知识与资讯
专业词汇
 
世界银行业务词典(3)
发布时间:2011-7-18 10:47:00||  点击:5537次||  文章分类:专业词汇||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)


floodway; high-flow diversion
  Natural or man-made bypass channels or conduits
  that redirect flood waters around or away from urban
  centers or area of high population density.
  泄洪道,分洪道,溢流槽
  天然或人造的泄洪渠或泄洪管道,以引导洪水绕
  过或远离城市中心或人口稠密地区。
  floor price
  Usually established by the government, the smallest
  price that a seller is allowed to charge.
  底价,最低限价
  指通常由政府所规定的、卖方所允许使用的最低
  售价。
  floor rate of exchange
  The minimum rate of exchange.
  最低汇率
  floor return
  The amount of annual investment income projected
  at the beginning of the fiscal year for the Bank.
  最低收益
  世界银行在财政年度开始时所预测的年投资收
  入额。
  flotation [bonds]
  发行[债券]
  flotation costs [bonds]
  发行费用[债券]
  flow
  流动,流量
  见 capital flow; capital inflow; cash flow; cash
  inflows; concessional flow; discounted cash flow;
  financial flows; funds flows; inflow of capital;
  nonconcessional flows; official flows; other official
  flows; student flow
  flow chart; process chart
  A graph or chart that illustrates the movement of
  money, credit, goods or some other economic
  element through various stages. In computer
  terminology it is a diagram of the processing of a
  problem in a computer by means of symbols and
  lines to show either the logic and sequence of
  specific program operations or a system of
  processing to achieve certain objectives.
  流程图;工艺图
  一种表明货币、信用、货物或其他经济因素流经
  不同阶段的运动图表。在计算机术语中,为计算
  机处理一个问题的流程图,用符号和线条表明特
  定程序操作的逻辑和顺序,或达到某些目标的一
  种处理系统。
  flow meter; flowmeter
  A meter that indicates the rate of flow of water.
  流量表;流速仪
  表示水流速度的仪表。
  flow of funds
  资金流量
  见 funds flow
  fluidized bed combustion
  A method of burning particulate fuel such as coal in
  which the amount of air required for combustion far
  exceeds that found in conventional burners. The fuel
  125
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  particles are continually fed into a bed of mineral ash
  in the proportions of 1 part fuel to 200 parts ash,
  while a flow of air passes up through the bed,
  causing it to act like a turbulent fluid.
  流化床燃烧,沸腾床燃烧
  一种燃烧颗粒燃料(如煤炭)的方法。燃烧时的
  空气需求量远远超过常规燃烧器。燃料颗粒以1
  份燃料比200份矿粉的比率连续不断地投入到燃
  烧床上,同时气流不断从燃烧床下输入,使其看
  起来犹如沸腾的液体。
  focus group
  重点群体
  focusing effect
  In crop estimations, the effect of selecting one
  specific part of a field over another. In most cases,
  the tendency is to select the center part of the field,
  where crop density is likely to be higher, thereby
  leading to an upward bias in the estimates.
  聚焦效应
  指在估计作物产量时,选择农田的某一部分而不
  是其他部分的效应。在多数情况下,倾向于选择
  作物密度一般较高的农田中心部分,因而会导致
  估计偏高。
  follow-up
  后续的
  follow-up financing
  后续融资
  follow-up project
  后续项目
  food crop
  粮食作物
  food demand program
  食品需求计划
  food-for-work programme
  A programme set up under the World Food
  Programme where food is provided as part-payment
  to men and women engaged in community
  improvement programmes.
  以工代赈方案
  世界粮食计划署设立的一种规划:向参与社会改
  善方案的男女工人提供粮食,作为部分报酬。
  food grains
  食品粮
  food import dependency ratio
  The ratio of food imports to the food available for
  internal distribution, i.e. the sum of food production,
  plus food imports, minus food exports.
  食物进口依赖率
  指进口食物与国内可供分配食物(即食物总产量
  加上进口食物量减去出口食物量)的比率。
  food intake
  食物摄取量
  food plant
  粮食作物
  Food Price Index [IBRD]
  食品价格指数[国际复兴开发银行]
  food processing industry
  食品加工业
  food production
  食品生产
  food security
  The availability of adequate food supplies for a
  target population.
  食物安全,粮食安全
  指对目标人口具有足够的粮食供应。
  foodstuffs
  食品
  footloose industry
  Industry not bound to particular location by specific
  locational requirements and thus can effectively
  locate anywhere.
  可移动工业,可迁移工业,流动工业
  指没有特殊地点要求、不受地点限制,因而可以
  设在任何地方的工业。
  forage tree
  A tree whose leaves are used for forage.
  木本饲料作物
  一种树叶可作饲料的树木。
  forage unit
  Unit of measurement of the energy input of
  feedstuffs based on the net energy value of 1kg of
  barley.
  饲料单位
  根据1公斤大麦的净能量值衡量饲料能量投入的
  126
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  单位。
  force account, by/on [US]; direct labour [UK];
  direct work; departmental forces
  Used to describe a situation whereby the owner of a
  project uses his own labor force to undertake the
  project, rather than hiring contractors.
  (采取/使用)自营工程 [美国];直接用工工程[英
  国]
  项目业主使用自己的劳力而不是雇佣承包商来
  承建项目。
  forced investment
  A requirement placed on a commercial bank (usually
  in a developing country) that it make specific
  investments (e.g. x % of its portfolio must be
  agricultural investments), sometimes at a specific
  rate.
  强制投资
  对商业银行(一般是在发展中国家里)的一种特
  定投资要求(例如,其投资额中必须有一定比例
  投资于农业),有时还有具体的比率规定。
  forced sale
  强制出售
  见 liquidation value
  forced savings
  强制储蓄
  foreclosure
  取消抵押品赎回权
  foregone output
  放弃的产出
  见 forgone output
  foreign assets
  国外资产
  foreign borrowing
  国外借款
  foreign capital (official, private)
  (官方的,私人的)外国资本
  foreign currency, exchange
  外币,外汇
  foreign currency issue
  外币发行
  foreign exchange auction
  Auction of foreign currency, as used in some
  developing countries, whereby the price obtained for
  the foreign currency at the auction is the rate of
  exchange applied till the next auction.
  公开标售外汇,外汇拍卖
  一些发展中国家采用的外汇公开拍卖方式,在拍
  卖中形成的价格即为汇率,一直使用到下一次公
  开拍卖之前。
  foreign exchange component
  构成外汇部分
  foreign exchange cost
  外汇成本
  foreign exchange coverage fund
  外汇风险保证基金
  foreign exchange market
  外汇市场
  foreign exchange position
  外汇头寸
  foreign exchange reserves
  外汇储备
  foreign exchange resources
  外汇资源
  foreign exchange risk
  外汇风险
  foreign Investment Advisory Service*
  外国投资咨询服务[国际金融公司]
  foreign-owned
  外国所有的
  foreign price
  国外价格
  foreign tax credit
  国外税额减免
  foreign trade
  对外贸易,外贸
  forest canopy
  森林树冠层
  127
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  forest fallow
  All complexes of woody vegetation derived from the
  clearing of natural forest for shifting agriculture. It
  consists of a mosaic of various reconstitution phases
  and includes patches of uncleared forests and
  agriculture fields which cannot be realistically
  segregated and accounted area-wise, especially from
  satellite imagery. Forest fallow is an intermediate
  class between forest and non-forest land uses. Part
  of the area which is not under cultivation may have
  the appearance of a secondary forest. Even the part
  currently under cultivation sometimes has the
  appearance of forest, due to presence of tree cover.
  Accurate separation between forest and forest fallow
  may not always be possible.
  休耕林,轮耕林
  指天然森林斫伐清理后,准备转向农业使用过程
  中的所有林木植被复合地带。它由处于不同改造
  阶段的小块地片组成,包括未清理完的林区和农
  田,在面积上无法进行划分和测量(尤其是从卫
  星图片上看,更是如此)。休耕林是林地和非林
  地的中间阶段。林地中尚未耕作的部分看上去如
  同次生林。由于林木的覆盖,已耕种的部分有时
  看上去也像林地。对林地和休耕林地的精确划分
  有时是不大可能的。
  forest mining
  林区开采
  见 tree mining
  forfaiting
  The business of discounting medium-term promissory
  notes or drafts related to an international trade
  transaction. Repayments are semiannual and
  discounting is at a fixed rate.
  中期票据贴现
  国际贸易中对中期本票的贴现业务。每半年偿付
  一次,贴现率是固定的。
  forgiveness (of a debt)
  (债务)免除
  forgone output; foregone output
  The use of an input (e.g. labor) in a project which is
  thereby prevented from being used elsewhere.
  放弃的产出
  因将投入物(如劳力)用于一个项目从而不能用
  于别处所获得的产出。
  forgone revenues*
  放弃的收入
  form of bid, tender
  标书范本,标准投标格式
  form of contract
  标准合同
  formal adherence
  正式同意,正式执行
  formal credit
  正规信贷
  formal education
  正规教育
  formal eligibility threshold; eligibility threshold;
  eligibility ceiling
  The maximum limit above which a country is no
  longer eligible for IDA financing. In practice, only
  countries below the operational cut-off, with the
  exception of a few small island economies, receive
  IDA financing.
  正式合格限度;最高合格限度[国际开发协会]
  超过即不再有资格获得国际开发协会信贷的最
  高限度。实际上,除少数小的岛国外,只有那些
  低于业务截止线以下的国家得到国际开发协会
  的融资。
  formal sector
  正式部门
  formal suspension of disbursements [IBRD]
  正式暂停支付[国际复兴开发银行]
  formal vote [ICSID]
  正式表决[解决投资争端国际中心]
  formation expenses; organization expenses
  开办费
  forward budgeting
  Planning tool to determine government expenditures
  for the next few years.
  预期预算
  一种计划工具,用以确定今后数年的政府支出。
  forward cover
  The arrangement of a forward foreign exchange
  contract to protect a buyer or seller of foreign
  currency from unexpected fluctuations in the exchange
  rate.
  远期抛补,远期保护
  128
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  买卖远期外汇合同的安排,以保护外汇的买方或
  卖方不受外汇汇率意外波动的影响。
  forward exchange market
  外汇期货市场
  forward exchange rate
  期货汇率,远期汇率
  forward integration
  Refers to a firm whose activities extend over more
  than one subsequent stage of the production process
  of transforming raw materials into final goods.
  前向一体化,前向结合
  在原料转化为最终产品的过程中,企业的经营范
  围涉及其_____中一个以上的生产阶段。
  forward linkage of an industry
  The relationship between an industry or firm and
  other industries or firms which use its output as an
  input. A change in output or price will be transmitted
  forwards to users of its product.
  产业的前向联系
  一个产业或企业与另一些使用其产品作为投入
  的产业或企业之间的关系。前者的产出或价格上
  的变化会向前传播到其产品的用户。
  forward-looking
  向前看,有远见
  foundation seed
  The progeny of breeder, select or foundation seed
  handled to maintain specific genetic purity and
  identity.
  基础种子,第一代种子
  指繁殖用精选或基础种子的后代,经处理以保持
  特定的遗传纯度和同一性。
  founder's share
  Shares subscribed by original owners of a business.
  创办人股份
  企业最初的股东所认购的股份。
  frame agreement [IBRD]
  An agreement between the World Bank and a
  member country on cofinancing.
  框架协议[国际复兴开发银行]
  世界银行与一个会员国就联合贷款达成的协议。
  framework cooperative arrangement [MIGA]
  合作安排框架[多边投资担保机构]
  franchise
  特许权
  franchising agreement
  Agreement where the franchiser provides the
  franchisee with a package of resources such as
  trademarks, know-how and management assistance
  and where his remuneration depends, at least in part,
  on the production, revenues or profits of the
  investment project. Considered as a type of
  non-equity direct investment for the purposes of
  MIGA.
  特许权协议
  特许权授与者向特许权被授与者提供一揽子资
  源(包括商标、技术、管理援助等);其报酬取
  决于(至少部分取决于)投资项目的生产、收入
  或利润。就多边投资担保机构而言,这属于一种
  非股权直接投资。
  free alongside ship - FAS
  Applies to goods delivered alongside a specified
  ship at the quay or in lighters.
  (启运地)船边交货价格,靠船价格(简写为
  FAS)
  船靠码头后或在驳船上交货的价格。
  free carrier (named point) - FRC
  Applies to goods delivered into the custody of the
  carrier at the named point.
  (指定地点)承运人交货价(简写为FRC)
  在指定地点向承运人交货的价格。
  free-enterprise economy; free market economy
  自由企业经济;自由市场经济
  free (foreign) exchange
  Foreign exchange which is freely convertible.
  自由外汇
  可自由兑换的外汇。
  free funds [IDA]
  Funds provided to IDA in a freely convertible
  currency or in a member's currency if available for
  financing procurement in the territory of the
  member, if there is a reasonable expectation that
  such resources will be fully used for procurement in
  such territory during the disbursement period.
