discretionary and direct overhead expenses for
  which budget units are responsible.
  管理成本
  由预算单位负责的可自由支配和直接的间接费
  用。
  managed economy
  受调控的经济,调控经济
  management
  管理
  见 asset and liability management; cash
  management; collegial management;
  comanagement ; corporate management; country
  assistance management; demand management;
  economic management; IDA management fee;
  labor-management relations; liability management;
  line management; liquidity management;
  participative management; project management;
  range management; risk management; supply
  management; water management; watershed
  management
  Management [World Bank]
  管理当局,管理部门 [世界银行]
  management accounting
  The design, installation and operation of financial
  planning, budgeting and financial accounting
  systems with the use of appropriate methods and
  techniques to monitor and control all aspects of
  financial operations and the coordination of these
  systems, methods and techniques with the primary
  activities of an entity.
  管理会计
  指用适当的方法和技术进行财务计划、预算和财
  务会计制度的设计、施行和操作,以监测和控制
  财务运作的各个方面以及这些制度、方法和技术
  与一个实体的主要活动之间的协调。
  management audit
  A review and appraisal of any or all parts of
  management activity.
  176
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  管理审计
  对管理活动的任何一部分或全部进行审查和评
  估。
  management auditor
  管理审计员
  management by objectives - MBO
  目标管理(简写为MBO)
  management chart; performance chart; working
  table
  管理图表;业绩图表;工作进度表
  management company
  管理公司
  management consultant
  管理顾问
  management contract
  Contract where the contractor assumes
  responsibility for the management of the investment
  project or a significant part of its operations and
  where his remuneration substantially depends on the
  production, revenues or profits of the investment
  project.
  管理合同
  承包方承担管理投资项目或该项目中相当大的
  一部分运作责任的合同。其报酬主要根据该投资
  项目的生产、收入或利润来决定。
  management development
  管理发展,管理开发
  management fee
  Fee payable to lead bank for handling bonds.
  管理费
  应付给牵头银行的债券管理费用。
  management game
  管理策略
  management group; managing group
  管理小组
  management information system - MIS
  System, usually computerized, designed to provide
  the management of a particular organization with the
  key information needed for decision-making.
  管理信息系统(简写为MIS)
  为某一组织的管理者提供决策所需的关键信息
  的系统,通常是计算机化的系统。
  management letter [auditing]
  A formal letter from auditors to the management
  concerning the accounts. It will discuss any
  deficiencies or weaknesses which the entity should
  remedy for its own protection.
  企业正式公函[审计]
  审计员致管理当局关于帐目的正式函件。其中讨
  论该客户为保护自己而应该加以补救的缺陷和
  弱点。
  management participation system; codetermination;
  comanagement
  System which gives employees the right to be
  represented in the decisions of a corporation.
  管理参与制度;共同决策;共同管理
  这种制度给予雇员_____派代表参与公司决策的权利。
  management succession planning
  管理承继计划
  managerial accounting
  That portion of accounting which attempts to supply
  management with quantitative information as a basis
  for decisions, as opposed to management accounting
  which is accounting designed for or adapted to the
  needs of information and control at the various
  administrative levels of an organization.
  管理决策会计
  会计工作的一部分,旨在向管理当局提供定量的
  信息,作为其决策的基础。与管理会计相区别,
  后者是为一个组织各级管理部门所设计或采用
  的会计方法,以满足它们对信息和控制的需要。
  managers
  经理,主任,负责人
  managing group
  管理小组
  managing unit
  管理单位
  mandatory planning
  指令性计划
  man-day
  人/日
  man-made capital
  人造资本
  177
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  man-made disaster
  人为灾难
  man-month contract
  Contract where payment is based on agreed
  time-based rates (usually the man-month rate),
  subsistence allowance for staff and reimbursable
  items.
  人/月合同
  根据协议的时间(通常为人/月)、雇员生活津贴
  和可偿付的类目确定付费的合同。
  manpower development
  人力开发
  manpower planning
  人力规划
  manufacturing grade [meat]
  可供加工的等级[肉类]
  Manufacturing Unit Value Index [World Bank]
  Industrial countries' indices of US dollar unit values
  of manufactured exports to developing countries.
  There are two indices - the cif index which combines
  a 90% weight of FOB export prices with a 10%
  weight of transport costs and a FOB index.
  制造单位价值指数[世界银行]
  指工业国向发展中国家制成品出口的美元单位
  价值指数。有两种指数,一种为出口品离岸价格
  占90%的权重、运费占10%的权重的到岸价格指
  数;另一种为离岸价格指数。
  mapping
  布局
  见 school mapping
  marginal benefit
  边际收益
  marginal capacity cost - MCC
  Present worth of the least-cost investment stream
  divided by present worth of the stream of
  incremental output resulting from the investment.
  边际生产能力成本(简写为MCC)
  最小成本投资流量的现值,除以该投资产生的增
  量产出流量的现值。
  marginal cost
  边际成本
  亦见 long-run marginal cost
  marginal cost pricing
  A policy used to minimize selling price or to lower
  costs to keep a business operating during a period of
  poor sales, by which the firm charges for each unit
  sold only the addition to total costs which results
  from manufacturing that unit, usually just material
  and direct labor.
  边际成本定价
  一种降低销售价格或降低成本的政策,以求在销
  售不良时期维持业务运转。在这种政策下,企业
  对每一个销售出去的单位商品,只收取生产该商
  品的总成本的附加费用,通常只是原材料和直接
  劳动力费用。
  marginal disutility
  The extra disutility resulting from a small change in
  some variable.
  边际负效用
  指由于某些变量的微小变动而导致的额外负效
  用。
  marginal effective tax rate - METR
  A measurement of the effect of taxes on investors'
  rate of return for an incremental addition to their
  activities.
  边际实际税率(简写为METR)
  衡量对投资者活动每一增量的征税对其收益率
  影响的尺度。
  marginal efficiency of capital
  In popular terms, the expected rate of profit. More
  rigourously, it is a discount rate at which the
  perpetual annual yields of an asset are expressed in
  present value terms. The present value is obtained
  such that it is equal to the replacement cost of the
  asset or its supply price. For example if the supply or
  replacement cost of an asset is $ 80 and it yields a
  perpetual annuity of $5 then the present value of the
  perpetual annuity is equal to $80 if the rate of
  discount applied is .0625 or 6.25%. This 6.25% is
  the marginal efficiency of capital.
  资本的边际效率
  一般指预期利润率。严格地说,是指一个以现值
  表示的资产的永久年收益所用的贴现率。这里的
  现值是按该资产重置成本或供货价格得出的。举
  例来说,一项资产的供货或重置成本是80美元,
  它产生的永久年收益为5美元,使用0.0625或
  6.25%的贴现率可得出永久年金的现值等于80美
  元。这个6.25%就是资本的边际效率。
  marginal national savings rate
  178
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  边际国民储蓄率
  marginal propensity (to consume, to save, etc.)
  An induced increase (in consumption or saving) as a
  proportion of the increase in income. If income
  increases by $10 and consumption or saving by $5
  then the marginal propensity is 0.5.
