知识与资讯
专业词汇
 
世界银行业务词典(2)
发布时间:2011-7-18 10:48:00||  点击:5894次||  文章分类:专业词汇||  发布人:翻译家(Fanyijia.com)


catalytic role
  The way a project encourages other potential
  cofinancers to join in the project.
  催化作用
  指一个项目所具有的能鼓励其他潜在融资者参
  加的作用。
  catch basin; catchment area
  汇水区
  catch crop
  A quick-growing crop, planted and harvested
  between two regular crops in consecutive seasons or
  between two patches of regular crops in the same
  season.
  添闲作物
  指在前后不同季节的两种正常作物之间、或在同
  季节的两种不同作物之间种植的一种快熟作物。
  catchment area; catch basin
  汇水区
  categorical grant; targeted grant
  Grant given by central government for specific
  purposes.
  专项赠款;定向赠款
  指中央政府为特定目的所作的赠款。
  Category I countries [IBRD]
  Industrial member countries.
  第一类国家 [国际复兴开发银行]
  指工业化国家会员国。
  Category II countries [IBRD]
  Developing member countries.
  第二类国家 [国际复兴开发银行]
  指发展中国家会员国。
  cattle on the hoof
  Live cattle.
  未屠宰牲畜
  活牲畜。
  cattle unit
  Unit for measuring number of animals - cattle = 1,
  sheep = 1, goat = 0.05, fowl = 0.01, pig = 0.2-0.4.
  牲畜单位
  衡量牲畜数量的单位:牛=1,绵羊=1,山羊=00.5,
  家禽=0.01,猪=0.2-0.4。
  caucus (of countries at Annual Meetings)
  (世界银行年会上的)国家集团
  ceiling price
  The maximum price which may be charged,
  regardless of what price would be reached through
  the natural forces of supply and demand.
  最高限价
  不管通过供求关系自然达到的价格是多少而只
  能收取的最高价格。
  center pivot sprinkle irrigation
  Type of irrigation which consists of a central pivot
  linked to a water supply and a long arm extending
  from this central pivot which sprays water on crops,
  often with subsidiary arms extending from the major
  one.
  中心旋转喷灌
  一种灌溉方法,它包括一个连接水源的中心枢纽
  和伸展而出对作物进行喷灌的长臂,通常在长臂
  上还有一些辅臂。
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  Central Bank Facility-CBF*
  中央银行融通资金(简写为CBF)
  centrally managed costs
  Costs which are the responsibility, for budgetary
  purposes, of the institution as a whole, as opposed to
  those that are the responsibility of individual units.
  中央管理的费用,集中管理的费用
  指预算中对机构整体负责的费用;区别于那些对
  各个单位负责的费用。
  见unit-managed costs
  centrally planned economy (country)
  中央计划经济;实行中央计划经济的国家
  central rate [exchange rates]
  中心汇率;中心汇价 [汇率]
  central vice presidencies [IBRD]
  Vice presidencies in IBRD responsible for the
  central research and operations support functions.
  中央副行长 [国际复兴开发银行]
  国际复兴开发银行负责中央研究和业务支持的
  副行长。
  certificate of deposit
  Certificate of an interest-bearing time deposit with a
  bank.
  定期储蓄存单
  在某银行中的有息定期储蓄存款单。
  certificate of payment
  支付凭证
  certified seed
  The progeny of breeder, select, foundation or
  registered seed so handled as to maintain
  satisfactory genetic purity and identity.
  经鉴定的种子
  指保持着满意的遗传纯度和特征的原种、精选
  种、基础种或注册种的后代。
  ceylon cotton; tree cotton; Siam cotton; China cotton
  锡兰棉;木棉;暹罗棉;中国棉
  chain index
  An index number derived by relating the value at any
  given period to the value in the previous period
  rather than to a fixed base.
  环比指数
  指通过把某一时期的数值与前一时期的数值相
  比,而不是与固定基期相比而得出的指数。
  chair, constituency of an Executive Director [World
  Bank]
  一个执行董事的选区、席位 [世界银行]
  chair representing ... [World Bank Executive
  Directors]
  代表…席位 [世界银行执行董事会]
  changes clause [US]
  A clause in a contract giving a contracting officer the
  right to make unilateral changes to a contract,
  provided that the changes are within the general
  scope of the contract.