  自由资金[国际开发协会]
  (会员国)向国际开发协会提供的可自由兑换的
  货币或会员国的货币,用于在该会员国领土内进
  行的采购。条件是,根据合理的预期,这项资金
  在支付期内可以完全用于在该国领土内进行的
  129
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  采购。
  free in and out - fio
  A chartering term by which is meant that the owner
  who charters his ship is responsible for all the usual
  costs of ship management with the exception of
  loading and discharging cargo and of putting the
  vessel in dry dock if required to do so by the
  charterer.
  船方不负担装卸费用(简写为fio)
  包租用语,指出租船只的船东负担船只管理的所
  有一般费用,但不负担装卸费用和把船只放置于
  干船坞内(如租船者要求的话)的费用。
  free limit [IBRD]
  The limit on a free-limit loan.
  自由限额[国际复兴开发银行]
  对自由发放的贷款的限度。
  free-limit loan [DFCs]
  A loan which does not exceed the amount above
  which onlending is subject to official approval.
  自由限额内转贷贷款[开发金融公司]
  指未超过限额的转贷贷款,超过限额须经正式批
  准。
  free limit of loan [DFCs]
  自由贷款限额[开发金融公司]
  free-limit subloan
  A subloan which does not exceed the limit above
  which onlending is subject to Bank review.
  自由限额内的分贷款
  不超过限额的分贷款,超过限额的转贷须经世界
  银行审查。
  free market economy; free-enterprise economy
  自由市场经济;自由企业经济
  free of particular average - FPA
  Type of marine insurance which does not cover
  partial loss and damage.
  平安险,单损不赔(简写为FPA)
  海上保险的一种类型,不担保部分损失和损坏。
  free on board - FOB
  Applies to goods delivered and loaded onto a ship at
  a port of shipment specified in the sales contract.
  离岸价格,(启运地)船上交货价格(简写为
  FOB)
  适用于在售货合同中规定的启运地港口交货和
  装船的货物。
  free on board (FOB) port of shipment price
  启运口岸船上交货价格
  free on quay - FOQ; free on wharf - FOW
  Same as free alongside ship (FAS)
  码头交货价(简写为FOQ或FOW)
  与船边交货价(简写为FAS)相同。
  free on rail - FOR
  Applies to goods delivered and loaded to the
  railway.
  铁路交货价或火车交货价(简写为FOR)
  指发送并装上火车的货物。
  free on wharf
  码头交货价
  见 free on quay
  free port
  Area sometimes found in large ports where
  provision is made for reshipping imported goods
  without taking them through customs.
  自由港,无税港
  指在某些大港口内设置的区域。在那里,需要转
  运的进口货物按规定可以不通过海关。
  free reserves
  Total reserves held by a bank less reserves required
  by authorities.
  自由储备金,自由准备金
  银行持有的储备金总额,减去当局要求的储备
  金。
  free resource ratio
  自有资产与借入资产搭配率
  见 gearing ratio
  free rider [economics]
  In banking, a bank that collects full interest due on
  outstanding loans without contributing to the new
  money loans which provide, in part, the resources to
  pay future interest. In other contexts, any party that
  benefits from the activities of others without making
  any contribution.
  无本获利者,不担风险的取利者[经济学]
  在银行业务中,指一个银行只从现有未偿还贷款
  上收取全部应付利息,而不参与提供可以用来支
  付未来利息的新贷款。在其它情况下,指从他人
  的活动中获利而不作任何贡献的人。
  free-standing; self-contained
  独立的,自给自足的;自我配套齐全的
  130
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  free-standing loan
  独立的贷款
  free-standing project
  全套项目,独立项目
  free-standing technical assistance - FSTA
  Technical assistance independent of a loan.
  独立的技术援助(简写为FSTA)
  指独立于一笔贷款之外的技术援助。
  free trade
  自由贸易
  free trade area
  自由贸易区
  free trade zone - FTZ; bonded area
  自由贸易区(简写为FTZ);保税区
  freely convertible currency
  可自由兑换的货币
  freely usable currency
  1. Any currency designated as such by the
  International Monetary Fund from time to time.
  2. Any other freely available and effectively
  usable currency which the Board of Directors may
  designate for the purposes of the Convention after
  consultation with the International Monetary Fund
  and with the approval of the country of such
  currency. Will normally apply to the United States
  dollars, Japanese yen, Deutsche marks, French
  francs and pound sterling.
  可自由使用的货币
  1.国际货币基金组织有时指定的属这一类型的
  任何货币。
  2.任何经与国际货币基金组织磋商并征得该货
  币国家同意,由董事会为有关协定目的而指定
  的、可自由供应和有效使用的其它货币。通常应
  用于美元、日元、德国马克、法国法郎和英镑。
  freeze (of salaries, prices, etc.)
  (工资、物价等的)冻结
  亦见price freeze
  freeze drying
  冷冻干燥
  freezing, value freezing*
  价值冻结
  fresh fruit bunch - FFB
  鲜果束(简写为FFB)
  frictional unemployment
  摩擦性失业,短期失业
  fringe benefits
  附加利益,小额优惠
  front-end cost
  先期费用
  front-end fee
  Fee levied on borrower when a loan is first made.
  The World Bank used to levy a front-end fee on its
  loans but no longer does.
  先征手续费 [世界银行]
  在刚提供贷款时向借款人征收的一种费用。世界
  银行过去对其贷款实行先征手续费,但现在已经
  取消。
  frontier technology
  尖端技术
  front-loaded spending
  前紧后松的_____经费开支安排
  front loading
  前重后轻,前紧后松
  front loading of the subscription [IBRD]
  认缴股份的前重后轻[国际复兴开发银行]
  front office
  主管办公室
  frozen capital
  冻结资本
  fruit vegetable
  果类蔬菜
  fuel cell
  燃料箱;电池
  fuel efficiency
  燃料效率
  fuel oil
  燃料油
  131
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  full budgeting
  全面预算法
  full cost accounting
  A method of accounting in the oil and gas industry in
  which costs of unsuccessful acquisition and
  exploration activities are initially recorded as assets
  and then amortized as expenses as the total reserves
  in the cost center are produced.
  (会计)全部成本法;成本分摊法
  石油和天然气工业的一种会计方法。它最初把未
  成功的采集和勘探活动的费用作为资产入帐,然
  后待成本中心总的储备金产生之后,再进行分
  摊。
  (full cost) nominal budget planning, budgeting
  Budget planning based on a fixed overall sum for the
  budget, rather than for a fixed amount of items, with
  allowances for cost increases.
  (全成本)名义预算计划法、预算法
  在固定预算总额而不是固定科目数额基础上所
  作的预算计划,留有成本费用增加的余地。
  full cost pricing
  全部成本定价法
  full member
  正式成员,正式会员
  full development, at [project]
  全面执行[项目]
  full mission
  综合工作团
  full pay out lease
  费用全付租赁
  见 finance lease
  fully allocated cost
  Cost derived from the apportionment of the total
  costs of operating an enterprise by distributing this
  total among the various units or classes or service in
  such a manner that the sum of the costs imputed to
  each unit or class is made to equal the total costs.
  全部成本分摊
  从分摊总成本中得出的成本。方法是把经营一个
  企业的业务总成本分摊到各个单位、各级或各服
  务部门,使各单位或各级部门成本投入总和等于
  该企业的总成本。
  fully funded system
  全积累制
  fully paid stock
  已缴清的股份
  见 paid-in stock
  functional literacy
  粗识文字能力
  funded debt
  The debt of a business or government in the form of
  outstanding bonds and other long-term notes.
  长期债务
  企业或政府以未偿还债券和其他长期票据形式
  承担的债务。
  funding gap
  资金缺口
  funding latter maturities
  Type of IBRD “B” loan, whereby IBRD would take
  an initial share of the loan up to about 25 percent,
  concentrated in the latter maturities.
  后到期贷款融资
  国际复兴开发银行“B”类贷款的一种。国际复
  兴开发银行最初可提供份额25%的贷贷,最晚的
  那部分贷款集中于较晚的日期。
  funding pro rata
  Type of IBRD “B” loan, whereby IBRD takes a pro
  rata share of about 10 percent in each maturity of the
  commercial loan.
  按比例筹资
  国际复兴开发银行“B”类贷款的一种。国际复
  兴开发银行对不同期限的每一笔商业贷款按比
  例提供10%的融资。
  funds flow; flow of funds
  The flow of purchasing power into and out of an
  organization. Inward flows include sales revenue,
  sales of fixed assets and investments, and issues of
  debentures, loans, and shares. Outward flows
  include purchases of fixed assets and investments,
  repayment of debt, payment of dividends, and
  taxation on profits.
  资金流量;资金流动;资金流转
  指一个组织流入和流出的购买力。流入部分包括
  销售收入、固定资产的出售和投资、发行债券、
  贷款和股票;流出部分包括购买固定资产和投
  资、偿还债务、支付股息和交纳利得税。
  funds flow statement
  132
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  资金流动报表
  见 statement of changes in financial position
  funds-in-trust
  Funds held by one agency on behalf of another when
  the first agency is implementing a project on behalf
  of the other agency.
  信托基金
  指一个机构代表另一机构执行项目时,由前者代
  表后者保存的一笔基金。
  funds statement
  资金报表
  见 statement of changes in financial position
  fungible funds
  可代替资金
  fungible goods
  可替代货物
  funk money [UK]
  见 hot money
  furrow irrigation
  垄沟灌溉
  futures
  An agreement to take or make delivery of a specific
  commodity or instrument on a particular date.
  期货,期票
  规定在一定日期接收或交割某商品或金融票据
  的合同。
  futures market
  Market where futures contracts are bought and sold.
  期货市场
  买卖期货合同的市场。
  __
  
  133
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - G -
  galloping inflation
  奔腾的通货膨胀,急剧的通货膨胀
  game
  战略
  见 management game; negative sum game; plus
  sume game; zero sum game
  gap
  差距,缺口
  gap theory
  The process by which tropical forest regenerates
  spaces opened by windfalls.
  缺口原理
  热带森林在被大风刮倒的地区再生的过程。
  gas flaring
  The burning of gas in the field as a means of disposal
  when there is no market for the gas.
  天然气燃烧
  指在天然气没有销路时,将其在气田中焚烧的处
  理方法。
  gazetted (protected) public forest
  Woodlots which have been subjected to a formal act
  of classification or where the State has carried out
  reafforestation.
  公告的(保护的)公共森林
  指属于正式法定等级林或国家已进行重新造林
  的林地。
  gearing [UK]; leverage
  齿轮作用 [英国];杠杆作用
  gearing ratio; free resource ratio; capital gearing
  ratio
  1. [UK] [= leverage ratio in US] Ratio of
  debt/liabilities to equity/assets. Includes debt and
  debt-equity ratios.
  2. [IBRD] Ratio of capital plus reserves to loans
  outstanding and loans disbursed.
  搭配率,自有资金与借入资金比率;资本搭配率
  1.在英国指债务/负债与股本/资产之间的比率[等
  于美国的leverage ratio]。包括债务比率和债务-
  股本比率。
  2.在国际复兴开发银行,指资本加储备金对信贷
  余额和已支付贷款之间的比率。
  gearing ratio [IFC]
  Ratio of outstanding investments and guarantees to
  the capital base.
  资本搭配比率 [国际金融公司]
  指投资和担保余额与基础资本之间的比率。
  gender issues
  社会性别问题
  gene bank [plants]
  基因银行[植物]
  gene pool
  基因库
  General Algebraic Modeling System - GAMS
  [IBRD]
  通用代数模型系统(简写为GAMS)[国际复兴发
  银行]
  General Capital Increase - GCI
  普遍增资(简写为GCI)
  general cargo
  杂货
  general conditions of contract*
  合同的总则
  general contractor*
  普通承包商
  general equilibrium analysis
  全面均衡分析,综合平衡分析
  general equilibrium model
  总量平衡模型
  见 computable general equilibrium
  general government [national accounts]
  政府一般帐项[国民核算帐户]
  General Loss Reserve [IFC]
  Loss Reserve set up to replace Unidentified Loss
  Reserve. It broadens the reserve coverage to the
  entire disbursed portfolio, excluding the portion on
  which there are specific loss reserves.
  一般损失准备金[国际金融公司]
  这项准备金的设立是用来代替“未确定损失准备
  金”的。它把准备金的覆盖面扩大到全部已支付
  贷款,但不包括已设立专门损失准备金的部分。
  134
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  general price level accounting; price level
  accounting
  综合物价水平核算;物价水平核算
  general procurement notice
  A notice of bidding opportunities in a competitive
  bid. It should contain information concerning the
  recipient, amount and purpose of the loan, describe
  the goods and works to be procured, indicate the
  scheduled date for availability of documents and
  specify the Borrower's agency responsible for
  procurement. In the case of Bank loans these are
  normally published in the United Nations
  Development Forum, Business Edition.