  边际(消费、储蓄等)倾向
  指因收入增加而诱发的(消费或储蓄等)增加量
  与增加的收入量之比。假如收入增加10美元,消
  费或储蓄增加5美元,则边际倾向为0.5。
  marginal physical product - MPP
  The change in total product that results from
  employing one additional unit of a variable resource
  together with other fixed resources.
  边际实物产品,边际生产实物量(简写为MPP)
  从利用一单位额外可变资源加上其他固定资源
  中产生的总产品的变化。
  marginal reserve requirement
  Additional deposits that by law depository
  institutions (e.g. banks) must set aside in their vaults
  or with the central bank. In the U.S., this applies to
  additional reserve requirements on increased
  managed liabilities imposed by the Federal Reserve,
  in order to curtail the expansion of bank lending.
  边际准备金要求
  法律规定储蓄机构(如银行)必需在它们的金库
  或中央银行贮存的额外的准备金。在美国,为了
  控制银行放款的扩张,联邦储备局对新增的经营
  性负债要求有额外的准备金。
  marginal revenue product - MRP
  The change in the firm's total revenue from selling
  the marginal physical product that results from
  employing one additional unit of a resource together
  with other fixed resources.
  边际收益产品(简写为MRP)
  由出售边际实物产品引起的厂商总收益的变化。
  边际实物产品是利用一单位新增可变资源和其
  他固定资源所产生的。
  marginal soil(s)
  边际土壤(土地)
  marginal utility
  The utility derived by an individual from his
  consumption of an additional unit of a commodity or
  service at a given time. It may also be regarded as the
  utility of a unit of the commodity or service the
  consumption of which an individual may decide to
  forego.
  边际效用
  指消费者在一定时间内消费新增加的一个单位
  商品或服务所获得的效用。也可以认为是消费者
  可能会决定放弃的消费该单位商品或服务的效
  用。
  marginal value product
  边际价值产品
  margin of preference; preference, preferential
  margin
  优惠幅度
  marker crude; benchmark crude [oil]
  Saudi Arabian light crude oil (gravity API 34
  degrees) employed as the standard on which OPEC
  price changes have been based.
  基准原油 [石油]
  指沙特阿拉伯轻原由(美国石油协会比重34度),
  是石油输出国组织据以调整价格的标准。
  marker price; benchmark price [oil]
  The reference price used by OPEC for oil price
  changes, based on the price of Saudi Arabian light
  crude oil.
  基准价格 [石油]
  石油输出国组织在改变石油价格时所使用的参
  考价格,以沙特阿拉伯轻原油价格为基础。
  market-clearing prices
  A price for an item which attracts just enough buyers
  as there are buyers. If prices are lower demand will
  be too high; if higher demand will be too low.
  最适当价格,清市价格
  正好能吸引到不多不少的买主的价格。低于此价
  格,需求会太高;高于此价格,需求会过低。
  market-clearing quotations
  最适当的报价,清市报价
  market-clearing returns
  最适当的收益,清市收益
  market-eligible countries
  Countries that have access to financial markets.
  有适当市场的国家
  在金融市场上有筹款渠道的国家
  market-friendly
  亲市场的
  179
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  “market-in-hand” agreement
  Turnkey contract requiring contractor to assist in
  sales.
  “市场在握”合同
  要求承包商协助推销产品的交钥匙合同。
  market intermediation
  Acting on the market (i.e. buying and/or selling of
  securities) on behalf of someone else.
  市场中介
  指代表别人在市场上运作[即买和(或)卖证券]。
  market power
  市场支配力,市场影响力
  market-related lending
  Lending at market rate and under market conditions.
  根据市场条件放款
  在市场条件下按市场利率放款。
  参见commercial lending
  market timing
  Taking advantage of securities of different
  maturities.
  市场择时
  指利用证券的不同到期时间获益。
  market value
  市场价值
  marketable securities
  Equity securities or debt securities that are actively
  traded or which can be otherwise bought or sold.
  可上市场证券
  指正在交易中的或者可买进或卖出的股票或债
  券。
  marketability
  适销性,可变现性
  marketing
  市场营销
  marketing arrangement
  销售安排
  marketing board
  销售委员会
  mark-up
  提高标价,毛利
  marshal evidence, to [ICSID]
  收集证据[解决投资争端国际中心]
  marshalling yard
  编组车场
  mass media
  大众媒介
  mass production
  大量生产,大规模生产
  master plan
  总计划,总规划
  Master Loan Agreement
  Agreement between the Bank and IFC on Bank
  lending to IFC. First issued 1971 and periodically
  updated as the Bank makes further loans to IFC.
  总贷款协议
  世界银行同国际金融公司签订的关于世界银行
  向国际金融公司贷款的协议。第一次签订于1971
  年,以后在作进一步贷款时按期修订。
  matched funding [IFC]; matching funds
  Funding needed by the IFC to commit a loan. It
  must match the loan in terms of amount and
  maturity.
  对应供资[国际金融公司];对应资金
  国际金融公司在承诺一笔贷款时,需要的一笔资
  金。它必须与贷款在数量上和期限上相匹配。
  matching contribution
  A contribution that is conditional on a similar
  amount of funds being contributed by another party.
  对应捐赠
  一项有条件的捐赠,其条件是另一方也捐赠类似
  数量的资金。
  matching credit
  对应信贷
  matching funds
  对应资金
  见 matched funding
  matching grant
  A grant given when an equal sum is provided by the
  recipient or a third party.
  对应赠款
  一项需受益方或第三者提供等额资金的赠款。
  180
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  matching payment
  对应支出
  mathematical expectation [mathematics]
  The mean value of single observations drawn from a
  finite or infinite universe in repeated samplings.
  数学期望值[数学]
  即从有限的或无限的范围内反复抽样选出的所
  有单个观察值的平均数。
  matrix reporting
  Staff or offices reporting to more than one agency.
  矩阵式汇报,矩阵式负责制度
  工作人员或官员向一个以上部门进行汇报(或负
  责)的制度。
  maturation (of borrowers from IDA to IBRD loans)
  (指借款国从获得国际开发协会贷款到获得国
  际复兴开发银行贷款的)成熟
  mature investments [IFC]
  Investments which are just at the beginning of the
  stage at which they will start to become profitable.
  成熟投资[国际金融公司]
  指已到即将开始产生收益的阶段的投资。
  mature markets [securities]
  成熟市场[证券]
  mature project
  成熟项目
  maturity (of a loan, bond, etc.)
  (贷款、债券等的)到期日
  maturity mismatch
  Having borrowings and loans with different
  maturities. This could mean, for example in the case
  of the Bank, that borrowings the Bank had made on
  the capital market to finance certain loans it had
  made were due before it had received the money
  from the loans.
  到期日搭配不当,到期日错配
  借款和贷款的到期日不同。例如,世界银行在资
  本市场上借款为其一些贷款进行融资,而借款可
  能在世界银行收到贷款的本息偿付前到期。
  maturity transformation
  Reborrowing, in order to extend the maturity of a
  loan.