  变更条款 [美国]
  合同中的一项条款,它给予签约官员单方面对合
  同作某些变更的权力,但这种变更仅限于合同总
  的范围以内。
  changes in working capital statement 流动资金变化
  表
  见 statement of changes in financial position
  channel [trade]
  渠道,途径 [贸易]
  channel, river
  航道,河流
  charge; lien [legal]
  托管物,留置权(法律)
  chargeback
  回索,结算
  charge number [currency pool]
  An intermediate variable used to calculate currency
  pool interest, it is determined by revaluing each
  day's current dollar-equivalent balance to the present
  using the product of the duality revaluation factors
  between that day and the present, with the sum of
  these daily revalued balances representing the
  charge number.
  计息积数 [货币总库]
  这是用来计算货币总库中贷款利息的一个中间
  变量。它是通过以下方式得出的:把迄今为止的
  每日美元现价等值余额用每日和现时之间的二
  重再估价系数进行重新估算。 这些每日重估价后
  的余额的和,就是计息积数。
  charge of capital; carrying cost (of capital)
  The interest on debit balances.
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  资本费用;(资本)置存成本;
  即借方余额中的利率。
  charges [utilities]
  收费 [公用事业]
  chart
  图表
  见 bar chart; chart of accounts; construction
  progress chart; flip chart; flow chart; performance
  chart; process chart; progress chart; scatter chart
  charter (of a company)
  (公司的)章程,执照
  charter party - c/p
  A contract between shipowner and charterer for the
  carriage of goods or hire of vessel for a period of
  time.
  租船契约,租船合同(简写为c/p)
  船主与租船者之间为运送货物或在一定时间内
  租用船只而订立的合同。
  chart of accounts
  A systematically arranged list of accounts applicable
  to a specific concern giving account names and
  numbers, if any.
  会计科目表;帐户一览表
  为特殊目的而设立并经过系统整理的帐户一览
  表,注有帐户名称和帐号。
  cherry picking
  选择最好的
  chief economist
  首席经济学家
  child mortality
  儿童死亡率
  亦见infant mortality
  China cotton; Ceylon cotton; Siam cotton; tree
  cotton
  中国棉;锡兰棉;暹罗棉;木棉
  chlorofluorocarbon - CFC
  氟氯烃(简写为CFC)
  churn factor
  Leased space to handle demand surge and space
  modifications.
  暂时租用的办公用房
  为解决用房需求的增加和装修而租用的房屋。
  cistern flush latrine
  Latrine where the water for flushing comes from a
  cistern.
  水箱式冲洗厕所
  冲水来自于水箱的厕所。
  civil commotion
  Events which have all the characteristics of a riot but
  which are more widespread and of longer duration,
  without, however, attaining the status of civil war,
  revolution, rebellion or insurrection. Covered by
  MIGA under the war and civil disturbance category.
  内部骚动 [多边投资担保机构]
  指具有一切暴乱特征的事件,但范围更为广泛,
  持续事间更长,然而没有达到内战、革命、造反
  或起义的程度。在多边投资担保机构保险范围内
  属“战争与国内动乱”类别。
  参见riot
  civil service
  公务员,文官
  civil works; public works
  土建工程;土木工程
  claim
  权利要求,债权;索赔
  亦见financial claim; financial claimes of
  government
  claim [mining]
  对某片土地(矿产)的权利要求 [采矿]
  claim (on resources)
  (对资源的)权利要求
  claused bill of lading; dirty bill of lading
  A bill of lading that has been endorsed by the
  shipowner as the goods described in the bill do not
  conform to what is offered for shipment, e.g.
  package missing, goods damaged, etc.
  附有批注的提单;不洁提单
  经船主背书的提单,说明提单所描述的货物与交
  运的货物不符,例如包装缺失,货物受损等。
  clawback provision
  Clause in an underwriting agreement for a security
  that restricts the issue to a certain group, e.g.
  domestic buyers, till demand from that group is
  satisfied.