  总采购公告,总招标通告
  指竞争性招标中的投标机会通告。其内容应包括
  借款人情况、贷款金额和用途、对要采购货物与
  工程的说明、可取得招标文件的预定日期以及负
  责采购工作的借款人代理机构。如属世界银行贷
  款,公告一般刊登在联合国《发展论坛报》商业
  版上。
  General Reserve(s) [IBRD]
  总储备金[国际复兴开发银行]
  Generalized System of Preferences - GSP
  普通优惠制,普惠制(简写为GSP)
  generated traffic
  新增交通量
  generic drug
  不注册的药品,不受注册商标保护的药品
  geothermal deposit
  地热储量
  germplasm
  种质
  gestation period*
  酝酿阶段
  ghost fishing
  Fish killed by being caught in lost or discarded
  fishing nets, traps and other fishing gear.
  幻影捕鱼
  鱼类误入丢失或被废弃的鱼网或其他捕鱼器具
  而致死。
  ghost worker
  Worker who is drawing pay but is not actually doing
  any work, e.g. because he is dead, does not exist or is
  doing another job.
  影子工人
  领取工资而实际上不做任何工作的_____工人,例如已
  死亡的、不存在的或者在从事其它工作的工人。
  gill fishing
  Fishing using a flat net suspended vertically in the
  water with meshes that allow the head of a fish to
  pass but entangles its gill covers as it seeks to
  withdraw.
  刺网捕鱼,粘网捕鱼
  指使用一种悬垂于水中的平网捕鱼,在鱼头穿过
  网眼而企图退出时,缠住腮盖。
  gilt-edged securities
  金边证券,金边债券
  ginning [cotton]
  轧花 [棉花]
  Global Cap Authority [IFC]
  Authority given by the Board to IFC to purchase
  contracts with interest rate ceilings (caps) and then
  sell to its borrowers. It reflects the total amount of
  caps, in dollars, that IFC is authorized to make.
  全球性利率限额合同购买权[国际金融公司]
  世界银行执行董事会对国际金融公司的一项授
  权,使其可以在市场上购买有利率上限的合同,
  然后将其售与其借款人。它反映了国际金融公司
  被授权买卖这类限额合同的总额,以美元计算。
  global commons
  The elements of the Earth and atmosphere,
  comprising the oceans and sea bed, the atmosphere
  and outer space, which are not the property of any
  one nation or individual and are therefore deemed to
  the property of all.
  全球共同财产
  地球和大气的成份,包括海洋和海床,大气和外
  层空间,都不是任何一个国家和个人的财产,因
  此应认为是所有人类的共同财产。
  global depositary receipt - GDR
  Instrument that allows trading of stocks on foreign
  exchanges when the country concerned will not
  allow foreign ownership of the stock of domestic
  firms. The shares are deposited with a bank in the
  country of incorporation and an affiliate or
  correspondent bank in other countries issues
  depositary receipts for the securities. They can then
  135
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  be traded on stock exchanges in the same way as
  other securities. Used, for example, in Korea.
  全球股票代存收据(简写为GDR)
  一种金融工具,它允许在外国的交易所进行股票
  交易。这是在有关国家不允许外国人拥有本国企
  业股票的情况下采用的办法。即把股票(股份)
  存入组建公司所在国的一家银行里,由在其他国
  家中的一个附属机构或对应银行发出代存证券
  收据,从而使它们可以在证券交易所像其他证券
  一样进行交易。这种办法曾在韩国使用过。
  Global Swap Authority [IFC]
  Authority given to IFC by the Board to borrow from
  the markets up to a level of US$250 million
  equivalent through private placements and direct
  institutional loans.
  全球互换权[国际金融公司]
  世界银行执董会给予国际金融公司的一种权利,
  使其可以从市场上通过私人募集和直接机构贷
  款,借到最高相当于2.5亿美元的贷款。
  global warming
  The predicted excessive warming of the atmosphere,
  as a result of the accumulation of atmospheric
  carbon-based and other heat absorbing gases.
  全球变暖
  由于大气中的碳基气体和其他吸热气体积累的
  结果,预测大气在变得过暖。
  global warming potential - GWP
  The extent to which individual emissions contribute
  to global warming.
  全球变暖的潜能(简写为GWP)
  指个别的废气排放影响全球变暖的程度。
  globalization
  全球化,全球性
  glued-together household
  (由共同利益)粘合起来的家庭
  GNP price deflator
  国民生产总值物价缩减指数
  going concern
  经营中的企业;现时问题
  going price
  通行价格,现行价格
  gold content (e.g. of US dollar)
  The amount of gold formally maintained in the legal
  tender of a currency. From January 1934 to May
  1972, the gold content of the United States dollar
  was 0.888671 gram of fine gold. This dollar was
  used as the common denominator of the value of
  capital subscriptions for the Bank and Fund.
  Because the US changed the value of the US dollar,
  partially because of the abolition of the official price
  of gold, the Fund (in 1978) and the Bank (in 1986)
  ceased to used the US dollar for this purpose and
  adopted the Special Drawing Right in its place.
  含金量(例如美元的含金量)
  指一国货币正式规定的含金量。从1934年1月至
  1972年5月,美元的含金量是0.888671克纯金。
  这种美元一直用作为世界银行和国际货币基金
  组织认_____购股份的价值的共同标准。由于美国改变
  了美元的价值,部分由于黄金官价的废除,国际
  货币基金组织(在1978年)和世界银行(在1986
  年)相继停止了使用美元于此目的,改用特别提
  款权。
  gold holdings
  黄金持有量
  gold-pegged currency
  与黄金挂钩的货币
  gold value
  黄金价值
  golden share
  Single share in a privatized company which gives the
  holder (usually the government) the right to block
  certain key decisions.
  金股
  经过私有化改造的公司给予股东(通常为政府)
  的单一股份,使其有权对某些关键性决策进行否
  决。
  good practice project
  Project using good project design and a good
  approach to a special operational emphasis area,
  such as women in development.
  使用“好经验”的项目
  在某一具体业务重点领域内(如妇女发展),采
  用好的项目设计和好的做法的项目。
  goods and services
  货物和服务
  goodwill
  商誉,信誉
  136
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  goodwill clause
  A clause in a Paris Club loan agreement that
  commits the creditors to consider debt relief after the
  end of the stipulated consolidation period. In return,
  creditor countries ask the debtor country to meet two
  conditions. Firstly, the debtor country must have
  secured debt relief from creditors not covered by the
  Paris Club agreement and secondly at the time the
  creditors agree to review the need for further debt
  relief, the country remains eligible for use of upper
  credit tranche IMF resources.
  友善条款,善意条款
  巴黎俱乐部贷款协定中的一项条款,规定债权国
  在规定的合并期结束后进行债务减免。作为回
  应,债权国要求债务国满足两个条件:第一,债
  务国必须享有巴黎俱乐部协议以外的债权国有
  保证的债务减免;第二,在债权国同意对进一步
  给予债务减免的必要性进行审查时,债务国仍然
  能合格使用国际货币基金组织的高档信贷资金。
  governance
  The exercise of political power to manage a nation's
  affairs. Public service that is efficient, a judicial
  system that is reliable and an administration that is
  accountable to its public.
  管理,控制
  指行使政治权利来管理一个国家的事务,建立有
  效的公共服务、可靠的法律制度以及对公众负责
  的行政当局。
  governing law
  管理法,控制法
  government
  政府
  government bond
  政府债券,公债,国库券
  government expenditure
  政府财政支出,国家开支
  government-owned programs
  政府承认的规划,政府视为己出的规划,政府同
  意的规划
  government paper
  政府发行的有价证券,政府债券
  government receipts, revenues
  政府收入,政府财政收入,岁入
  government securities
  政府债券
  government services
  政府提供的服务
  grace period
  The period allowed in a loan schedule during which
  repayments of loan principal need not be made.
  宽限期
  在贷款的还款时间表中,规定可以不偿还本金的
  一段时间。
  grade creep
  Tendency for the employees of an organization to be
  in a higher average classification as people rise up
  the scale but do not leave the organization.
  逐步升级
  在一个组织内,在不离开该组织的情况下,职工
  逐步向上升级进入较高类别的趋势。
  grade ratio; retention rate [education]
  Ratio between enrolment in a given grade and
  enrolment in the previous grade the previous school
  year.
  升级比率[教育]
  指一个年级的入学学生与上一个年级上一个学
  年的入学学生的比率。
  grading
  定级
  见 land grading
  graduate, to [Bank, IDA]
  毕业[世界银行,国际开发协会]
  graduated tax
  累进税
  graduation [IBRD]
  毕业[国际复兴开发银行]
  graduation mission [IBRD]
  毕业检查团[国际复兴开发银行]
  grandfather clause
  不追溯条款
  grant basis, on a
  按赠款执行
  grant element
  137
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  赠与成分
  grant equivalent
  赠款等额
  grant-in-aid
  援助性捐赠
  grant-like contribution
  捐赠性资助
  graphical user interface - GUI
  (计算机)图形用户界面(简写为GUI)
  grass root plant; greenfield plant
  首建工厂;新建工厂
  grass root(s) level, at the
  基层
  grass roots organization
  基层组织
  graveling; regraveling
  铺砾石;重铺砾石
  gravel road
  砾石路
  gravity check irrigation
  自流畦沟灌溉
  见 bordercheck irrigation
  gravity irrigation
  自流灌溉
  gray cotton; light gray cotton; blue stained cotton
  A discolored cotton which has been stained to a gray
  color by exposure.
  灰色棉花;浅灰色棉花;兰色玷污棉花
  由于暴露在外而变为灰色的褪色棉花。
  gray market
  灰市
  见 grey market
  green projects
  Projects concerned with the promotion of
  sustainable natural-resource management and the
  reduction of resource degradation, including
  agriculture and land management, forest
  management, water-resource and watershed management,
  marine and coastal-zone management, and
  biodiversity conservation.
  绿色项目
  指与促进可持续的自然资源管理和减少资源退
  化有关的项目,包括农业和土地管理、森林管理、
  水资源和水流域管理、海洋和沿海地区管理以及
  生物多样性保护等。
  参见 blue projects, brown projects
  greenfield investment
  在某一领域做首次投资
  greenfield plant; grass root plant
  首建工厂,新建工厂
  greenfield project
  首建项目,新建项目
  greenhouse effect
  Increased retention of heat energy by the Earth's
  atmosphere as a result of increased emissions of
  carbon-based and other heat absorbing gases,
  including chlorofluorocarbon and carbon dioxide.
  温室效应
  由于不断增加的碳基和其他吸热气体的排放,包
  括氟氯烃和二氧化碳,致使滞留在地球大气中的
  热能不断增加。
  greenhouse gas - GHG
  Gas that helps cause the greenhouse effect. Includes
  carbon dioxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbons.
  温室气体(简写为GHG)
  造成温室效应的气体,包括二氧化碳、甲烷和氟
  氯烃。
  greenhouse index
  Net emissions of three major greenhouse gases
  (carbon dioxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbons),
  with each gas weighted according to
  its heat trapping quality, in carbon dioxide
  equivalents and expressed in metric tons of carbon
  per capita.
  温室指标
  指三种主要的温室气体(二氧化碳、甲烷和氟氯
  烃)的净排放量,每种气体都按其热吸附质能加
  权,折算成二氧化碳当量,并以人均碳公吨表示。
  green labeling
  Labeling goods that are considered environmentally
  sound. Has been proposed for wood grown under
  sustainable conditions.
  绿色标签
  138
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  给认为是环境安全的物品加上绿色标签。这种做
  法已被建议用于在可持续的条件下生长的树林。
  green manure
  绿肥
  grey market; gray market
  Market in bonds that have not been given a firm
  price.
  灰市
  指未发实盘的债券市场。
  gross budget
  Bank budget including non-Bank resources (e.g.
  from Trust funds and reimbursable programs).
  总预算
  包括非世界银行资源(例如来自信托基金、可偿
  还规划的资源)在内的世界银行预算。
  gross calorific value - GCV; gross heating value -
  GHV; higher heating value
  Total amount of heat produced by combustion.
  总产热值(简写为 GCV);总热值(简写为GHV);
  高热值
  指燃烧产生的总热值。
  gross disposable income *
  可支配收入总额
  gross domestic income - GDY
  Gross income from domestic as opposed to foreign
  sources.
  国内总收入(简写为GDY)
  来自国内的总收入,与来自国外的相区别。
  gross domestic investment - GDI
  Outlays for additions to the fixed assets of the
  economy plus the net value of inventory changes.
  国内投资总额(简写为GDI)
  一个国家增加的固定资产开支,加上存货变动的
  净值。
  gross domestic product - GDP
  国内生产总值(简写为GDP)
  亦见commercial, commercialized GDP,
  monetized GDP
  gross domestic product at factor cost
  The gross domestic product at market prices minus
  the difference between indirect taxes and subsidies.
  按要素成本计算的国内生产总值
  按市场价格计算的国内生产总值,减去间接税与
  补贴之间的差额。
  gross domestic product at market prices
  The sum of the income accruing from production,
  i.e. the provision for consumption of fixed assets,
  compensation of employees, operating surplus and
  the excess of indirect taxes over subsidies.
  按市场价格计算的国内生产总值
  ____指
  
  142
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - H -
  hairy cotton; upland cotton
  茸棉;旱地棉
  halfway country
  A country that is on the way to being industrialized
  but is not yet fully industrialized.