  更换到期日,到期日转换
  用再借款的办法使老的贷款展期。
  maximum aggregate liability [MIGA]
  The maximum liability of MIGA for all claims
  arising from coverage for one project enterprise.
  最大责任总额[多边投资担保机构]
  多边投资担保机构对一个项目企业的全部索赔
  的最大担保责任额。
  maximum amount of guarantee
  The maximum amount of guarantee coverage
  provided under all forms of coverage.
  最高担保限额
  以各种形式提供的担保所承保的最高限额。
  maximum likelihood method
  An econometric estimation technique which
  involves the maximization of the likelihood function
  of the sample observations with respect to the values
  of the parameters of the equation(s) being estimated.
  It chooses those values of the parameters which are
  “most likely” to have generated the sample
  observations.
  最大相似法[计量经济学]
  一种计量经济估计技术,包括根据正在估算的等
  式的参数值,把样本值的相似函数最大化。它选
  择那些“最可能”产生样本观察值的参数值。
  maximum sustainable yield - MSY*
  最高可持续收益(简写为MSY)
  _____McNamara Fellow
  麦克纳马拉学者(麦克纳马拉奖学金获得者)
  McNamara Fellowship
  麦克纳马拉奖学金
  mean annual increment - MAI [forestry]
  The total growth of a stand of trees divided by the
  total age.
  年平均生长量(简写为MAI)[林业]
  一片树林的总生长量除以树龄。
  means-tested pension plan
  家计调查式养老金方案
  measured production
  The actual production of a farmer as measured, as
  opposed to the estimated production.
  实测产量
  经过实测的农民实际生产量;区别于估计的生产
  量。
  181
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  meat processing
  肉类加工
  mechanical completion [projects]
  The final stage of a project where the actual physical
  equipment has been installed.
  机械工程完毕 [项目]
  所有实际物质设备均已安装的项目最后阶段。
  medium absorber [oil exporter]
  Oil exporting capital surplus country which has only
  been able to make some use of oil revenues for
  domestic development. Includes Iran, Iraq and
  Libya.
  中等吸收能力国家[石油出口国]
  石油出口资本盈余国家,但只能够利用部分石油
  收入作国内发展之用。包括伊朗、伊拉克和利比
  亚。
  medium staple cotton
  Cotton with fibers of 1 to 1 1/8 inches long.
  中长纤维棉花
  纤维长度为1-1 1/8英寸长的棉花。
  membership [IFC]
  会员资格[国际金融公司]
  membership application
  申请会员资格,会员资格申请
  membership shares [World Bank]
  These were introduced in connection with the 1979
  General Capital Increase in order to ensure that the
  voting power of small members was not eroded by
  the Capital Increase. A special allocation of 250
  shares, known as membership shares, was made to
  each member in addition to the pro rata allocation.
  No payment was required for these shares nor were
  they included in the Bank's lending authority.
  会员股[世界银行]
  这是在1979年普遍增资时开始实行的,目的是保
  证小会员国的投票权不致为普遍增资所消蚀。具
  体做法是在按比例分配的认股额之外,特别分配
  给每一个会员国250股(即所谓的会员股)。这
  部分股份不需付款,也不包括在世界银行作为贷
  款授权的基数之内。
  membership votes
  会员投票权
  memo item; memorandum entry, item
  An explanatory notation in a book of accounts which
  does not change the balance in any account.
  备忘项目
  在帐簿中的一种解释性注解,它不改变任何帐户
  的平衡。
  memorandum account
  A temporary account used to store accounting data
  prior to actual receipt or disbursement of the sums
  concerned.
  备忘帐户
  一种临时的帐户,用于在实际收到或支付有关金
  额以前记录会计数据。
  memorandum entry, item; memo item
  An explanatory notation in a book of accounts which
  does not change the balance in any account.
  备忘项目
  在帐簿中的一种解释性注解,它不改变任何帐户
  的平衡。
  Memorandum of Administrative Arrangements
  [ICSID]
  行政调解备忘录[解决投资争端国际中心]
  memorandum of law
  A legal opinion signed by a legal officer of a
  government authorized to give legal opinions on his
  Government's behalf.
  法律备忘录[法律]
  由政府授权的法律官员签署的法律意见书,代表
  政府提出法律意见。
  memorandum of understanding
  A written document detailing the points upon which
  two or more parties agree.
  谅解备忘录
  一项书面文件,详细记录双方或更多方面达成一
  致的要点。
  memorial [ICSID]
  诉状[解决投资争端国际中心]
  menu approach
  菜单方式
  merchandise balance
  商品差额,商品平衡
  见 trade balance
  merchandising
  商品学,商品推销
  182
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  merger
  合并,兼并
  merit goods
  Goods the consumption of which is deemed to be
  intrinsically desirable. In the case of such goods it is
  argued that consumer sovereignty does not hold and
  that if consumers are unwilling to purchase adequate
  quantities of such goods they should be compelled
  or encouraged to do so. Examples are education and
  health services.
  有价值的货物
  这种货物的消费被认为是内心所欲的。人们认
  为,如果消费者主体不具有而且又不愿购买足够
  数量的这类商品时,他们应该被强迫或被鼓励去
  购买。这类商品包括教育和卫生服务。
  merit increase
  按工作成绩提薪
  merit point system
  In procurement, a system whereby points are given
  to each bid in respect to a number of factors. These
  points are then correlated with the bid price and the
  contract awarded on the basis of the best points/price
  combination.
  积分评标制
  招标中根据一定的因素给每个标进行打分的一
  种评标制度。把分数与报价相联系,再根据分数
  与报价的最佳组合授标。
  message front-end system
  信息前端系统
  messages [agricultural extension]
  The basic information that an agricultural extension
  scheme wishes to impart to farmers.
  信息[农业技术推广]
  农业技术推广计划打算向农民传授的基本信息。
  metal works
  金属构件
  Metals and Minerals Price Index [IBRD]
  金属和矿产品价格指数[国际复兴开发银行]
  meter rent [electricity]
  The income received from electricity metering.
  电力计量费[电力]
  指电力计量费收入。
  mezzanine financing
  Financing using medium-risk capital, as opposed to
  pure debt financing. The risk is intermediate -
  between secured or senior debt and equity. It differs
  from venture capital lending in that owners
  surrender only a low amount of equity.
  夹层融资
  指利用中等风险资本融资,相对于纯债务融资。
  其风险介于有担保或优先债务和股本投资之间。
  它与风险资本贷款不同之处在于企业主只投入
  少量股本。
  MIBOR [= Madrid Interbank Offered Rate]
  马德里银行同业拆放利率[简写为MIBOR]
  microdata
  微观数据
  micro-level accountability
  Microeconomic accountability, e.g. ensuring
  efficiency in investment and in the production and
  delivery of goods and services.
  微观责任
  指微观经济责任,例如,保证投资和生产上的效
  率以及货物和劳务的交货。
  micromanagement
  微观管理
  micro-sprayer irrigation
  微喷灌溉
  microteaching
  Scaled-down version of teaching, planned to
  develop new teaching skills and analyse existing
  ones. The technique provides teaching practice in a
  situation in which the complexities of the classroom
  are minimized by restricting the number of pupils
  and length of lesson and by focusing on specific
  teaching skills.