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  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  回补条款
  指证券包销协议中的一项条款,它限定向某一群
  体发售该证券,例如向国内购买者,直至该群体
  的需求达到满足。
  clean bill of lading
  A bill of lading which has no superimposed clause(s)
  expressly declaring a defective condition of the
  packaging or goods.
  清洁提单,货物完好无损的提单
  没有附加条款以说明包装和货物有缺陷的提单。
  clean coal
  Coal produced by a cleaning process.
  净煤
  经清洗工序生产出来的煤炭。
  clean fuel
  Fuel that causes little or no pollution
  清洁燃料
  几乎或者完全不产生污染的燃料。
  clean-up (environmental)
  净化环境,清除(环境的)污染
  clearance
  清理,出清,票据交换,纯益计算
  亦见slum clearance;tax clearance
  clearing [agriculture]
  已清理出的一片土地 [农业]
  clearing house
  An organization set up by financial institutions
  agreeing to initiate and receive among themselves
  electronic funds transfers authorized by their
  customers.
  票据交换所,清算机构,交流中心
  指由金融机构设立的票据交换机构,客户用以在
  各金融机构之间按客户授权进行电子资金转帐。
  client country
  委托国;客户国
  clinker
  渣块,烧结块;头等货
  closed-end investment company, fund [US];
  investment trust [UK]
  Investment company with a fixed number of shares
  outstanding. The shares represent an interest in the
  fund's portfolio. New shares may not be issued.
  限额型投资公司,限额基金 [美国];投资 信托公
  司 [英国]
  是指发行固定数量股票的投资公司,这些股份代
  表在公司的证券组合中拥有一定的权益,一般不
  发行新股。
  closely-held corporation
  A corporation whose stock is held by a small group,
  usually with an agreement that if a member of the
  group desires to sell any part of the ownership, it
  must first be offered to the other members of the
  group.
  寡头控股公司,股东人数有限的股份公司
  指由一个小集团拥有的公司,通常有一项协议,
  规定如果集团中某一成员想出售其任何一部分
  所有权的话,必须首先出售给集团中的其他成
  员。
  close of business - c.o.b.
  停止办公时间,截止时间(简写为c.o.b)
  closing date
  结帐日;交 割日期;截止日期
  closing stock [livestock]
  Number of animals held at the end of an accounting
  period.
  期末存栏数 [牲畜]
  指一个会计期末牲畜的数量。
  closure of the proceeding [ICSID]
  终止诉讼 [解决投资争端国际中心]
  club deal
  Loan whereby, instead of one bank being designated
  lead bank and others comanagers or underwriters,
  the various functions these carry out are divided
  among a limited group of members, in order to save
  fees.
  联合筹资交易,集团性筹资交易
  在贷款业务中,不是由一家银行担任牵头银行,
  其他各家为共管经理或承保人,而是把各项职能
  在有限的成员中进行分工,以节省费用。
  club loan
  Loan whereby, instead of one bank being designated
  lead bank and others comanagers or underwriters,
  the various functions these carry out are divided
  among the members, in order to save fees.
  集团性贷款
  在贷款业务中,不是由一家银行担任牵头银行,
  其他各家为共管经理或承保人,而是把各项职能
  64
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  在成员中进行分工,以节省_____费用。
  cluster analysis
  A statistical procedure for arranging a number of
  objects in homogeneous subgroups based on their
  mutual similarities and hierarchical relationships.
  归纳分析
  一种统计程序,即把一些事物按相互间的相似性
  和等级关系,整理成同类的子组。
  cluster audit
  OED audit of several operations together in one
  audit in order to analyze critical issues in a wider
  sector or country context.
  归并审计
  世界银行业务评价局把几个项目放在一起进行
  审计,目的是在较广泛的部门或国家范围内分析
  关键性的问题。
  cluster sampling
  When the basic sampling unit in the population is to
  be found in groups or clusters (e.g. human beings in
  households) the sampling is sometimes carried out
  by selecting a sample of clusters and observing all
  the members of each selected cluster.