  半发达国家,半工业化国家
  指一个正处于工业化过程中但还没有完全实现
  工业化的国家。
  handles
  手段,能力
  见 tax handles
  handling charges
  手续费,搬运费
  harbor dues, fees; port dues
  Charged for the use of the port by the ship and its
  cargo.
  港务费,入港税
  指对船舶及其货物使用港口收取的费用。
  hard-blend countries
  Country receiving more loans from IBRD than
  credits from IDA.
  硬贷款比重大的国家
  接受国际复兴开发银行贷款多于国际开发协会
  信贷的国家。
  hard coal; anthracite
  硬煤,无烟煤
  hard component [projects]
  硬件成分 [项目]
  hard copy
  打印出的文本
  hard core [projects]
  实质,核心[项目]
  hard currency; strong currency
  硬通货
  hard loan
  硬贷款,国际复兴开发银行的贷款
  hard loan window
  硬贷款窗口
  hardening of loan terms
  提高贷款条件,贷款条件的苛刻化
  hardship allowance
  艰苦地区补贴
  hardware
  硬件
  harmonic mean [statistics]
  A special kind of mean which is determined by
  calculating the mean of the reciprocals of the values
  concerned and then calculating the reciprocal of this
  quantity.
  调和平均数,倒数平均数[统计]
  一种特殊的均数,求得方法是先求出有关倒数的
  均数,再求出这一均数的倒数。
  harnessing
  治理,利用
  harvest fishery
  捕鱼业
  见 capture fishery
  hardwood forest
  硬木林,阔叶树林
  head gate structure [irrigation]
  渠首闸门,总水闸门[灌溉]
  head hunting
  物色人才,猎头
  head tax; poll tax; capitation tax
  人头税
  headcount index (measure) of poverty; headcount
  ratio - HCR
  A useful way to measure poverty by expressing the
  number of poor as a proportion of the population
  although it ignores the extent to which the poor fall
  below the poverty line.
  贫困人口(衡量)指标;贫困人口比(简写为HCR)
  即贫困人口与总人口的比例,是衡量贫困程度的
  一种有益的方法,然而没有考虑到贫困线以下穷
  人的贫困程度。
  headroom [World Bank]
  The difference between the statutory lending limit
  143
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  and the value of loans that are disbursed and
  outstanding.
  净空
  指贷款的法定限额和支付未偿还贷款余额之差。
  health delivery system
  医疗保健制度,医疗保健系统
  health maintenance organization - HMO
  An organized health care delivery system where
  participants pay a fixed, regular sum and receive an
  agreed range of health services from an approved set
  of health care providers. Health system where
  medical care is provided directly by salaried
  employees in facilities owned by the HMO.
  医疗保健组织(简写为 HMO)
  一个有组织的医疗保健系统,参加者支付一笔固
  定的经常性费用,从一个经批准的医疗保健机构
  接受经同意的一定范围的医疗服务。这是一种由
  医疗保健组织所属机构雇佣的人员直接提供医
  疗服务的医疗制度。
  health post
  保健站
  health screening
  健康检查,体检
  heating oil
  取暖用油,供暖用油
  heat rate
  热耗率,热容量
  heat trapping
  The ability of a gas to prevent heat escaping from the
  Earth's atmosphere.
  保温
  指某种气体阻止热量从地球大气中消失的能力。
  heat trapping gas
  Gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, that trap
  heat in the ozone layer.
  保温气体
  指某种气体(如二氧化碳和甲烷)能保持臭氧层
  中热量的能力。
  heat value
  热值
  heavy commodities
  重型货物,重型商品
  heavy engineering industry
  重型机械工业
  heavy fuel oil
  重燃料油
  heavy industry
  重工业
  heavy oil
  重油
  hedge [securities market]
  Security acquired to cover possible loss on
  speculative investments.
  套头交易,套期保值,套购保值 [证券市场]
  为避免投机性投资可能造成的损失而购买的证
  券。
  hedge buying*
  买进保值期货,买期保值
  hedge clause
  避责条款,套头交易条款,套头保值条款
  hedge selling*
  卖出保值期货,卖期保值
  hedging
  套头交易,套期保值,套购保值, 对冲买卖
  hedonic price analysis
  Economic analysis technique which takes into
  account the implicit prices of specific characteristics
  of properties. For example, in the environment field,
  it places value on improvements or deterioration in
  environmental quality.
  愉悦价格分析法
  一种考虑到事物某些特性的隐含价格的经济分
  析方法。比如,在环境领域里,它对环境质量的
  改善或恶化给予估价。
  held protfolio [IFC]*
  持有的投资总额[国际金融公司]
  herbaceous cotton; Levant cotton; American short
  staple cotton; Arabian cotton
  草本棉;黎凡特棉;美国短绒棉;阿拉伯棉
  hidden hunger
  隐性饥饿
  144
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  hidden inflation
  隐性通货膨胀
  hidden profits*
  隐性利润
  hidden reserves
  帐外物资,隐匿资产,隐蔽储备
  hidden unemployment; concealed, covert, disguised
  unemployment
  隐性失业,变相失业
  high absorber [oil exporter]
  Oil exporting capital surplus country which is a net
  importer of capital and has been able to make full
  use of revenues from oil production for domestic
  development. Includes Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon,
  Indonesia, Nigeria and Venezuela.
  吸收能力强的国家 [石油输出国]
  指资本盈余的石油出口国,既是净资本输入国,
  又能充分利用石油生产的收入来发展国内经济
  的国家,如阿尔及利亚、厄瓜多尔、加蓬、印度
  尼西亚、尼日利亚和委内瑞拉等。
  high-flow diversion
  分洪道
  见 floodway
  high fructose corn syrup - HFCS
  高果糖玉米糖浆(简写为HFCS)
  high income countries
  高收入国家
  high performing economy
  业绩好的经济
  high school
  高中
  见 junior high school
  high-power(ed) money
  高能货币
  higher heating value; gross heating value - GHV;
  gross calorific value - GCV
  Total amount of heat produced by combustion.
  高热值;总热值(简写为GHV,GCV)
  燃烧产生的总热量。
  higher income brackets
  高收入档次
  higher level staff
  高级职员
  higher training
  高级培训
  highest bidder
  出价最高的投标人
  highland rice; upland rice; mountain rice
  旱稻、高原稻,山地稻
  highly indebted country
  高债务国
  highly leveraged
  杠杆作用大的,负债对资产比率高的
  Highways Design and Maintenance Model - HDM
  [IBRD]
  A mathematical model based on two earlier models
  developed by the Massachusetts Institute of
  Technology and the Transport and Road Research
  Laboratory, UK, used to determine the total
  life-cycle transportation cost, provide economic
  comparisons for large numbers of alternative
  designs and maintenance policies and search for the
  lowest total cost alternative.
  公路设计和养护模型(简写为 HDM)[国际复兴
  开发银行]
  一个数学模型,是以麻省理工学院和英国运输与
  公路研究实验所早期开发出的两个模型为基础
  建立的。该模型用以决定公路整个生命周期的运
  输成本,对大量的替代性设计方案和养护政策进
  行经济比较,并找到最低总成本替代方案。
  hillside farming
  坡地农业,梯田农业
  hire purchase [UK]
  租购,分期付款购货 [英]
  historical cost
  历史成本,原购入成本
  historically valued assets
  按原价计值的资产,按历史成本计值的资产
  hit-and-run project
  145
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  Project where an investor takes advantage of local
  tax laws to operate a project (e.g. mining, textiles)
  under a tax-free regime and then withdraws as soon
  as he is liable for taxation, often leaving severely
  depreciated equipment or exhausted mineral
  reserves.
  游击项目
  指投资者利用当地税法,在免税制度下经营的项
  目(如采矿、纺织),并在一旦符合征税条件时
  立即撤出,常常遗留下一批折旧严重的设备和耗
  竭的矿藏。
  holding company
  控股公司
  holdings [foreign exchange, gold]
  (外汇、黄金)持有额
  home country [MIGA]
  The country or countries whose membership in
  MIGA made the Guarantee Holder eligible under
  Article 12 of the Convention Establishing MIGA to
  receive the guarantee provided for in a contract.
  当事国,所在国[多边投资担保机构]
  多边投资担保机构的会员国。这些国家的受保_____人
  有资格根据多边投资担保机构公约第12条的规
  定,接受为合同提供的担保。
  home leave allowance [World Bank]
  回国探亲津贴 [世界银行]
  horizontal equity
  Treating taxpayers with the same amount of income
  equally irrespective of the source of income.
  横向均等
  同等对待收入相同的纳税人,而不管其收入的来
  源。
  horizontal integration
  横向联合,横向一体化
  host country [MIGA]
  A member, its government or any public authority of
  a member in whose territories, as defined in article
  66 of the Convention, an investment which has been
  guaranteed or reinsured, or is considered for
  guarantee or reinsurance by MIGA is to be located.
  东道国
  会员国、会员国政府或会员国的任何公共机构。
  其领土上(按《公约》第66条定义)有一笔投资
  已经得到多边投资担保机构的担保或再保险,或
  已考虑予以担保或再保险。
  Host Organization [ICSID]
  东道组织 [解决投资争端国际中心]
  hot money; funk money [UK]
  Short-term international capital movements,
  motivated by interest rate differentials or revaluation
  hopes/devaluation fears.
  游资;外逃资金[英国]
  由利率差别、升值期望或贬值恐惧所驱使的短期
  国际资本流动。
  house connection
  居民住宅管道连接
  household expenditure survey - HES
  家庭开支调查(简写为HES)
  household goods
  家用货品
  household survey
  家计调查
  household waste collection charge
  Charge levied for removal of household waste.
  住户垃圾收集费
  为清理住户垃圾而征收的费用。
  housing expenses/income ratio; affordability ratio
  The ratio of expenditure on housing to total income.
  住房支出/收入比率;承受率
  住房支出与总收入的比率。
  housing stock
  房产
  hub and spoke system
  辐射状交通系统
  human immunodeficiency virus - HIV
  人体免疫缺乏病毒,艾滋病病毒(简写为HIV)
  human resource development
  人力资源开发
  human settlements
  人类居住区
  hurdle rate
  A somewhat arbitrary rate of return, related to the
  current cost of borrowing money, set by a
  146
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  government or company to guide investment
  decisions. Below this limit, investment is normally
  considered inadvisable.
  临界获利率,最低预期资本回收率
  指政府或公司为了引导投资决策,结合现行借款
  费用制订的人为收益率。低于这个利率限度的投
  资通常被认为是不可取的。
  husbandry
  牧业
  见 animal husbandry
  husk, to; dehusk, to
  脱壳
  hybrid capital base [IFC]
  Capital base consisting of current paid-in capital and
  retained earnings to support growth in operations
  with the debt-equity ratio not exceeding 2.5:1,
  combined with new callable capital to support
  investment growth in a 1:1 gearing ratio.
  混合资本基础[国际金融公司]
  指包括目前已缴资本和留存盈利在内的资本基
  础,用以支持债务-股本比率不超过2.5:1的业务
  增长;加上新的催交资本,以支持一项资本搭配
  比率为1:1的投资增长。
  hydrant; standpipe; standpost
  消防龙头;竖立水管;消防栓
  hydrocracking
  氢化裂解,加氢裂化
  hydrodevelopment
  水利开发,水电开发
  hydroelectric power; hydropower
  水利发电
  hydrofluoroalkane - HFA
  An alternative name for chlorofluorocarbons,
  thought up by the wily manufacturers of
  chlorofluorocarbons, to avoid the bad press.
  氢氯烃(简写为 HFA)
  系氟氯烃的另一名称,是精明的氟氯烃制造商为
  逃避对其不利的新闻舆论而想出来。
  hydrochlorofluorocarbon - HCFC
  A substitute for chlorofluorocarbons.
  氢氯氟烃(简写为HCFC)
  一种氟氯烃的替代物。
  hydrofluorocarbon - HFC
  A substitute for chlorofluorocarbons.
  氢氯烃(简写为HFC)
  一种氟氯烃的替代物。
  hydropower; hydroelectric power
  水力发电
  __
  147
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - I -
  ICSID clauses
  解决投资争端国际中心条款
  IDA-eligible country
  Developing country which is entitled to receive IDA
  credits because its per capita income is below the
  IDA norm.
  符合国际开发协会信贷条件的国家
  由于人均国民收入低于国际开发协会标准,因而
  有资格接受国际开发协会发放的信贷的发展中
  国家。
  IDA flows*
  国际开发协会资金流动
  IDA management fee
  国际开发协会管理费
  IDA recipient
  国际开发协会受援国
  IDA reflows
  Payments received by IDA in the form of
  reimbursements for credits made.
  国际开发协会资金回流
  指国际开发协会收到的、对已发放的信贷的偿还
  款项。
  IDA's “free-funds”
  Funds provided to IDA in a freely convertible
  currency or in a member's currency if available for
  financing procurement in the territory of the
  member, if there is a reasonable expectation that
  such resources will be fully used for procurement in
  such territory during the disbursement period.