  微型教育法
  按比例缩减的教学法,旨在开发新的教学技术和
  分析现存的教育方法。这种技术用限制学生人数
  和课程长度的方法来减少教室环境的复杂性,并
  着重使用特殊教学方式进行教学实践。
  middle income country
  Developing country with per capita income of $400
  or more.
  中等收入国家
  人均收入在400美元和400美元以上的发展中国
  家。
  183
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  midterm project review mission [World Bank]
  中期项目评审团[世界银行]
  Midterm Review - MTR [IDA]
  Review of IDA resources in the middle of a
  replenishment period.
  中期审查(简写为MTR)[国际开发协会]
  国际开发协会增资期中对资金状况进行的审议。
  midyear review
  年中审查[预算]
  milling yield
  出粉量
  millions of barrels per day oil equivalent - mbdoe
  日产石油百万桶当量(简写为mbdoe)
  minehead price
  The price of a mineral as it comes out of the mine,
  i.e. excluding transportation and processing.
  坑口价格
  矿产品出矿价格,即不包括运输和加工的价格。
  mineral lick; salt lick
  牲畜舐用的矿物;牲畜舐用的盐矿
  mine run coal; run-of-mine coal
  Ungraded coal of various sizes as it comes from the
  mine.
  原煤,未经筛选的煤
  刚出矿的未分级、大小不等的煤。
  minimum cash ratio
  最小现金比率
  minimum cash requirement
  最小现金需求
  minimum package project
  基底综合项目
  minimum tillage
  Planting crops through a sod of dead weeds or
  stubble.
  最小耕作法
  指在布满荒草或草根的表土上种植作物。
  minority threshold [IBRD]
  Situation whereby a minority has an effective veto
  because a certain majority is required to effect a
  change and the minority holds enough votes to
  prevent this majority being obtained, e.g. in the
  World Bank, the US could block changes requiring
  80% majority when it had a 20% shareholding.
  少数有效否决权[国际复兴开发银行]
  在使一项变革生效时,需要一定的多数票,而少
  数票的持有者有足够的投票权防止多数票的产
  生,因此具有效的否决权。例如在世界银行,美
  国有20%的股权,可以阻止通过需要80%多数票
  同意的变革。
  misalignment (of rates of exchange)
  (汇率)失调
  misallocation of resources
  资源分配不当
  misprocurement [IBRD]
  Procurement not in accordance with agreed
  procedures.
  采购不当[国际复兴开发银行]
  指同协议的采购程序不一致的采购。
  mission
  团,组
  见 appraisal mission; audit mission; composite
  mission; end-of-mission document; external review
  mission; field mission; full mission; investment
  review mission; midterm project review mission;
  post appraisal mission; preappraisal mission; review
  mission; supervision mission
  mission statement [EDI]
  出访报告[经济发展学院]
  mitigation plan; environmental management plan;
  action plan
  Part of a formal project environmental assessment,
  this plan outlines feasible and cost-effective
  measures which may reduce potentially significant
  adverse environmental impacts to acceptable levels.
  It should provide details of proposed work programs
  and schedules to ensure that the proposed
  environmental actions are in phase with engineering
  activities throughout preparation. The Bank uses all
  three terms.
  减轻环境影响计划;环境管理计划;行动计划
  是正式项目环境评价的一个组成部分,这项计划
  列出可行的和合乎成本/效益的措施,以求把潜在
  的对环境的相当大的不利影响减低到可接受的
  水平。它还应提供建议的工程规划的详情和进
  程,保证建议的环境行动同整个准备阶段的工程
  184
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  活动同步进行。以上这三个名词都为世界银行所
  采用。
  mixed enterprise
  混合企业
  mixed farming project
  混合农业项目
  mixed financing; blend financing
  混合融资
  mixed fertilizer
  复合肥料
  见 compound fertilizer
  mixed financing; blend financing
  混合贷款
  mixed forest
  Type of temperate forest, consisting of trees of
  different species.
  混合林
  温带林的一种类型,包括各种不同种类的树木。
  mixed-use forest
  Forest which has uses other than timber production.
  混合用途林
  除木材生产外还可作其他用途的森林。
  mobile training unit
  流动培训组
  mobilization advance [contracts]
  Advance payment to a contractor to enable him to
  start work.
  筹备预付款[合同]
  指对承包商的一项预付款,以便使其能开始工
  作。
  mobilization costs
  In a construction project, the initial costs needed to
  get a project under way, including advance
  payments, bonds, etc.
  筹备费用,工地设施费用
  在一个建设工程项目中,使项目开始施工所需的
  初始费用,包括预付款、保证金等等。
  mobilization ratio [IFC]
  Ratio of project cost net of IFC financing to IFC
  financing.
  投资比率[国际金融公司]
  减除国际金融公司融资部分以后的项目成本与
  国际金融公司融资部分之间的比率。
  model bid documents
  投标文件范本
  model school
  示范学校,师范学校
  见 demonstration school
  modified Bruno ratio; internal exchange rate
  As for the Bruno ratio but using for the entire project
  life instead of for just one year.
  修改后的布鲁诺比率;内部汇率
  一种布鲁诺比率,但不是只用于一年,而是用于
  整个项目的生命期。
  moisture stress
  湿度严重不足,干旱
  monetary aggregates
  The main indicators of the monetary status. Include
  such features as monetary base and money supply.
  货币总量
  货币状况的主要指标,包括货币基础和货币供应
  等特征。
  monetary correction
  Macroeconomic changes to the money supply, e.g.
  by adjusting interest rates or altering the amount of
  money in circulation.
  货币供应量调整
  货币供应的宏观变化,如利率调整或流通中货币
  数量的改变。
  monetary ease
  Policy of reducing restrictions on the availability of
  money, e.g. by easing credit restrictions.
  放松银根
  减少对获得货币的限制政策,例如放松信贷限
  制。
  monetary expansion
  货币扩张
  monetary restraint
  Holding down the rate of growth of the money
  supply.
  货币限制,货币控制
  降低货币供应的增长速度。
  monetary stringency
  185
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  银根紧,货币短缺
  monetization
  货币化
  monetized GDP
  用货币表示的(货币化的)国内生产总值
  money at call
  短期拆放款
  见 call money
  money center banks
  Bank based in a large financial center (e.g. New
  York or London).
  金融中心银行
  位于大金融中心(例如纽约或伦敦)的银行。
  money income
  货币收入
  money-losing operation
  亏本运作,亏本业务
  money market
  The market for short-term debt instruments, such as
  certificates of deposit, commercial paper, bankers'
  acceptances, Treasury bills, discount notes and
  others. These instruments are all liquid and tend to
  be safe.