  整群抽样
  一种抽样方法。当母体中的基本抽样单位是按
  群、组分类时(如家庭中的人口),有时抽样方
  式是选择一类样本群组,然后对被选择的群组中
  的每一个样本单位的全体成员进行观察。
  coal-based fuel
  煤基燃料
  coal field
  煤田
  coal fired power station
  燃煤发电站
  coal gasification
  煤的气化
  coal liquefaction
  煤的液化
  coarse grain(s)
  Cereal grains used to feed livestock.
  粗粮
  用来饲养牲畜、家禽的粮食。
  coastal shipping
  沿海航运
  coastal state
  沿海国家
  coastal strip country
  Country consisting of a small strip of land with an
  outlet to the sea. Examples include Gambia and
  Togo.
  狭长的沿海国家
  国土狭长并具有出海口的国家,例如冈比亚和多
  哥。
  codetermination; comanagement; management
  participation system
  System which gives employees the right to be
  represented in the decisions of a corporation.
  共同决策;共同管理;参与管理制
  一种给予雇员权利的参与公司决策制度。
  co-exposure [insurance]
  共同承担风险 [保险]
  cofinanc(i)er
  联合贷款者,共同融资者
  cofinancing
  联合贷款,共同融资
  coinsurance
  Insurance where a number of insurers share the risk
  or where insured and insurer share the risk.
  联合(共同)保险
  由若干承保人分担风险,或受保险人和承保人分
  担风险的保险方式。
  亦见qualitative coinsurance; guantitative
  coninsurance
  coke oven gas
  炼焦炉煤气
  coke oven plant
  炼焦炉工厂,焦化厂
  coking coal
  Coal which can be converted into useful coke that
  must be strong enough to withstand handling.
  炼焦煤,焦炭
  一种可转化为经得起装运的有用的焦炭的煤。
  colead manager
  Lender ranking next to lead manager in a Euroloan.
  65
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  共同负责的经理
  在欧洲货币贷款中仅次于首席经理的贷款人。
  collateral
  抵押资产;担保品
  collateral financing
  抵押贷款;抵押融资
  collect call; transfer charge call; reverse charge call
  由受话人付费的电话,对方付费的电话
  collection of data
  收集数据
  collection of taxes
  收税
  collective self-reliance
  Term used to describe the economic independence
  of the developing countries from the industrial
  countries and economic cooperation among the
  developing countries. Embodied in the Arusha
  Programme for Collective Self-Reliance, 1979.
  集体自力更生
  这个名词用来描述发展中国家的经济独立于工
  业国家以及发展中国家之间经济合作。此名词出
  自1979年的“阿鲁沙集体自力更生计划”。
  collegial management
  Management system based on the manager being
  supported by an advisory committee (consisting of
  senior staff) which helps him in his decision-making.
  学院式管理制
  由顾问委员会(由高级职员组成)协助经理,帮
  助其进行决策的管理制度。
  collusive oligopoly
  Oligopoly where participants act as a cartel.
  勾结性垄断
  参与并作为一个卡特尔行事的垄断行为。
  collusive tendering
  共谋的投标(或报价)
  coloan
  A cofinanced loan.
  联合贷款
  联合融资的贷款。
  comanagement; codetermination; management
  participation system
  System which gives employees the right to be
  represented in the decisions of a corporation.
  共同管理;共同决策;参与管理制
  给予雇员参与公司决策权利的制度。
  combined cycle [energy]
  Designation of a power plant that uses two
  technologies to generate electricity. Usually applied
  to gas-turbine and steam-turbine combinations.
  组合循环 [能源]
  一个发电厂同____时
  
  
  86
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  - D -
  dam
  堤坝
  见 diversion dam; earthfill dam; storage dam
  data collection
  收集数据
  dated information
  注明日期的信息
  day release; block release
  The system by which a trainee is authorized to be
  absent from work, usually for one or two complete
  days a week, with or without pay, in order to attend
  part-time courses of related instruction and general
  education constituting part of his training program.
  全天脱产培训
  一种培训制度,该制度下接受培训的人获批准脱
  产,通常是每周一、两天,带薪或不带薪,目的
  是能参加培训计划中有关授课和普通教育的课
  程。
  day-to-day money
  日用资金
  见 call money
  days receivable
  The average number of days overdue of accounts
  receivable. It is used as an indicator of the efficiency
  of the commercial operations of a corporation, as it
  reflects its ability with regard to collection of bills.