  国际开发协会“自由资金”
  (会员国)向国际开发协会提供的可自由兑换的
  货币或用于在该会员国领土内进行采购的会员
  国货币。条件是,根据合理的预期,这项资金在
  支付期内可以完全用于在该国领土内进行的采
  购。
  idle cash
  闲置现金、游资
  IFC Global Indexes (IFCG Indexes)
  The IFCG Indexes are neutral and reliable
  benchmarks of emerging markets' performance,
  calculated in a uniform manner. They include price
  and total return indexes for 20 emerging markets, as
  well as a composite index for those 20 markets and
  regional indexes for Latin America and Asia. Stocks
  are selected for inclusion in each index on the basis
  of three criteria: market capitalization, liquidity, and
  industry classification.
  国际金融公司全球指数(简写为IFCG Indexes)
  是衡量新兴市场表现业绩的中立、可靠的基准指
  数。它包括20个新兴市场的价格和总收益指数,
  以及这20个市场的综合指数和拉美、亚洲的地区
  指数。每一指数中的入选股票都是根据3项标准
  确定的,即市场资本化程度、流动性和产业分类。
  IFC Investable Indexes (IFCI Indexes)
  These Indexes are calculated using the same factors
  as the IFC Global Indexes but also take into account
  the extent to which national laws, regulations, or
  company statutes prohibit or limit foreign
  ownership. They thus provide global investors with
  a definitive benchmark of the performance of stocks
  in emerging markets in which they can invest.
  国际金融公司可投资指数(简写为IFCI Indexes)
  这些指数是采用与国际金融公司全球指数相同
  的因素进行计算的,但也考虑到国家法律、规定
  或公司法令禁止或限制外国所有权的程度。因
  此,它们向全球投资者提供新兴市场上可供投资
  的股票的明确的业绩基准。
  IFC risk assets-equity ratio
  Ratio calculated by measuring the risk content of
  IFC's assets in relation to the sum of paid-in capital
  and retained earnings.
  国际金融公司风险资产-股本比率
  根据国际金融公司资产的风险含量与已缴资本
  和留存盈利之间的关系计算出来的比率。
  IFC service and support fee*
  国际金融公司劳务和支持费
  illegal housing
  非法住房、违章住房建筑
  illegality clause
  Clause in a loan agreement which allows the lender
  to ask for repayment of his funds if a change in
  national legislation obliges him to withdraw from
  the loan.
  不合法(或违约)条款
  贷款协定中的一项条款,允许贷款人在国家法规
  变化迫使其撤销贷款时,要求偿还他的资金。
  illiteracy rate
  148
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  Proportion of population 15 years and older who
  cannot, with understanding, both read and write a
  short simple statement on every day life.
  文盲率
  不能在理解的基础上读懂并写出一个简短日常
  生活用语的15岁及15岁以上人口的比率。
  immunity from taxation
  免税
  impact (evaluation) report
  效果(评价)报告
  Implementation Completion Report - ICR
  项目竣工报告(简写为 ICR)
  implementation review*
  执行情况检查
  implementing agency
  执行机构,实施机构
  imple, menting agreement
  执行协议,实施协议
  implicit deflator
  Obtained by taking each component of gross
  national product in as fine detail as possible and
  deflating it from current data. Once deflated the
  components are again aggregated to obtain GNP in
  constant dollars.
  隐性物价缩减指数
  该指数尽可能细地抽取国民生产总值的各个组
  成部分,从现有数据中折算得出。折算后再重新
  合并,从而得出以不变美元计算的国民生产总
  值。
  implicit gross domestic product deflator
  A deflator calculated by dividing, for each year of
  the period, the value of GDP in current market prices
  by the value of GDP in constant market prices, both
  in national currency.
  隐性国内生产总值缩减指数
  该缩减指数的计算方法是用一定时期内各年度
  按现行市场价格计算的国内生产总值除以按不
  变价格计算的国内生产总值(均按国内货币计
  算)。
  implied money control theory
  隐性货币控制论
  import coefficient
  进口系数
  import component
  进口构成部分
  import coverage index
  进口覆盖指数
  import coverage ratio
  The rate at which imports are covered by exports.
  进出覆盖比率
  指出口对销进口的比率。
  import growth rate
  进口增长率
  import-intensive
  进口密集
  import levy
  进口税收、征收进口税
  import licensing
  进口许可证制度
  import parity price
  The estimated price at the farm gate or project
  boundary derived by adjusting the cif or fob prices
  by all the relevant charges between the farm gate and
  the project boundary and the point where the cif or
  fob price is quoted.
  进口平价,进口等值价格
  农场门口或项目边界交货的估价,是根据农场门
  口至项目边界地和到岸价或离岸价的报价点之
  间的各项相关收费进行调整后的到岸价和离岸
  价得出的。
  import penetration ratio*
  进口渗入率
  import substitution industries*
  进口替代工业
  import quota
  进口配额
  import subsidy
  进口补贴
  import substitution
  进口替代
  149
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  import surcharge
  进口附加税(费)
  importing power of exports
  由于出口而取得的进口能力
  imprest account, fund
  An account or fund maintained for payments made
  in cash, commonly used as a petty cash fund. A
  fixed maximum sum is kept in the fund and, as the
  fund is depleted, this sum is periodically brought up
  to the maximum.
  预支帐户
  用来支付现金的帐户或基金,一般作为小额现金
  基金。该基金保持一个固定的最高额度,在使用
  过程中,定期补足到最高额。
  imputed costs
  Generally used to mean costs that do not involve at
  any time actual cash outlay and which do not,
  therefore, appear in the accounting records but are
  relevant to the decision at hand.
  估算成本,理论成本,应计成本
  一般用来指任何时候都不涉及实际现金支出,因
  此也不显示在会计记录上,但与要做的决策有关
  的成本。
  imputed value
  估算价值,应计价值
  in and out expenses*
  杂项费用
  inactive borrower, nonactive borrower
  Country that is not currently seeking new
  borrowings from the Bank.
  静止借款国
  指目前并未向世界银行寻求新的贷款的会员国。
  inactive loan
  A loan which is in force but not being disbursed.
  静止贷款
  一笔已经生效但尚未进行支付的贷款。
  Inaugural Meeting [ICSID]
  成立会[解决投资争端国际中心]
  in-bond industries
  保税工业,关栈交货工业
  incentive
  激励,奖励
  incentive goods*
  奖励性物资
  incentive payment
  激励性报酬,奖金
  incentive price
  激励性价格
  inception report
  最初报告
  incidence [medicine]
  影响范围,发生率 [医药]
  incidental services
  Additional services required of the supplier as
  specified in the Special Conditions of Contract,
  including on-site assembly, startup, provision of
  tools required for assembly, provision of manuals,
  etc.
  附带服务
  根据合同特别条件的规定要求供应商提供的额
  外服务,包括现场组装、启动、提供组装工具和
  使用手册等等。
  income
  收益,收入
  income (and expenditure) account
  收入(和开支)帐户
  income and outlay accounts [national accounts]
  Accounts showing the receipt and disbursement of
  incomes by resident institutional units.
  收支帐户[国民核算]
  表明常驻机构单位收入和支出的帐户。
  income bracket
  收入等级
  income effect
  收入效应,收入影响
  income elasticity
  A measure of the change in supply and/or demand as
  income changes.
  收入弹性
  衡量收入变化引起供应和(或)需求变化的一种
  尺度。
  150
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  income elasticity of demand
  A measure of the percentage change in the demand
  for a commodity or service as induced by a given
  percentage change in the income of the individual.
  需求的收入弹性
  衡量个人收入的一定百分比变化引起的对某一
  商品或劳务需求的百分比变化的一种尺度。
  income note
  Note where the income is wholly or partially
  dependent on the earnings of the issuing
  corporation.
  收益票据
  收益全部或部分依赖于票据发行公司收入的票
  据。
  income shortfall
  收入短缺额
  亦见poverty gap
  income statement [US]; profit and loss account [UK]
  收益表、损益表(美国)、损益表(英国)
  亦见consolidated income statement
  income tax
  所得税
  income tax [corporations]
  所得税[公司]
  income tax return
  所得税申报书(表)
  income terms of trade
  The net barter terms of trade weighted by the volume
  of exports. It gives an indication of the purchasing
  power of exports.
  收入贸易条件
  即以出口额加权的净易货贸易条件,以此表明出
  口带来的购买力。
  incremental benefits
  新增收益,增量收益
  incremental budgeting
  A budget process in which justification is generally
  required only for increments (or decrements) to
  previous budgeting levels.
  增量预算法
  一般只需对上期预算水平的增加部分(或减少部
  分)加以说明的预算过程。
  incremental building, housing
  Building, usually from a core where additional
  features are gradually added.
  添加建筑,新增房屋
  通常是在核心建筑上逐渐添加的建筑。
  incremental capital-output ratio - ICOR
  Ratio of the change in capital investment (net of
  gross investment minus capital consumption
  allowances) to the change in output. If a certain
  industry adds $2.5 million net to its capital
  equipment and its yearly output increases by $1
  million then its ICOR is 2.5:1.
  资本产出增长比率(简写为ICOR)
  资本投资(总投资减去资本耗用备抵后的净额)
  变化与产出变化之间的比率。如某一工业资本设
  备净增加250万美元,使年产出增加100万美元,
  则其资本产出增长比率为2.5:1。
  incremental cost
  增量成本,边际成本、新增成本
  亦见average incremental cost
  incremental housing, building
  Building, usually from a core where additional
  features are gradually added.
  增长的住房,增长的建筑
  一般是在核心建筑上逐渐添加的建筑。
  incremental rate of return
  The discount rate which equalizes the present value
  of incremental costs with the incremental benefits of
  the project.
  增量收益率,新增收益率
  使项目新增成本的现值与新增收益相等的贴现
  率。
  indefinite quantity contract
  Contract which provides for the provision of an
  indefinite quantity of specific goods or services,
  within stated limits and during a specified period.
  不定量合同
  规定在一定限度和时期内提供某种不定数量的
  商品或劳务的合同。
  independent variable; predictor
  自变量
  indexed, index-linked bond
  Bond where the coupon rate or redemption value is
  indexed (to other currencies, gold, or fuel prices).
  指数化的债券,与指数挂钩的债券
  151
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  这种债券的息票利率或偿还价值与某种价格挂
  钩(如其它币种、黄金或燃料价格)。
  indexed, index-linked, index-tied loan
  与物价指数挂钩的贷款
  Indicative Planning Figures - IPF [UNDP]
  UNDP target expenditures for technical
  cooperation.
  指导性计划数字(简写为 IPF)[联合国开发计划
  署]
  联合国开发计划署技术合作的目标开支。
  indicator
  指数,指标
  见 concurrent indicator; convergent indicator;
  economic indicator; lagging indicator; leading
  indicator; performance indicators
  indifference curve
  A graphical representation of different bundles of,
  say, two commodities, from the consumption of
  which the individual derives the same amount of
  total utility. If we assume an individual obtains the
  same utility from a bundle of 5 bananas and 6
  mangoes or 4 bananas and 8 mangoes or 3 bananas
  and 11 mangoes, we can plot a graph with bananas as
  the x-axis and mangoes as the y-axis. We get three
  points for the three different bundles. The curve we
  obtain by joining these points is the indifference
  curve, so called because the individual is indifferent
  about his choice as regards total utility.
  无差异曲线
  一种曲线图表示两种商品的不同组合,使消费者
  个人得到的总的效用是相等的。如果我们假定某
  个人分别从5个香蕉和6个芒果,4个香蕉和8个____芒
  果,以及3个香蕉和11个芒果等三种组合中得到
  同等的效用,我们就可以取香蕉为横轴、芒果为
  纵轴绘制一张图,从三种不同的组合中得到三个
  点。把这三个点连接起来,就是无差异曲线。其
  名称表示就总的效用而言,消费者的选择对其个
  人来说并无差异。
  indigenization
  当地化,国产化
  indigenous NGO
  本国的非政府组织,当地的非政府组织
  indirect costs; on-costs [UK]
  间接成本 [英国]
  induced-by benefit
  A form of indirect benefit that accrues to suppliers of
  project inputs. Includes the direct and indirect value
  added to national income generated by the
  investment and recurrent expenditures of a project.
  Equivalent to using a shadow price for a project
  input for which an adjustment is made for
  opportunity cost in the estimates of direct and
  indirect value added. Sometimes estimated using
  specialized forms of input-output multipliers.
  引发效益
  项目投入的供应方取得的一种间接效益。包括项
  目投资和经常性费用支出所产生的国民收入的
  直接和间接的增加值。相当于在估计直接和间接
  增加值时对机会成本进行调整之后得出的项目
  投入的影子价格。有时亦使用专用形式的投入/
  产出乘数进行估算。
  induced development effect; boomtown effect
  The secondary growth of settlements and
  infrastructure, resulting from a project.
  引发发展效应;繁荣城镇效应
  由一个项目带来的居民区和基础设施的间接增
  长。
  industrial and trade policy adjustment - ITPA
  工业和贸易政策调整(简写为 ITPA)
  industrial and trade policy adjustment loan - ITPAL
  [World Bank]
  World Bank loan made to assist adjustment of a
  country's industrial and trade policy.