  货币市场,金融市场,短期资金市场
  即短期债务工具市场。短期债务工具包括定期存
  款单、商业票据、银行承兑票据、国库券、贴现
  票据等。这些金融工具都易于变现并比较安全。
  参见capital market, financial market
  money market (mutual) fund - MMF; mutual fund
  A mutual fund specializing in high yield short-term
  instruments of credit such as Treasury Bills,
  certificates of deposit, commercial paper, bankers'
  acceptances and repurchase agreements. For the
  difference between FCP and SICAV, see mutual
  fund.
  货币市场(共同)基金(简写为MMF);共同
  基金
  指专门经营高收入短期信用票据的共同基金,如
  国库券、定期存款单、商业票据、银行承兑票据
  和回购协议。(关于FCP和SICAV之间的不同,
  见mutual fund)
  money market paper
  货币市场票据
  money market rate
  The rate of interest in the money market. In the U.S.,
  there is no single rate but a series of rates, including
  the prime rate, the Federal Reserve discount rate, the
  Federal Funds rate, the 1 month commercial paper
  rate and the 3 and 6 month Treasury Bill rate.
  货币市场利率
  货币市场上的利率。在美国没有单一的利率,而
  是一系列利率,包括优惠利率、联邦储备贴现率、
  联邦基金利率、1个月商业票据利率和3个月、6
  个月国库券利率。
  money stock, supply
  货币存量,货币供应量
  money wage
  货币工资
  moneyness
  Closeness to being money; ease with which an asset
  can be spent; liquidity.
  近似货币的特性;易于变现的特性
  与货币近似的特征;一项资本可以用于支付的程
  度;可变现性
  monitoring
  监控,监测
  monitoring and evaluation - M & E
  监测与评价(简写为M&E)
  monoculture; sole cropping
  单一作物制
  monocyclic management
  Forest management system which provides for the
  removal of all merchantable trees down to a specific
  diameter at breast height in a single operation,
  followed by a poison - girdling of remaining large
  noncommercial stems. Silvicultural treatment is
  continued at intervals to promote the growth of
  desirable species.
  单周期管理
  指一种森林管理制度,其做法是一次性去除一切
  可销售的树木直至只剩下具有一定直径齐胸高
  的树木,接着使用毒化方法对剩下的无商业价值
  的大树进行环状剥皮加以剔除。以后时而进行造
  林处理,以促进需要的品种的生长。
  monopoly rent
  垄断租金,垄断利润
  186
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  moral hazard
  Irresponsible conduct by the insured which is likely
  to increase the possibility of loss.
  道德危害
  指投保人有可能使损失增加的不负责任的行为。
  moratorium interest; interest on overdue payments*
  逾期付款利息
  mortgage bank
  抵押银行
  mortgage financing
  抵押贷款,抵押筹资
  most-fav, ored-nation clause
  A clause in an international trade agreement which
  states that contracting parties to an agreement are
  bound to grant to each other treatment as favorable
  as they extend to any other country regarding the
  application of import and export duties and other
  trade regulations. First put forward at Geneva Trade
  Conference, 1947 and became a part of GATT
  regulations.
  最惠国条款
  国际贸易协定中的一项条款,表明缔约各方必须
  在有关进出口关税和其他贸易条例方面,相互给
  予优惠待遇,象他们给予其他任何国家的优惠一
  样。该条款首次在1947年日内瓦贸易会议提出,
  并成为关贸总协定规章的一部分。
  most immediately impacted (MII) countries
  最直接受影响(简写为MII)的国家
  most seriously affected countries - MSA
  受影响最严重的国家(简写为MSA)
  mother and child health (MCH) center
  妇婴保健(简写为MCH)中心
  motivator [family planning]
  宣传员[计划生育]
  motor octane number - MON
  A measurement of the octane quality of gasoline
  relating to part throttle operation.
  马达辛烷值
  部分调整油门时测得的汽油辛烷特性。
  mountain forest
  山区森林
  mountain rice; upland rice; highland rice
  山地稻;旱稻;高原稻
  moving average
  移动平均数
  见 running average
  multiattribute decision analysis
  Technique of decision analysis which allows
  tradeoffs between objectives to be analysed.
  多属性决策分析
  一种决策分析技术,它容许在被分析的目标之间
  权衡利弊,进行选择。
  multicropping; multiple cropping
  复种制
  multicurrency clause [loan contract]
  A clause in a loan agreement stating that more than
  one currency may be used in paying or redeeming
  the loan.
  多种货币条款[贷款合同]
  贷款合同中规定可用一种以上货币偿还或赎回
  贷款的条款。
  multidwelling houses
  多户式住房
  Multifibre Arrangement -MFA
  多种纤维协定 (简写为MFA))
  multigrade teaching
  Teaching where more than one grade is taught in the
  same class due to shortage of teachers and/or low
  amount of pupils.
  多年级合班教学
  由于缺乏教师和(或)学生数量少,而在同一个
  班中教授一个以上年级的课程。
  Multilateral Investment Insurance Agency- MIGA*
  多边投资担保机构(简写为MIGA)
  multilateral investment insurance
  多边投资保险
  multilateral trade negotiations - MTN
  多边贸易谈判(简写为MTN)
  multilevel farming
  多层次种植
  见 multistory farming
  187
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  multimedia training modules [EDI]
  多种方式培训法[经济发展学院]
  multimodal transport
  多种方式联运;综合运输
  multiple cropping; multicropping
  Growing two or more crops in the same year on the
  same field.
  复种制
  在同一地块上,一年种植两茬种或两茬以上作物
  的耕作方式。
  (multiple) (currency) option bond
  Bond (usually Eurobond) which gives the lender the
  right to opt to receive interest and/or capital in a
  currency other than that in which the bond is
  denominated.
  (多种)(货币)选择债券
  多为欧洲债券,放款人有权要求以债券以外的其
  它货币偿还利息和(或)本金。
  multiple stage tax
  A tax which has more than one rate such as income
  tax in most countries.
  多档征税制
  有一个以上税率的税种,如大多国家征收的所得
  税。
  multioption facility-MOF*
  多种选择贷款(简写为MOF)
  multiple trading approaches
  多重交易制
  multiplier
  乘数
  见 credit multiplier
  multiplier effect*
  乘数效应
  multiproduct agency credit line [IFC]
  多种产品机构信贷额度[国际金融公司]
  multipurpose berth
  多用途泊位
  multipurpose project
  综合项目
  multisectoral general equilibrium model
  A computable general equilibrium model which
  covers several sectors.
  跨行业总体平衡模型
  指覆盖几个行业的可计算的总体平衡模型。
  multishift teaching
  多班次教学制
  multistory farming; multilevel farming
  Intercropping trees, shrubs and crops of various
  heights for total ground cover.
  多层次种植
  不同高矮的树木、灌木和作物相间种植,覆盖整
  个地面。
  multivariate technique
  A technique of analysis (normally of a statistical
  nature) which involves more than two variables.
  多变量分析技术
  一种包含两种以上变量的分析技术(通常是统计
  性质的)。
  multiyear rescheduling arrangement; multiyear
  restructuring agreement - MYRA
  Agreement in commercial bank negotiations which
  allowed for restructuring over a period of years
  rather than annually, to reduce the burden imposed
  by annual restructurings.