  The Bank target is around 60 days.
  应收帐款平均拖延日期
  指应收帐款平均过期天数,用来作为一个公司的
  商务活动效率的指标,反映它在收帐方面的能
  力。世界银行的目标是60天左右。
  dead storage (capacity)
  无效容量,不能利用的容积
  deadweight (losses)
  Loss of consumer surplus incurred by buyers and not
  captured by producers, which is consequent upon an
  initially competitive industry becoming
  monopolistic and therefore, ceteris paribus,
  charging a higher price and selling a lower level of
  output.
  无谓的损失
  指买方失去而生产者未能抓住的消费者盈余。这
  是最初相互竞争的行业形成垄断以后的后果,即
  (在其它条件保持不便的情况下)提高售价,减
  少产品销售量。
  deadweight tonnage - DWT
  The weight in long tons that a vessel can carry when
  fully laden.
  载重吨位(简写为DWT)
  指一个交通工具完全装满后可载的英吨重量。
  deadwood equities [IFC]
  Investments that either have a loss reserve, a
  write-off, paid less than half of the portfolio's
  average dividend rate the past two years, are
  presently valued at less than 1.2 times cost, or whose
  prospects for future price appreciation are estimated
  to be poor.
  累赘股本 [国际金融公司]
  指某种投资,具有赔款准备金和注销额,在过去
  两年里投资组合收益率不到平均股利的50%,目
  前价值低于成本的1.2倍,或是未来价格溢升前景
  不好。
  dealer
  掮客,中间商
  见 securities dealer
  dean (of the Board of Directors)
  (董事会)组长、资深董事
  debenture (bond)
  1. U.S.: Unsecured bond.
  2. U.K.: Loan secured against specific or general
  assets of a company.
  债券,信用债券
  1. 美国:无担保债券。
  2. 英国:以一个公司特定的或一般的资产作担
  保的贷款。
  亦见convertible debenture loan investment
  debt bunching
  债务归集
  debt burden ratio
  Interest on debt as a percentage of exports.
  负债比率
  债务利息占出口额的百分比。
  debt cancellation
  取消债务
  debt carrying capacity
  87
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  债务承担能力
  debt consolidation*
  债务统一
  debt conversion
  债务转化
  debt creating
  债务生成,产生债务的
  debt distressed country
  债务困扰国
  debt due
  到期债务
  debt enhancements
  债务组合的改善
  debt equity conversion; debt equity swap
  债务股本转化;债务股本互换
  debt equity conversion fund [IFC]
  债务股本转化基金 [国际金融公司]
  debt equity ratio; debt to equity ratio; debt to capital
  ratio
  Mainly used to describe the ratio of total liabilities to
  shareholders' equity (net worth). It can also be used
  to describe the ratio of long-term debt to equity, net
  long-term debt to equity, total or long- term debt to
  tangible equity (= equity plus revenue plus capital
  reserves). All these definitions are used in the World
  Bank and IFC, so care should be taken in translation
  to ensure the correct term is used. Other definitions
  are used outside the World Bank.
  债务股本比率;债务资本比率
  主要用于表示总负债与股东权益(净值)的比率。
  也可用于表示长期债务对股本、净长期债务对股
  本、总的或长期的债务对有形资产(股本加收入
  加资本储备)的比率。所有这些定义都为世界银
  行和国际金融公司所使用,因此在翻译时须小心
  掌握,以确保用词的准确。其它定义在世界银行
  之外使用。
  debt equity swap; debt equity conversion
  债务_____股本互换;债务股本转化
  debt financing
  举债筹资,举债融资
  debt forgiveness
  债务豁免
  debt-for-health swaps
  Exchanges of developing country debt for assistance
  for health programs.
  债务与卫生援助计划互换
  用发展中国家的债务换取卫生援助方案。
  debt funding
  债务融资
  debt outstanding and disbursed - DOD
  已支付未偿还债务,债务余额(简写为DOD)
  debt overhang
  1.The total outstanding debt.
  2.The total debt that cannot be readily covered by
  expected growth.
  未偿债务
  1.未清偿的债务余额。
  2.预期增长不足以抵偿的债务总额。
  debt ratio
  Ratio of total liabilities to total assets.