  工业和贸易政策调整贷款(简写为ITPAL) [世界
  银行]
  世界银行为援助一个国家的工业和贸易政策调
  整所做的贷款。
  industrial deepening
  Increasing the amount of the industrial sector
  compared with other sectors.
  工业深化
  工业部门的增加超过其它部门。
  industrial estate [UK], park [USA]
  工业区[英国],工业园[美国]
  industrial goods
  工业品
  industrial market economy
  工业化市场经济
  152
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  industrial park [USA], estate [UK]
  工业园[美国],工业区[英国]
  industrial relations; labor-management relations;
  labor relations
  劳资关系
  ineligible
  不合格的
  inertial inflation
  Inflation caused by spiraling wage and price
  increases.
  惯性通货膨胀
  指工资和物价螺旋上涨所造成的通货膨胀。
  infant industry
  新生工业,幼稚工业
  infant mortality
  婴儿死亡率
  infected area
  受感染地区,受影响地区
  inflation accounting
  Accounting for dealing with the impact of inflation.
  Includes the current purchasing power method
  whereby accounts are expressed in terms of
  purchasing units employing a retail price index;
  value accounting whereby assets are measured by
  reference to their value and not cost; replacement
  cost accounting whereby assets are revalued from
  historic to current costs.
  通货膨胀会计
  针对通货膨胀的影响采取的会计方法。其中包括
  用零售物价指数表示购买力单位的现时购买力
  法;以价值而不是成本来衡量资产的价值会计
  法:把资产原成本按现时成本重新估价的重置成
  本会计法。
  inflationary expectations
  通货膨胀预期
  inflationary gap
  A condition of excess aggregate spending (for
  consumer, investment and government goods and
  services) relative to the spending that would be
  consistent with a full-employment stable economy.
  The gap is actually the amount of change in spending
  which would lead to stability.
  通货膨胀缺口
  指总支出(用于消费者、投资和政府的货物与服
  务的支出),超过稳定的与充分就业经济的支出
  水平。这种缺口实际上是实现稳定所需要的支出
  额的变动量。
  inflation premium
  A premium added to a security to allow for inflation.
  通货膨胀溢价
  为应付通货膨胀而给证券增加的溢价。
  inflation tax
  Increased income tax paid as wages rise with
  inflation but tax thresholds remain constant.
  通货膨胀税
  在工资随通货膨胀上涨而提高但税收的起征点
  不变的情况下所增付的所得税。
  inflow
  流入,回流
  见 capital inflow; cash inflows; flow
  inflow of capital
  资本流入
  informal credit
  非正式信贷
  informal education
  非正规教育
  informal meeting
  非正式会议
  informal sector
  The sector of the economy which is not organized
  and which, therefore, does not appear in official
  economic statistics. Sometimes used for the
  underground economy.
  非正式经济部门
  没有组织起来、因而在官方经济统计中不显示的
  经济部门。有时用来指地下经济。
  informal suspension of disbursements [IBRD]
  非正式暂停支付(贷款)[国际复兴开发银行]
  infrastructure developer
  基础设施开发商
  in-house training
  内部培训
  initial expenses
  153
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  创办费用
  initial operation
  初期业务、初始经营
  initial subscription [IDA]
  首次认缴(股本等),初次认缴额[国际开发协会]
  initiating memorandum - IM [World Bank]
  (项目的)初始备忘录(简写为IM)[世界银行]
  in-kind costs
  实物成本
  inland fisheries, fishing
  内地渔业
  input
  投入、投入物
  input mix
  投入物配置
  input-output coefficient
  投入产出系数
  input-output model
  A mathematical model of inputs and outputs to a
  system. In econometrics it refers to a model
  representation of an input-output table.
  投入产出模型
  一个系统投入和产出的数学模型。在计量经济学
  中,指表现投入产出表的模型。
  input-output ratio
  投入产出比率
  input-output table
  A matrix which shows the way in which industries or
  sectors interact. It generally shows, for each
  industry, the amount of that industry's output that
  goes to each other industry as input (as raw materials
  or as semifinished products), as well as the amount
  that goes to the final markets of the economy.
  投入产出表
  一种表示产业或部门间相互作用方式的矩阵。一
  般显示各产业的产出作为投入物(作为原料或半
  成品)流向其他各产业的量,以及流向经济中最
  终市场的量。
  input shifting
  Reducing costs by using lower priced inputs, e.g.
  using contractors instead of permanent staff,
  communications instead of travel.
  投入物转换
  采用较低价格的投入物以降低成本,例如使用合
  同工而非长期职工,用通信手段代替出差旅行
  等。
  input subsidy
  投入补助
  input switching
  Budget term which means managers can change
  budget allocations as a result of changing cost
  pressures over the range of expense accounts.
  投入转换
  预算术语,指当成本对整个支出帐户的压力发生
  变化时,经理可以改变预算的分配。
  in-service training
  在职培训
  insider dealer, trader
  内幕交易者
  insider dealing, trading
  内幕交易
  instability index
  An index which measures the variability of world
  prices for selected agricultural commodities.
  不稳定指数
  一种用于衡量部分农产品的国际价格变动的指
  数。
  installed capacity [electricity]
  The maximum runoff of a hydroelectricity facility
  that can be constantly maintained and utilized by
  equipment.
  装机能力,装机容量 [电力]
  水力发电设备可以经常保持和利用的最大流量。
  institutional framework
  组织结构,机构框架
  institutional investors
  机构投资者
  institutional performance
  机构业绩,机构表现
  institutional programs [IBRD]
  Programs undertaken that are required to further the
  154
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  institution itself, as opposed to being part of its
  operations. These would include production of the
  Annual Report, Annual Meetings and the like.
  机构方案[国际复兴开发银行]
  因机构自身发展而需要执行的方案,不属于它本
  身业务的一部分。这些方案包括出版年度报告,
  举行年会等。
  institutional ratio
  The ratio between Bank subscriptions authorized
  solely in general capital increases and IMF quotas
  obtained solely from general quota increases. Used
  to determine the initial share allocation of countries
  joining the Bank during the period of the 1979
  General Capital Increase.
  机构间比率
  指世界银行普遍增资中专项法定认缴股份与国
  际货币基金组织普遍增加份额中专项份额之间
  的比率。它是世界银行用于确定在1979年普遍增
  资期间加入世界银行的国家的初始股份分配份
  额。
  institution building
  机构建设
  instructional aid
  教学用具
  institution-related technical assistance; soft
  technical assistance
  Technical assistance geared towards institutional
  development as opposed to engineering-related
  technical assistance.
  机构性技术援助;软技术援助
  与机构发展相关的技术援助,区别于与工程相关
  的技术援助。
  Institution Rules [ICSID]
  《机构条例》,《机构规定》[解决投资争端国
  际中心]
  见Rules of Procedure for the Institution of
  Counciliation and Arbitration Proceedings
  instrument [ICSID]
  票据,证券[解决投资争端国际中心]
  instrument of acceptance
  A legal document indicating that a state has accepted
  the rules and regulations of an organization it is
  joining.
  接受书
  一种法律文件,表示一个国家接受所加入的那个
  组织的规定和条例。
  insurance
  保险
  见 social insurance
  intake
  摄入量,纳入量
  intangible assets, property
  Items or rights lacking physical existence, their
  value being mainly in their income generation
  potential and the rights and benefits that possession
  confers.
  无形资产,无形财产
  不以物质形态存在的事物或权力,它们的价值主
  要在于其产生收入的潜力和占有它时所获得的
  权利和利益。
  integrated conservation-development project - ICDP
  A new type of experimental project that attempts to
  link the conservation of biological diversity in
  protected areas with local economic and social
  development.
  综合保护发展项目(简写为ICDP)
  一种新型实验性项目,意在把保护区内对生物多
  样性的保护同当地的经济和社会发展联系起来。
  integrated management training program
  综合管理培训计划
  integrated pest management - IPM
  Growing farm crops with fewer chemical pesticides
  and more natural pest controls. Monitoring for pests
  and rotating plantings, the use of pesticides can be
  virtually eliminated on crops such as potatoes, corn
  and apples.
  综合虫害管理(简写为IPM)
  即种植农作物时,少用化学农药多用天然虫害控
  制的管理方法。通过对虫害和轮种作物的监测,
  对诸如土豆、玉米和苹果等作物可以实际取消农
  药的使用。
  integrated rural development project
  综合农村发展项目
  integration
  一体化,联合
  见 backward-forward integration; backward
  integration
  interchange
  155
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  互换
  见 course interchange
  intercompany pricing
  公司间定价
  intercropping
  Growing two or more crops simultaneously as in
  alternate rows in the same field or single tract of
  land.
  间种
  在同一块地上或同一行间同时隔行种植两种或
  两种以上的作物。
  interest
  利息,利益
  见 beneficial interest; controlling interest; covered
  interest arbitrage; depositor rate of interest; effective
  interest rate; working interest
  interest bearing note
  附息票据,计息票据
  interest charges
  利息费用,收取的利息
  interest coverage ratio - ICR; times interest earned
  ratio
  Net income before interest expenses divided by
  interest expenses. IFC's definition is “The number
  of times income, after deducting all expenses except
  borrowing charges and provision for losses, covers
  borrowing charges.”
  利息偿付比率(简写为ICR);获利额对利息的
  倍数比率
  即支付利息前的净收入除以利息支出费用。国际
  金融公司的定义是:“扣除各项费用(除了借款
  费用和损失准备金)后,收入作为借款费用的倍
  数。”
  interest during construction - IDC
  Interest payable on long-term or short-term debt
  incurred to finance capital works (e.g. plant or road
  construction in progress) in a fiscal year. Financing
  charges, including commitment fees, should also be
  included. IDC is frequently capitalized (or charged
  to the project cost) until the asset is commissioned or
  as a capital expenditure item it is transferred to a
  deferred charges or deferred capital expenditure
  account. For Bank projects IDC should be
  computed as part of project costs to determine total
  financing requirements.
  建设期利息(简写为IDC)
  一个财政年度内,长期或短期基本建设(如正在
  建设中的工厂或公路)融资债务的应付利息。融
  资费用包括承诺费在内。IDC要经常进行资本化
  (或计入项目成本),直至交付使用或作为一项
  资本支出科目转入到一个递延费用帐户或递延
  资本支出帐户。就世界银行项目而言,IDC应计
  入项目成本的一部分以确定总的融资需要。
  interest earnings, income
  利息收益,利息收入
  interest equalization tax
  A tax on foreign investments for the purpose of
  curtailing the outflow of private funds.
  利息平衡税
  为减少私人资金的外流而对外国投资征收的一
  种税。
  interest income, earnings
  利息收入,利息收益
  interest leakage
  Changes in U.S. interest rates due to movement of
  funds from the U.S. to the Eurodollar markets.
  利息渗漏
  由于资金从美国流向欧洲美元市场而引起的美
  国利率的变化。
  interest rate cap [IBRD]
  A limit on the amount of interest that can be levied
  on a variable rate loan. Proposed for IBRD.
  利率上限[国际复兴开发银行]
  对可变利率贷款能够征收的利息额的限度。供国
  际复兴开发银行贷款使用。
  interest-rate differential
  利率差别,利率差额,利差
  interest rate risk
  Risk due to difference in interest rates.
  利率风险
  由于利率的差别而产生的风险。
  interest (rate) sensitivity
  Rate-sensitive assets as a percentage of
  rate-sensitive liabilities
  利息(率)敏感性
  利率敏感性资产对利率敏感性负债的百分比。
  interest (rate) swap
  An agreement to exchange floating rate payments
  156
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  for fixed-rate payments in the same currency.
  利息(率)掉期
  在同一货币中,以浮动利率付息交换固定利率付
  息的协议。
  interest rebate
  利息回扣
  interest service ratio
  Ratio of payment of interest on debt to exports of
  goods and services.
  利息偿付比率
  指债务利息偿付与货物和劳务出口的比率。
  interest subsidy, subsidization
  利息补贴,贴息
  Interest Subsidy Fund [= Third Window]
  A lending facility to extend loans to the developing
  countries on terms intermediate between those
  charged by the Bank and IDA. Now discontinued.
  利息补贴(津贴)基金[=第三窗口]
  一种向发展中国家发放贷款的基金,其贷款利息
  水平介于国际复兴开发银行和国际开发协会之
  间。现已停用。
  interest support
  利息资助
  interfuel substitution
  燃料间的替代
  Interim Committee [IMF]
  临时委员会[国际货币基金组织]
  interim financial statement
  期中财务报表
  interindustry linkages
  行业间联系
  interlocking debt
  连锁债务
  intermediate goods
  Those goods used as an input for further
  transformation by some other production activity,
  not for consumption or as an addition to the stock of
  fixed capital.
  中间货物,中间产品
  作为投入物通过其它一些生产活动做进一步转
  化的货物;不用作消费或做固定资本存量的补
  充。
  intermediation
  Process whereby a financial institution interposes its
  names and trustworthiness between a lender and a
  borrower. For example, instead of buying an issue
  directly from a corporation, an investor may deposit
  funds with a bank which, in turn, invests in the issue.