  多年(债务)重新安排;多年(债务)调整协议
  (简写为MYRA)
  在商业银行谈判中达成的多年的而不是每年一
  次的(债务)重新安排协议,目的是减少每年调
  整的工作负担。
  mutual fund; money market (mutual) fund
  共同基金;货币市场(共同)基金
  mutually exclusive projects*
  相互排斥的项目
  mutually offsetting entries
  In accounts, two entries which cancel each other out.
  互相冲消的帐项
  帐目中两个互相抵消的帐项。
  
  188
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - N -
  narrow money
  Easily available money, i.e. cash, checking accounts,
  very short-term liquid funds, etc. Equivalent to M1.
  狭义货币(相当于美国的MI)
  易于获得的货币,即现金、支票帐户、极短期流
  动资金,等等。等于M1。
  national agricultural research system - NARS
  国家农业研究系统(简写为NARS)
  national environmental action plan - NEAP
  Environmental action plan at the level of an
  individual country. They are intended to ensure that
  decision-makers take environmental issues into
  consideration in policy formulation and are closely
  linked to World Bank projects.
  国家环境行动计划(简写为NEAP)
  指国家一级的环境行动计划。这些计划旨在保证
  国家政策制定者在政策形成过程中考虑到环境
  问题,并是与世界银行项目密切相关的。
  natural capital
  The natural environment. Includes land,
  watercourses, the oceans, the air, etc.
  自然资本
  指自然环境。它包括土地、河流、海洋和空气等。
  natural gas liquids - NGL
  液态天然气(简写为MGL)
  natural wastage; attrition*
  自然损耗,自然消减
  near cash instruments
  Instrument that can be converted to cash in a very
  short time.
  准现金票据
  可以在很短时间内转换成现金的票据。
  near money; quasi-money
  Assets which have properties resembling those of
  money in the strict sense. Includes savings deposits,
  time deposits, certificates of deposits, deposits in
  thrift institutions, etc.
  准货币
  在严格意义上,指具有类似货币性质的资产,包
  括储蓄存款、定期存款、定期存款单、在储蓄机
  构的存款等。
  negative amortization loan
  Installment loan having the annuity principal as a
  basis for computation, whose fixed periodic
  payments increase from time to time, e.g. annually,
  bi-annually. Initial installments typically are
  insufficient to meet the interest accruing on the loan
  principal and unpaid balances of interest are added
  to the principal outstanding. As the periodic
  installments increase in value they become sufficient
  to meet the interest due and commence reducing the
  principal outstanding.
  负分期偿还贷款
  以年本金为基础计算的分期偿还贷款,其定期偿
  付额按时增加(如每年或每两年一次)。初次分
  期偿还额一般不足以抵补贷款本金所积欠的利
  息,未支付的利息加在积欠本金余额上。随着定
  期分期偿还值的增加,它们将足以抵补到期利
  息,并开始减少积欠本金。
  negative pledge clause
  Clause in loan agreement obligating the borrower
  not to grant security without equally securing the
  loan in question.
  限制抵押条款
  贷款协定中的一项条款,要求借款人在未给本贷
  款作出同等抵押前,不得给其它贷款作出抵押。
  negative rate of interest
  负利率
  negative sum game
  负收益策略
  negative term transformation*
  消极期限转换
  negotiated contract*
  谈判成交的合同
  net beneficial product
  净效益产品
  net benefit investment ratio
  The ratio between the present worth of net benefits
  and the present worth of an investment;
  alternatively, the sum of present worths after the
  incremental net benefit stream has become positive,
  divided by the sum of present worths in the earlier
  years of the project.
  净效益投资比率
  指净效益的现值与一项投资现值的比率,亦即在
  189
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  新增的净效益流成为正数以后的总值的现值,除
  以项目早期总值的现值。
  net book value; current equity investment; net
  investment
  The contribution value plus covered retained
  earnings, less remitted earnings, less depreciation of
  assets or other commercial losses. Used by some
  countries as a basis for computing the amount of
  compensation.
  帐面净值;当期股本投资;净投资
  即出资价值加上留存盈利,减去已分派盈利,再
  减去资产折旧或其他商业损失。在一些国家里用
  作计算赔偿额的基础。
  net calorific value - NCV; lower heating value; net
  heating value - NHV
  Total amount of heat produced by combustion less
  the latent heat of evaporation of any water present in
  fuel before combustion.
  净卡路里值(简写为NCV);低热值;净热值(简
  写为NHV)
  燃烧产生的总热量减去用于蒸发燃烧前燃料中
  所含水份的热量。
  net cash requirements - NCR
  Gross disbursements plus outstanding debts due to
  mature, less repayments and sales of loans, less net
  income adjusted for non-cash items, less the increase
  in usable capital.
  净现金需要 (简写为NCR)
  总支付额加上未偿还债务余额中Å___þ{到期
  197
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - O -
  objection to jurisdiction [ICSID]
  对裁判权的异议[解决投资争端国际中心]
  objective function [economic analysis]
  A function relating the objective (the variable to be
  optimized) to the choice variable in an optimization
  problem.
  目标函数[经济分析]
  在解决优化问题时,把目标(待优化的变量)与
  选择变量相联系的涵数。
  object-oriented programming system - OOPS
  Type of computer programming where each object
  carries out specific tasks and the information passed
  between objects is in a standardized way. It is an
  extension of structured programming.
  目标导向程序编制系统(简写为OOPS)
  指一种计算机程序编制系统。在这个系统中,每
  一个目标都担负着具体的任务,相互之间通过标
  准的方式传递信息。它是结构式编程的延伸。
  occasional earnings
  非经常收益
  ocean freight rate index
  An index of trans-oceanic freight rates. For grains,
  the Bank uses US/Canada (St. Lawrence) to
  Antwerp/Rotterdam/Amsterdam; for sugar
  Queensland, Australia to UK or Japan.
  海洋货运费指数
  一种远洋货运费率指数。对粮食,世界银行使用
  美国/加拿大(圣劳伦斯)到安特卫普/鹿特丹/阿
  姆斯特丹的费率;对食糖,使用从澳大利亚昆士
  兰到英国或日本的费率。
  octane booster
  Fuel additive used to boost octane level. Lead has
  been the main octane booster till recently but now
  other, more environmentally friendly substances,
  such as ether, are being used.
  辛烷助燃剂
  指提高辛烷值的燃料添加剂。到目前为止,铅曾
  是主要的辛烷助燃剂,但现在正在使用别的环保
  型材料,如乙醚。
  off - balance - sheet item*
  资产负债表外科目
  office automation
  办公室自动化
  office occupancy fee - OOF
  The fee paid by IFC to the Bank for occupying the I
  Building.
  办公室占用费(简写为OOF)
  指国际金融公司向世界银行支付的I楼占用费。
  official capital
  官方(政府)资本
  official debt
  官方(政府)债务
  official development assistance - ODA
  官方(政府)开发援助(简写为ODA )
  official export credit
  官方(政府)出口信贷
  official flows [development]
  官方(政府)资金流量[开发]
  official holdings
  官方(政府)股票、财产
  officialization (of debt)
  Shifting of the composition of debt holdings from
  commercial banks to official creditors.