  债务比率
  总负债对总资产的比率。
  debt relief
  债务减免
  debt rephasing; rescheduling of debt; rephasing of a
  debt; debt rescheduling
  债务重组;重定偿债期限;调整偿债期限;
  debt representation letter
  A letter from a member to the Bank outlining the
  country's external debt.
  外债报告书
  会员国致世界银行概述该国外债情况的信。
  debt rescheduling; rescheduling of debt; debt
  rephasing; rephasing of a debt
  重定偿债期限;债务重组
  Debt Restructuring Facility - DRF
  债务结构调整贷款(简写为DRF)
  debt retirement
  Paying off a debt.
  还债
  清偿一笔债务。
  88
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  debt sales
  债务出售
  debt service coverag
  Ratio of net income after taxes plus interest on
  long-term debt plus depreciation to debt service.
  债务还本付息率
  即税后净收入加长期债务利息加折旧,与债务还
  本付息的比率。
  debt-service ratio
  External public debt-service ratio (i.e. interest and
  principal payments) as a percentage of export
  earnings from goods, nonfactor services, and
  workers' remittances.
  债务清偿率
  指对外公共债务(还本付息额)偿还比率,即占
  包括货物、非要素服务和输出劳务的汇款等出口
  收入的百分比。
  debt service requirements
  债务清偿条件
  debt service schedule
  偿债时间表
  debt servicing capacity
  偿债能力
  debt strategy
  债务战略
  debt to capital ratio
  负债资本比率
  见 debt equity ratio
  debt to equity ratio
  负债股本比率
  见 sebt equity ratio
  debt workout program [World Bank]
  债务解决方案 [世界银行]
  Debtor Reporting System [World Bank]
  债务人报告制度[世界银行]
  decapitalize
  减低投资资本,非资本化
  decision maker
  决策人,决策者
  decision making body
  决策机构
  decision-making power
  决策权
  declining balance method; reducing charge method
  In depreciation where the annual charge for
  depreciation is the amount obtained (a) by applying
  a fixed percentage to the diminishing balance of the
  asset account, that is the balance after deducting
  preceding depreciation provisions; or (b) by
  applying a diminishing rate to the original cost of the
  asset.
  余额递减法;递减计提法
  即在折旧时采取以下方法计算年折旧额:(1)
  对资产帐户的递减余额(即扣减历年折旧额后的
  余额)使用一个固定的百分比;或(2)对资产
  的原始成本使用一个递减比率。
  deductible [insurance]
  可免除的;可扣减的 [保险]
  deduction
  减除
  见 tax deduction
  deed of trust
  信托契约;委托书
  deep discount bond, note
  Bond with relatively low-coupon rate of interest,
  offered with a discount in excess of what can normally
  be treated as capital gain by the investor.
  按较大折扣发行的债券,大幅折价债券
  这类债券通常利率较低,发行时的折扣率超过投
  资者一般所认为的资本收益。
  deep market
  A very active market.
  完全的市场
  交易非常活跃的市场。
  deep sea fishing
  深海捕鱼
  deep water port
  深水港
  deepening
  深化
  89
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  见 capital deepening; capital deepening investment;
  financial deepening
  deepening of the industrial structure
  工业结构深化
  default [ICSID]
  违约,拖欠 [解决投资争端国际中心]
  default on obligations
  不履行义务
  defensive expenditures
  National accounts concept for expenditure to protect
  the environment and to combat those undesirable
  aspects of economic activity that lead to
  environmental decay, resource degradation and
  depletion and pollution.
  防御性支出
  国民帐户中的一个概念,指保护环境和治理经济
  活动中导致环境恶化、资源破坏和衰竭及污染等
  不利因素的开支。
  deferrable participating loan
  A loan used by IFC whereby the interest paid is
  linked to the profits of the company.
  可递延参与贷款
  国际金融公司发放的一种贷款,其利息与公司的
  利润相挂钩。
  deferred charges, expenses
  Expenditures carried forward as an asset until they
  become relevant (such as an advance rent payment
  of insurance premium).