  中介业务,媒介作用
  指一个金融机构使用其名义和信誉介入一个贷
  款人和一个借款人之间的过程。例如,一个投资
  者可以不直接从一个公司购买证券,而把资金存
  入一家银行,然后由该银行对该证券进行投资。
  亦见market intermediation
  intermediation rate
  调停费
  intermediative borrowing
  Borrowing from financial intermediaries.
  中介借款
  从金融中间机构借款。
  internal audit
  内部审计
  internal cash generation; internally generated funds;
  cash generation
  The gross income from all sources less all operating
  and administrative expenses, excluding
  depreciation, interest, other non-cash charges and
  other charges on debt, and taxes.
  内部现金生成;内部生成资金;现金生成
  即各种来源的总收入,减去所有的业务和行政支
  出(不包括折旧、利息、其他非现金费用和债务
  费用以及税)。
  internal cross subsidy
  内部交叉补贴
  internal exchange rate; modified Bruno ratio
  As for the Bruno ratio but using for the entire project
  life instead of for just one year.
  内部汇率;修正的布鲁诺比率
  一种布鲁诺比率,但不是只用于一年,而是用于
  整个项目的生命期。
  internal importing costs
  国内进口费用
  internal rate of financial return
  财政内部收益率
  157
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  见 financial rate of return
  internal rate of return - IRR
  The rate of return on an asset investment. It is the
  discount rate that equates the present value of future
  net revenue streams (over the economic life of the
  asset) to the cost of the investment.
  内部收益率(简写为IRR)
  指资产投资的收益率。它是使未来净收入总额
  (在资产的经济寿命期内)的现值等于投资成本
  的贴现率。
  亦见economic rate of return; financial rate of return
  internally generated funds; cash generation; internal
  cash generation
  内部资金生成;现金生成;内部现金生成
  international agricultural research centers - IARC
  国际农业研究中心(简写为IARC)
  international banking facility - IBF
  International branch of a bank in a kind of internal
  free trade zone in the U.S., which allows banks to
  engage in international banking without some of the
  usual restrictions facing domestic banks. Those
  restrictions from which IBFs are exempt include
  reserve requirements, payment of certain insurance
  premiums, and special relief from state tax.
  国际银行业务部门(简写为IBF)
  银行在美国一种类似内部自由贸易区开设的国
  际分部(分行),它能够参与国际金融业务而不
  受国内银行通常受到的一些限制,如对储备金的
  要求和某些保险费的缴纳,并可以享受州税的特
  别减免。
  international commodity agreements, arrangements
  Any intergovernmental agreement or arrangement to
  promote international cooperation in a commodity,
  the parties to which include produces and consumers
  covering the bulk of world trade in the commodity
  concerned.
  国际商品协定,安排
  指任何一种以促进某一商品的国际合作为目的
  的政府间协议或安排。参与方包括该商品在世界
  贸易中的大宗生产国和消费国。
  international commodity bodies - ICBs
  An international body concerned on a continuiing
  basis with the trade, production and consumption
  aspects of a commodity.
  国际商品机构(简写为ICBs)
  一种连续地关注某一商品的贸易、生产和消费的
  国际机构。
  international commodity organizations - ICOs
  An organization established by an international
  commodity agreement to implement the provisions
  of the agreement.
  国际商品组织(简写为ICOs)
  由某一国际商品协定为实施该协定的条款而建
  立的组织。
  International Comparison Project, Programme - ICP
  A project supported by the World Bank and the
  United Nations which enables incomes to be
  compared in terms of the prices of a common set of
  consumer goods, which reflect real purchasing
  power. When outside financing dried up in 1987, the
  Project became a Programme, which is what it is
  now.
  国际比较项目,规划(简写为ICP)
  一个由世界银行和联合国支持的项目,意在使各
  国的国民收入能够以一套统一的消费品价格来
  进行比较,以反映实际购买力。1987年外部资金
  来源枯竭,该项目成为一项规划,目前依然。
  international competitive bidding - ICB
  Bidding open to all eligible suppliers and
  contractors.
  国际竞争性招标(简写为ICB)
  指对所有合格的供应商和承包商开放的招标。
  international competitiveness margin - ICM
  The percentage by which the Bank/Fund payline
  should exceed the combined French/German market
  paylines to provide adequate international
  competitiveness.
  国际竞争性幅度(简写为ICM)
  指为保证足够的国际竞争力,世界银行/国际货币
  基金组织的工资曲线应该超过法国德国的综合
  市场工资曲线的比例。
  International Compilers Working Group on External
  Debt Statistics [WB/IMF/BIS/OECD/Berne Union]
  外债统计数字国际汇编工作小组[由世界银行、
  国际货币基金组织、国际清算银行、经济合作与
  发展组织、伯尔尼联盟组成]
  international credit guarantee fund
  国际信贷担保基金
  international credit guarantee system
  国际信贷担保制度
  158
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  international financial institutions - IFIs
  国际金融机构(简写为IFIs)
  international liquidity
  国际清偿能力
  international payments position
  国际收支状况
  international reserves
  国际储备
  international shopping
  Procurement based on comparing price quotations
  from at least three foreign suppliers.
  国际询价采购
  在对至少三家国外供应商的报价进行比较的基
  础上进行的采购。
  International Standard Industrial Classification of
  All Economic Activities-ISIC*
  所有经济活动国际标准产业分类 (简写为ISIC)
  internship
  实习期,实习
  intervention currency
  Currency used by central bank for official
  intervention in the foreign exchange market. This
  currency is often not the same as the home currency,
  which may not be a convertible currency.
  干预货币
  中央银行用来对外汇市场进行正式干预的货币。
  这种货币通常不是本国货币,因为本国货币可能
  不是一种可兑换的货币。
  intervention price
  The minimum price set by an agency at which a
  producer is guaranteed to sell his product.
  干预价格
  由某一机构确定的保证生产者能够卖出其产品
  的最低价格。
  intra-day settlement
  Trading settlement within less than one day.
  同日结算
  在一日之内交易结算完毕。
  inventory; inventories
  Raw materials and supplies, goods finished and
  being manufactured and stock on hand, in transit, in
  storage or consigned to others at the end of the
  accounting period.
  存货,库存
  在会计期末持有的原料和供应物资、制成品和在
  制品、手头存货、转运中的货物、库存或委托他
  人代销的货物等。
  inventory control
  存货管理,库存管理
  inventory investment
  存货投资
  inventory turnover
  存货周转
  inverted rates [electricity tariffs]
  Rate where the lowest block is the cheapest, in order
  to subsidize low income groups.
  倒置费率[电费]
  给最低用量组以最便宜的电价,以此补贴低收入
  群体。
  investment agreement [IFC]
  投资协议[国际金融公司]
  investment bank [US]; merchant bank [UK]
  Institution that accepts new issues of stocks from a
  corporation and attempts to sell them to the public at
  a profit. In the U.S., they have a separate legal status
  from commercial banks.
  投资银行[美国];商人银行[英国]
  接受一家公司新发行的股票并向公众销售以谋
  利的机构。在美国,它们具有与商业银行不同的
  法律地位。
  investment budget
  投资预算
  investment center [accounting]
  A responsibility unit whose performance is
  measured in terms of resources committed (capital
  invested) relative to monetary costs and returns.
  投资中心[会计]
  指一个责任单位,其业绩是以与货币成本和收益
  有关的资源的使用(资本投资)来衡量的。
  investment commitment [IFC]
  投资承诺,投资保证[国际金融公司]
  investment company, fund
  Company that uses its capital to invest in other
  companies. The two kinds are open-end investment
  159
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  company and closed-end investment company, the
  former being by far the most frequent.
  投资公司,投资基金
  用其资本投资于其他公司的公司。这种公司分为
  两类,即开放型投资公司和封闭型投资公司。前
  一类比后一类更为常见。
  亦见closed end investment company, fund; open
  end investment company, fund
  investment gap
  投资缺口
  investment goods
  投资货物
  investment grant
  投资补助金
  investment incentives
  投资奖励
  investment income
  投资收入
  investment insurance
  投资保险
  亦见 multilateral inverstment insurance
  investment loan
  投资贷款
  investment portfolio
  Portfolio of longer-term investments. 投资证券组
  合
  指作长期投资的证券组合。
  参见 trading portfolio
  investment project
  投资项目
  investment return, yield
  投资回报、收益
  investment review mission [IBRD]
  投资审查团[国际复兴开发银行]
  investment tax credit
  投资税收优惠,投资税额减免
  invisible transactions
  Exports and imports of services. Includes insurance,
  shipping charges and tourist expenditures.
  无形交易,无形贸易
  指服务的出口与进口,包括保险、运输费和旅游
  费支出等。
  亦见surplus on invisible
  invitation to bid, to tender
  A notice issued under competitive bidding
  procedures calling on bidders to submit bids for
  contracts.
  招标邀请书
  在竞争性招标程序中发出的一项通知,邀请投标
  者对合同进行投标。
  invitation to prequalify [contracts]
  A notice issued under competitive bidding
  procedures calling on bidders to prequalify prior to
  bidding on a contract.
  资格预审邀请书[合同]
  根据竞争性招标程序发出的一项通知,邀请投标
  者在对合同进行投标之前参加资格预审。
  involuntary lending
  Lending by banks as long as the resulting reduction
  in probability of default, multiplied by the existing
  exposure, exceeds the amount of new money multiplied
  by the remaining probability of default even
  after the new assistance.
  非自愿贷款
  银行进行这种贷款的条件是:注入这种贷款以
  后,拖欠概率的降低数乘以目前的贷款余额,超
  过新增贷款额乘以新____增贷款注入后余留的拖欠
  概率。
  involuntary resettlement
  Movement of peoples away from their normal place
  of abode against their will.
  非自愿移民
  使居民非自愿地从原来的正常居住地迁走。
  inward-looking; inward-oriented [country; policy]
  内向;内向型[国家;政策]
  irrevocable agreement to reimburse
  An agreement given e.g. by the Bank to a
  commercial Bank that it will reimburse any part of a
  cofinancing loan on which a borrower defaults.
  不可变更(撤销)的偿付协议
  由世界银行与商业银行签订的协议,规定前者将
  偿付借款人拖欠后者的任何一部分联合融资贷
  款。
  irrevocable letter of credit
  160
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  Form of letter of credit whereby the issuing bank
  gives an undertaking to the beneficiary that payment
  will be made, provided that the beneficiary complies
  with the terms of the credit. Sometimes used as
  performance security.
  不可撤销的信用证
  一种信用证形式,表明发证银行对受益人承担的
  一种义务,即只要受益人遵守信用证的条款,银
  行就予付款。有时也用作履约保证。
  irrigation
  灌溉
  见 basin irrigation; border check irrigation; border
  ditch irrigation; border irrigation; center pivot
  sprinkle irrigation; corrugation irrigation; drip
  irrigation; flood control irrigation; flood irrigation;
  gravity irrigation; micro-sprayer irrigation; runoff
  irrigation; smale-scale irrigation; sprinkle irrigation;
  strip irrigation; subirrigation; surface irrigation;
  trickle irrigation; wild flooding
  island developing country
  发展中的岛屿国家
  issued share capital
  已发行的股份资本
  issues on tap; tap issue
  An issue of a security made available on an as
  required basis. Used primarily in the British market,
  where the British Government issues Treasury stock
  and seeks subscriptions. As the stock is rarely fully
  subscribed, the remainder is sold to Stock Exchange
  jobbers as demand requires.
  随时发行
  指一种根据需要而随时发行的证券。主要用于英
  国市场,由英国政府发行国库券并寻求认购。由
  于这种证券很少能完全售罄,剩余部分根据需求
  售给证券交易所的经纪人。
  issues paper
  讨论问题的文件
  issuing bank; bank of issue
  开证银行;发行银行
  item [budget]
  科目[预算]
  
  
  161
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - J -
  jeopardy clause; escape clause; break clause
  A clause in a Eurocurrency agreement specifying
  that, if certain events curtail the lender's activity or
  the operation of the Euromarkets, other designated
  actions will come into effect.
  危害条款;免责条款;中断条款
  欧洲货币协议中的一项条款,规定如果某些事件
  影响了借贷人的活动或欧洲货币市场的运转,其
  他预定的行动便立即生效。
  jeopardy loan
  Term used by IFC to indicate that a loan has serious
  problems. IFC expects to make a loss (though not
  necessarily a 100% loss) on a jeopardy loan.
  危险贷款
  国际金融公司的一个术语,指有严重问题的贷
  款。国际金融公司准备承受危险贷款所带来的
  (虽然不一定是100%的)损失。
  jitney
  专线行驶的小型公共汽车
  jobbing
  代客买卖股票,中间贸易
  job description
  职责范围,工作说明
  job order accounting
  A cost accounting method which accumulates the
  costs of doing a separately identifiable job.