  (债务)官方化
  指把商业银行的债务构成转移到官方贷款机构。
  off-market transaction
  场外交易
  off-season, out-of-season crop
  非时令,不合农时的作物
  offset agreements
  Countertrade in which a company agrees to buy
  products unrelated to its normal business to
  complete a sale.
  抵偿性购货协定
  一种对等贸易,其中一个公司为了完成一笔销售
  同意购买与其正常业务无关的产品。
  offset borrowings
  Borrowings of funds by Bank from institutions
  where deposits are held, prior to the maturity of the
  deposits.
  抵销性借款
  198
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  指世界银行从有其存款的金融机构在存款到期
  以前借入资金。
  offshore assembly, processing
  Production activity in a developing country
  involving assembling materials produced in a
  foreign country.
  海外组装,海外加工
  在一个发展中国家,用某一外国生产的原材料进
  行组装的生产活动。
  offshore bank
  Bank located outside the country in question.
  海外银行
  位于所涉及到的某国以外的银行。
  offshore cost
  Assembly costs outside the host country.
  海外成本、海外费用
  发生在东道国以外的组装成本、费用。
  offshore drilling
  近海钻井
  offshore field
  近海油田
  offshore market
  non-domestic market, e.g. there is a domestic (US)
  and offshore market in US dollars.
  海外市场
  非国内市场。例如美元有一个国内(美国)市场
  和一个海外市场。
  offshore processing, assembly
  Production activity in a developing country
  involving assembling materials produced in a
  foreign country.
  海外加工
  在一个发展中国家,用某一外国生产的原材料进
  行组装的生产活动。
  offtake [livestock]
  Livestock which can be taken out of a herd (flock,
  etc.) and for marketing.
  出栏畜[牲畜]
  可ìX_®þ以出栏上市的牲畜。
  offtake rate [livestock]
  The rate at which livestock is withdrawn from a herd
  (flock, etc.) for marketing.
  出栏率[牲畜]
  可以出栏销售的牲畜占牲畜总数的比率。
  off-the-shelf
  现成的
  off-the-shelf goods
  Goods that are available ready made, i.e. that do not
  have to be custom made.
  现成货物
  指已经做成待售的货物,即非客户定做的货物。
  off-the-shelf purchases
  购买现成货物
  off-the-shelf price
  The price of goods obtained off the shelf.
  现成货物价格
  现成货物的价格。
  off-the-shelf technology
  现成技术
  oil
  油,燃油
  见 heating oil; heavy oil; heavy fuel oil
  oil bill [national]
  石油帐单[国家的]
  oil fired power station
  燃油发电站
  oil (drilling) rig, platform
  石油钻井机、石油钻井平台
  oil sands
  油砂
  oil shale
  油页岩
  oil shock
  石油危机
  oilcake
  油渣饼
  onchocerciasis; river blindness
  河盲症
  on-costs [UK]; indirect costs
  A cost not attributed to the production of a specified
  199
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  good or service but to an activity associated with
  production generally.
  外加成本[英国];间接成本
  不是由于生产某种货物或提供某种服务而产生
  的成本,而是和总的生产有关的一项活动的成
  本。
  on demand guarantee
  Guarantee, such as a performance guarantee, where
  the bank issuing the guarantee must pay the person
  or organization to whom the guarantee is given the
  sum guaranteed, on demand, without any reason
  being given.
  即付保证金
  一种凭要求即付的保证金,如履行保证金。发出
  这种保证的银行必需凭要求按保证金额悉数支
  付被保证人或组织,无需提供任何理由。
  one parent family
  单亲家庭
  one-shot survey
  一次性调查
  one-stop agency, shop
  System whereby several bureaucratic procedures are
  combined into one.
  一揽子机构,一揽子商店
  指把各种繁琐的官僚手续合而为一的制度。
  on-farm consumption
  农场消费
  on-farm developments, improvements
  农场发展,农场改进
  on-farm research - OFR
  农场研究(简写为OFR)
  onlend, to
  转贷
  onlending; onward lending
  Equivalent to relending in connection with new
  money loans. The funds are recorded as a deposit in
  the central bank but the foreign bank and the
  contractual borrower (usually the Central Bank)
  agree that the loan proceeds will be made available
  to a third party within the country of the borrower.
  转贷
  是与新货币贷款相关的再贷款的同意词。这项资
  金作为存款过户到中央银行,但外国银行和合同
  借款人(通常为中央银行)同意借款人所在国的
  第三方使用贷款资金。
  on-costs [UK]; indirect costs*
  外加成本[英国];间接成本
  onshore cost; local cost
  国内成本
  on-the-job training
  在职培训
  onward lending
  转贷
  见 onlending
  open cast, cut, pit, strip mining
  露天开采,露天开矿
  open economy
  An economy which engages in international trade.
  开放经济
  参与国际贸易的经济体。
  open-ended commitment
  无限制承诺
  open-ended contract; open-end contract
  A contract providing an unspecified amount of
  goods or services over a period of time, which may
  or may not be specified.
  不定量合同
  一项在一定时间内(可以或不予规定)提供不定
  数量的货物或劳务的合同。
  open-ended group
  不限成员名额的小组(团体)
  open-end (investment) fund; unit trust [UK]
  An investment company that sells and reclaims its
  capital stock continuously, selling it at book value,
  adding a sales charge, and redeeming it at a slight
  discount or at book value.
  开放型 (投资) 基金;无定额(投资)资金;单位
  信托基金[英国]
  一个不断出售和回购其股本的投资公司,出售时
  价格为帐面价值加销售费用;回购时价格则带少
  量折扣或为帐面价值。
  open general licence - OGL
  System where, for a previously approved list of
  commodities, qualified importers can automatically
  200
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  obtain licenses and unlimited foreign exchange from
  the authorities.
  开放型一般许可证
  在这种制度下,按照事先批准的商品目录单,合
  格的进口商可以自动获得许可证,并从当局无限
  制地取得外汇。
  open-hearth steelmaking
  平炉炼钢
  open market
  1. The market maintained by government
  securities dealers. As regards U.S. Treasury
  borrowing operations, the open market is the money
  market in the case of short-term obligations or the
  capital market in the case of long-term obligations.
  2. The general financial market.
  开放市场
  1、指由政府证券经纪人所维持的市场。就美国
  财政部借款业务而言,开放市场是短期债务的货
  币市场或长期债务的资本市场。
  2、指一般金融市场。
  open market operations*
  公开市场业务
  open pit, open cast, open cut, strip mining
  露天开采,露天采矿
  open registry flag; flag of convenience
  公开注册旗;方便旗
  open tender; public tender
  公开招标
  open unemployment
  公开失业
  operating account
  Revenue and expense account.
  营业帐户
  收入与支出帐户。
  operating budget
  A budget covering recurrent revenue and expense.
  营业预算
  包涵经常性收入和开支的预算。
  operating deficit
  营业亏损,营业赤字
  operating department
  A department in an organization which is
  responsible for the basic operating functions of the
  organization (as opposed to surpport department).
  营业部门,业务部门
  一个组织中负责基本业务职能的部门。(相对于
  辅助部门而言)。
  operating expenses, costs
  The expense, other than financing, of carrying on the
  normal activities of an enterprise.
  营业费用,营业成本
  企业进行正常活动(除了融资以外)所需的费用。
  operating income, profit
  营业收入,营业利润
  operating lease
  A lease where the asset is not wholly amortized
  during the obligatory period (if any) of the lease, and
  where the lessor does not rely for his profit on the
  rentals in the obligatory period. In other words, the
  payments received under the lease do not necessarily
  cover the purchase price, and the lessor expects to
  take the asset back and re-lease it or resell it.
  Operating leases are often offered by equipment
  manufacturers rather than finance houses.
  营业性租赁
  一种租赁业务,在这里,租赁期内租赁资产并不
  全部摊还,出租者的利润不取决于出租期内的租
  金收入。换言之,在出租期内收到的付款,不一
  定能弥补(设备)购价,出租人期望在租期满后
  收回资产重新出租或重新销售。营业性租赁通常
  是由设备制造商而不是由金融商所提供。
  operating leasing agreement
  Agreement with terms of at least three years where
  the lessor leases capital goods to a lessee and where
  rental payments are at least in part dependent on the
  production, revenues or profits of the investment
  project. Considered as a type of non-equity direct
  investment for the purposes of MIGA.
  营业性租赁协议
  协议期限至少三年。出租人把资本货物租赁给承
  租人,租金至少部分取决于该投资项目的生产、
  收入或利润。多边投资担保机构视其为一种非股
  本直接投资。
  operating losses
  营业损失
  operating profit, income
  营业利润
  201
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  operating program [IBRD]
  营业方案 [国际复兴开发银行]
  operating ratio
  The operating costs before debt service,
  depreciation and other financing charges, divided by
  operating revenues.
  营业比率
  即营业成本(在计入还债、折旧和其他融资费用
  之前)除以营业收入。
  operating subsidy
  业务补贴
  operating surplus
  业务盈余,营业盈余
  Operational Assistance - OPAS [UNDP]
  业务援助计划(简写为OPAS)[联合国开发计划
  署]
  operational cut-off; effective cut-off; operational
  threshold
  The maximum limit above which a country normally
  does not receive IDA financing. In theory, countries
  below the formal eligibility threshold can receive
  IDA financing but, with the exception of a few small
  island economies, do not.
  业务界限;有效界限;业务临界
  指一个国家一般不再能获得国际开发协会融资
  的最高限度。理论上讲,在正式合格限度以下的
  国家都可以获得国际开发协会融资,但实际上,
  除了少数小岛国以外,并不是这样。
  参见 formal eligibility threshold
  operational department [IBRD]
  业务部门[国际复兴开发银行]
  Operational Manual Statement - OMS
  业务手册条例(简写为OMS )
  Operational Monthly Summary*
  业务(项目)简况月报
  operational, operations research
  经营研究,业务研究
  operational review
  业务评审
  operational travel
  业务出差
  Operations & Maintenance - O & M
  营运与维修保养(简写为O&M)
  opportunity cost
  The value of something forgone. For example, the
  direct opportunity cost of a man-day of labor is what
  the man would otherwise have produced had he not
  been taken away from his usual occupation to be
  employed in a project.
  机会成本
  指放弃的东西的价值。举例来说,一个人/日的劳
  动的直接机会成本是:一个人如不是由于受雇于
  某一项目而离开他通常从事的工作所能生产的
  价值。
  亦见 social opportunity cost
  option bond
  选择债券
  见 multiple currency option bond
  option value
  The value given to keeping an asset (particularly an
  environmental one) for possible future use.
  选择价值
  为将来可能的用途,而保持一项资产(特别是环
  境资产)的价值。
  oral procedure [ICSID]
  口头程序[解决投资争端国际中心]
  oral rehydration therapy - ORT
  method of treating victims of acute diarrhoea by
  given them, orally, fluids containing oral
  rehydration salts which contain special substances to
  combat rehydration, such as sodium chloride,
  glucose, trisodium citrate or potassium chloride.
  (防痢疾患者脱水的)口服补液疗法(简写为ORT )
  一种治疗急性腹泻的方法,即通过给病人服用含
  有特殊物质(如氯化纳、葡萄糖、柠檬酸三纳或
  氯化钾等)的口服补液以防止脱水。
  orderly marketing arrangements - OMA
  In international trade, a market-sharing pact that
  restricts competition and preserves shares in
  national markets for local manufacturers who would
  otherwise lose out to cheaper or better products from
  abroad.
  有秩序的销售安排(简写为OMA)
  在国际贸易中,一种限止竞争和为本国制造商保
  留国内市场份额的市场分享公约,以防他们在来
  202
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  自国外的价廉物美的商品竞争中失败。
  ordinary share
  普通股
  见 common share
  organizational fine tuning
  机构微调
  organizational structure
  组织结构
  organization expenses; formation expenses
  Any cost incurred in establishing a corporation or
  other form of organization, such as incorporation,
  legal and accounting fees, promotional costs, etc.
  These constitute an intangible asset.
  组建费用,筹备费用
  指在建立一个公司或其他形式的组织时所发生
  的一切费用。如注册,法律和会计费,公关费用
  等等。这些组成了一项无形资产。
  original issue discount (OID) [bond]
  Bond with a rate of interest below that demanded by
  the market place and sold at a price at a significant
  discount to par.
  原发行面值折扣(简写为OID)[债券]
  一种利率低于市场需求水平的债券,在出售时价
  格按面值作相当大的折扣。
  original member [MIGA]
  Full member, i.e. has signed and ratified the
  Convention and paid initial capital subscription
  prior to adoption of Resolution No. 12.
  创始会员国[多边投资担保机构]
  即在多边投资担保机构“12号决议”之前签署和
  批准“多边投资担保机构公约”并缴付了初始认
  购资本的正式会员国。
  origin tax
  原产地税
  other official flows - OOF
  The transfer of resources from donor governments to
  developing countries which are not classified as
  official development assistance. This concept is
  used by the OECD to measure flows from DAC
  countries to developing countries and to multilateral
  organizations.
  其他官方资金流量(简写为OOF)
  指不列入官方发展援助类别的捐款国政府向发
  展中国家转移的资金。这一概念是经济合作与发
  展组织用以衡量从官方发展援助国家流向发展
  中国家和多边组织的资金流量的。
  outage [electricity]
  停电[电力]
  outgrower
  Smallholder who manages his own crops but is
  linked to a nucleus estate in the form of either a
  processing plant or a plantation. The central unit
  provides technical assistance, inputs and marketing
  services and the outgrowers sell their products
  through this unit.
  外围种植户
  这类小种植户经营自己的作物,但与一个中心场
  (站)相连,作为其加工厂或种植场。中心单位
  为其提供技术援助、投入物和销售服务,而小种
  植户通过这个中心出售他们的产品。
  



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