  分批成本核算
  一种成本会计方法,即对每一项可单独分类的工
  作的成本进行累计。
  job-related training
  与工作有关的培训
  joint and several
  连带的
  joint and several guarantee*
  负连带责任的担保
  joint committee
  联合委员会
  Joint Ministerial Committee of the Boards of
  Governors of the Bank and the Fund on the Transfer
  of Real Resources to Developing Countries
  (Development Committee).*
  世界银行与国际货币基金组织理事会向发展中
  国家转让实际资金的联合部长级委员会(发展委
  员会)
  joint monitoring committees
  联合监督委员会
  joint stock company
  股份公司
  joint venture
  合资企业
  jumbo borrowing(s)
  Borrowing or lending in large quantities; usually
  refers to amounts in excess of US $250,000.
  大额借款,大额贷款
  大额借款或贷款,通常指超过25万美元的借款或
  贷款。
  junior creditor
  次要债权人
  junior debt; subordinated debt
  Debt which, in case of liquidation, cannot be paid till
  payments on other obligations have been made.
  Opposite of senior debt.
  次要债务;附属债务
  在清偿时,偿还完其它债务后方能偿还的债务。
  区别于优先债务。
  junior high school
  初级中学,初中
  juridical personality; legal existence
  法人资格
  justification
  正当理由,辩护,论证
  just in time (JIT) manufacturing
  Production and inventory control systems designed
  to produce small lots and to produce the right items
  in the quantities needed by subsequent production
  processes at the right time.
  应时生产,应时制造(简写为JIT制造)
  一种生产和存货的控制系统,用来在特定时间为
  下一道工序生产小批量和特定数量的特定产品。
  162
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - K -
  key data
  关键数据,主要数据,基本数据
  key interest rates
  The main market interest rates - includes LIBOR,
  U.S. prime rate, U.S. federal funds rate and certain
  others, depending on where it is used.
  主要利率
  依使用地而定的主要市场利率(包括伦敦银行同
  业拆放利率、美国优惠利率、美国联邦基金利率
  和其它某些利率)。
  key money rate; central rate
  The term used to describe the main interest rate set
  by the central bank (or equivalent) and which
  effectively governs other market interest rates. In
  the U.S., it is the federal funds rate.
  主要货币利率;中心利率
  用来表示中央银行(或同等机构)确定的有效控
  制其他市场利率的主要利率。在美国指联邦基金
  利率。
  keynote address, speech
  主旨发言,主旨讲话,主旨演讲
  keynote speaker; keynoter
  主旨发言人,主旨讲话人,主旨演讲人
  key species
  Species that have a more profound impact on their
  ecosystem than other species. They are organisms
  which provide critical support through webs of
  interactions to the existence of other species.
  主要物种,关键物种
  指对其生态系统具有比其它物种更为深刻影响
  的物种。它们是在相互影响的网络中对其它物种
  的生存提供重要支持的有机体。
  kidney cotton; West Indian cotton; Sea Island
  cotton; Egyptian cotton
  椭圆型棉;西印度_____棉;海岛棉;埃及棉
  knapsack spraying
  背桶喷雾
  know-how
  专门知识,专门技术,技术
  163
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - L -
  labor agreement; collective agreement*
  劳资协议;集体协议
  labor costs
  劳动力成本,人工费用
  labor force
  劳动力
  labor force penetration; labor force participation rate
  The extent to which those of working age are
  actually working.
  劳动力参与率
  指劳动年龄段中实际参加工作的人口的比重。
  labor-intensive
  劳动密集型,劳动集约型
  labor-intensive industry
  劳动密集型产业
  labor-management relations; labor relations;
  industrial relations
  劳资关系
  labor market
  劳动力市场
  labor relations; industrial relations;
  labor-management relations
  劳资关系
  labor shed
  劳动付出
  lag; slippage
  A delayed climatic effect.
  滞后,迟延,拖延
  一种滞后的气候影响。
  lagged inflation
  滞后的通货膨胀
  lagging indicator
  A statistic that does not change till after the economy
  in general has changed, e.g. the value of construction
  completed.
  滞后指标
  一种在整个经济变动以前保持不变的统计数字,
  例如已完工的基本建设的价值。
  lamplight fishing; fishing by lamplight
  灯光捕鱼
  land betterment tax
  土壤改良税
  land consolidation
  土地集中,土地兼并
  land development
  土地开发
  land equivalent, equivalency ratio - LER
  Area needed under sole cropping to give as much
  produce as 1 hectare of intercropping or mixed
  cropping at the same management level, expressed
  as a ratio.
  土地等值,等值比率(简写为LER)
  在同样的管理水平下,要使种植单一作物的产量
  达到1公顷间种或混种作物的产量所需要的面
  积,以比率表示。
  landfill
  填地
  land improvement
  土壤改良
  landlocked country
  内陆国家
  land reclamation
  垦荒,开荒造地
  land reform
  土地改革
  land register
  土地登记
  land resilience
  A measure of the ability of the land to withstand and
  recover from shock, i.e. a sudden impact such as
  drought, overgrazing, change in specified land use.
  土壤恢复力,地力
  衡量土地经受破坏(即干旱、过度放牧、特定用
  地的变化等突发性影响)并从中恢复的能力。
  land settlement
  移民
  164
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  land tax
  土地税
  land tenure rights
  土地占有权
  land tenure system
  土地占有制,土地制
  land use plan
  土地使用计划
  land use planning
  土地使用计划编制
  land use ratio
  土地使用率
  landed price
  The quoted or invoiced price of a commodity,
  including costs of loading, shipping and unloading at
  destination.
  卸岸价格
  一种包括装货、运输和在目的地卸货费用在内的
  商品的报价或发票价格。
  lapse-of-time decision
  A decision which is deemed to be approved if no
  objection is received by a specific date.
  时效终止后决定
  在一规定日期前如无人提出反对意见则自动生
  效的决定。
  last in, first out - LIFO
  后进先出法(简写为LIFO)
  late bid
  Bid submitted after the deadline specified for bid
  submission
  误期投标
  在规定的投标限定时间之后发生的投标。
  late maturing [crop]
  晚熟[作物]
  latrine
  厕所
  见 bucket latrine; cistern flush latrine; pit latrine;
  pour flush latrine; vault toilet; ventilated improved
  pit latrine
  law of diminishing marginal utility
  Law which states that although total utility increases,
  the marginal utility received from consuming each
  additional unit of a commodity decreases.
  边际效用递减法则
  这一规律认为,在消费一种商品时,虽然总的效
  用增加,但每消费一个增加的单位商品所得到的
  边际效用是递减的。
  law of diminishing returns
  收益递减法则
  laydays; laytime
  The period of time agreed between the parties during
  which the owner shall make and keep the ship
  available for loading/discharging without payment
  additional to the freight.
  装卸货日数,停泊时间
  有关双方同意的装卸货日数,在此期间货主准备
  好船舶待装/卸货物,不再在运费之外增加收费。
  layout
  布局
  layout plan
  布局规划
  laytime see laydays
  装卸货日数
  lead agency
  首要领导机构,牵头机构
  lead bank; lead manager
  Bank with main responsibility for arranging a bond
  issue or international Eurocredit. Lead manager is
  also used in the sense of agent bank.
  首要银行;首要经理
  首要银行是指在安排债券发行或国际欧洲信贷
  方面负主要责任的银行。首要经理也用于指代理
  银行。
  lead donor
  首要捐款人,主要捐款国
  lead economist
  主任经济学家
  lead manager see lead bank
  牵头经理
  lead time of a project
  165
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  项目准备期
  leading indicator
  A statistic valued for predicting purposes because its
  movement is generally followed by a certain
  movement of the economy in general, e.g. building
  permits, average weekly work hours, unemployment
  claims and corporate profits.
  先行指标
  具有预测价值的统计指标,因为整个经济活动的
  某些变化一般跟随其后。这些指标包括批准的建
  筑额平均每周工作小时失业补贴申请和公司利
  润等。
  leads and lags
  A term referring to changes in the pattern of
  international payments terms. At any one time a
  country is extending and receiving trade credit via its
  exporters and imports. If a devaluation of its
  currency is feared, its importers with foreign
  currency obligations may hurry to pay, otherwise
  their debts will be greater after devaluation, i.e. they
  “lead” payments. Conversely, exporters will benefit
  by not hurrying to convert export receipts in foreign
  currency - they “lag” payments.
  提前和推迟结汇
  这一名词用于指在国际支付条件中支付方式的
  变化。在任何一个时候,一国通过其出口商和进
  口货物提供和获得贸易信贷。在担心本国货币贬
  值的情况下,本国有支付外汇义务的进口商可能
  急于结汇,否则其债务在货币贬值以后会增加。
  他们这样做就是“提前”结汇。在相反的情况下,
  出口商会不急于把出口收入外汇转换成本国货
  币,而从中获益,即“推迟”结汇。
  leakage
  In investment, benefits to selected parterns by means
  other than declared financial returns, such as
  distorted transfer pricing, non-arms length royalties
  or management fees and inflated equipment costs.
  渗漏,漏损
  在投资中,用公布的财务收益以外的方式使部分
  合伙人获利的方式,如制定扭曲的调拨定价,不
  公平的使用费或管理费,虚拟设备成本等。
  learning by doing
  A method of learning involving practical
  experience.
  边做边学
  一种结合实践经验进行学习的方法。
  learning curve
  An imaginary graph which describes the rate at
  which people learn something new. Initially, they
  will normally pick up a lot of information quickly
  but then will gradually take more time to learn less.
  学习曲线,认知曲线
  一个想象的图形,它描述人们学习新东西时的速
  度。开始时人们通常能很快地学到许多知识,但
  逐渐地他们要花较多时间只能学习到较少的知
  识。
  learning materials
  学习材料
  learning rate
  学习速度
  lease
  租赁
  见 finance lease; operating lease; true lease
  leaseback
  回租
  leasehold*
  租赁营业,租借期,租赁权,租赁(物)
  lease purchase*
  租借购买
  leasing
  租赁
  least cost analysis
  A type of analysis commonly used to compare
  alternative projects or project designs when value of
  output (benefits) cannot be measured adequately
  (e.g. certain transport projects). If it can be assumed
  that the (unquantifiable) benefits exceed the cost and
  if appropriate adjustments are made for any
  differences in benefits among the alternatives, the
  task is then to minimize the cost of obtaining them
  through least-cost analysis.
  最小成本分析
  一种分析方法,一般用来对产值(效益)不易测
  算的项目或项目设计进行替代比较(例如某些交
  通项目)。如果可以假定(无法量化的)效益超
  过成本,并对不同方案中的效益差别进行适当的
  调整,接下来的任务就是通过最小成本分析法来
  尽量缩小成本并达到这一目的。
  least developed countries - LLDCs
  最不发达国家(简写为LLDCs)
  166
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  least squares method
  An econometric estimation technique involving
  minimizing the sum of the squares of the vertical
  distance between the observed data points and the
  regression line.
  最小平方法,最小二乘法
  计量经济学中的一种估算技术,使观察数据各点
  和回归线之间的垂直距离(离差)的平方之和为
  最小。
  legal authority
  法律权
  legal entity, person
  法人
  legal existence; juridical personality
  合法存在;法人资格
  legal force
  法律效力
  legal instruments [agreements, etc.]
  法律文件,法律文书[协议等]
  legal opinion
  法律意见
  legal person, entity
  法人
  legal remedy
  法律补救方法;法律制裁;法律补偿
  legal reserve
  法定准备金;法定公积金
  legal status
  法律地位
  legal tender
  法定货币
  lender of last resort
  One of the functions and a major raison d'阾re of a
  modern central bank whereby the bank has to
  provide liquid assets to the banking system when the
  existing liquid assets of the banking system threaten
  to deplete.
  最后贷款人
  这是现代中央银行职能之一,也是其存在主要的
  理由。根据这一职能,在一国的银行系统现存流
  动资产有耗竭的危机时,中央银行必须向银行系
  统提供流动资产。
  lender of record*
  正式贷款人
  lending agency, institution
  贷款机构
  lending authority
  The amount of money that the Bank can lend, based
  on its paid-in capital.
  贷款权
  在缴讫资本的基础上,世界银行可以进行贷款的
  数额。
  lending commitment
  贷款承诺
  lending limit
  贷款限额
  lending pipeline; pipeline of projects
  Projects which have advanced beyond the stage of
  appraisal mission departure, i.e. which are expected
  to be in the forthcoming year's lending program.
  进行中的贷款;进行中的项目
  指那些评估团已经离开,可望列入未来几年的贷
  款规划中的项目。
  lending program
  贷款计划
  lending rate
  贷款利率
  lengthman [highway maintenance]
  A man appointed to maintain a certain length of
  road.
  养路员[公路保养]
  指受到指派保养某一段道路的人。
  less developed country - LDC
  欠发达国家(简写为LDC)
  less than carload freight - LCL
  A shipment that occupies less than a full railroad car,
  that may be moved from car to car as economy of
  shipment dictates and on which higher rates than full
  carload lot rates apply.
  零担货物装运(简写为LCL)
  167
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  指数量不够装满一辆铁路车皮的货物,根据装载
  经济原则,它们可能在车皮间搬动调剂,而且其
  运价高于整车货运。
  letter of acceptance
  Written notification by the employer to the
  contractor of acceptance of his bid.
  授标书,中标通知书
  业主(雇主)向承包商发出的接受其报盘的书面
  通知。


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