  待摊费用,递延费用,转结费用
  作为资产向前递延(转结)直至相应开支发生(如
  预付的保险金等)。
  deferred depreciation
  递延折旧,推迟折旧
  deferred rate and currency setting
  递延利率和货币设定
  deferred rate setting - DRS
  Method of locking in a spread over a Treasury
  benchmark while distributing the rate fixing over
  several months. Treasury securities are purchased,
  with the pricing benchmark being the issue at the
  time the borrowing was launched and the securities
  are sold when the borrower wants to fix the Treasury
  yield component of the borrowing cost. The issue
  spread is locked in at time of issue and the Treasury
  yield component of the cost is stripped out. Any
  decrease in interest rates after the issue date would
  mean the Treasury notes could be sold at a profit
  which would reduce the borrowing cost of the issue
  to a level reflecting the original issue spread and the
  Treasury yield at the time the Treasury notes were
  sold. Conversely, any increase in interest rates
  would mean a loss on the sale of the Treasury
  securities and an increase in the borrowing cost to a
  level reflecting the higher Treasury yield.
  递延利率确定法,延期利率确定法( 简写为DRS)
  指锁住国库券基价的利差,以此确定今后几个月
  的利率的方法。具体做法是先购买国库券,确定
  其在贷款发生时的基价,然后在借款人希望用国
  库券收益部分来确定借款成本时,卖出国库券。
  发行利差在发行时即已锁定,而国库券收益组成
  部分中的成本则被分离出去。发行日之后利率的
  任何下降都将意味着国库券可以卖出并获利,也
  就是说可能可以把借款成本降低到原发行利差
  和国库券销售时的收益水平上。相反,利率的任
  何上升都意味着国库券销售的损失,以及贷款成
  本提高到较高的国库券收益水平。
  亦见anticipatory rate setting
  deferred recovery
  Recovery of currency used in lending operations
  subject to maintenance of value. Recovery is
  deferred for any currency outstanding on loan since
  June 30, 1987.
  延期回收
  在贷款业务中为保值而进行的货币回收。1987年
  6月30日以来的未偿还贷款使用的任一种货币都
  在延期回收之列。
  deficiency
  缺乏,不足
  见 vitamin deficiency
  deficit country
  逆差国
  deficit financing
  赤字融资
  definitive application for guarantee
  An application for a MIGA guarantee, to be made
  once investment plans are established. It provides
  the detailed information with which MIGA will
  determine investor, investment and project
  eligibility; the details of the investment to be insured
  and the types of guarantees desired; the economic
  90
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  and developmental effects of the project on the host
  country and the basis for confirming the economic
  viability of the project enterprise.
  确定的担保申请
  指一旦投资计划确定以后,即向多边投资担保机
  构提出的担保申请。该申请向多边投资担保机构
  提供详细情况资料,使多边投资担保机构能据以
  确定投资者、投资和项目的合格性,申请保险的
  投资项目的详情和对担保类型的要求,该项目对
  东道国的经济和发展的影响,以及项目企业的经
  济可行性的根据。
  见notice of registration, preliminary application for
  guarantee
  deflate, to
  缩减通货,紧缩通货
  deflation
  通货紧缩,通货缩减
  deflationary gap
  通货紧缩缺口
  deflator
  An implicit or explicit price index used to
  distinguish between those changes in the money
  value of gross national product which result from a
  change in prices and those which result from a
  change in physical output.
  减缩指数,扣除通货膨胀指数
  一项隐性或显性的价格指数,用于区别物价变动
  所造成的国民生产总值的货币价值变化,以及由
  于物质产出变化所造成的变化。
  亦见commitment deflator; GNP price deflator;
  implicit deflator; implicit gross domestic product
  deflator
  deforestation
  砍伐森林
  degree of concessionality
  优惠程度
  degressive scale
  递减率
  dehusking; husking
  去皮,_____去壳;碾米
  delegation of authority
  权力下放
  delink, to [foreign exchange]
  取消挂钩;脱钩 [外汇]
  delinking [foreign exchange]
  取消挂钩;脱钩 [外汇]
  delinquent taxes
  滞纳税款
  delivered at frontier - DAF
  Applies to goods that the seller must deliver to the
  frontier of the country named in the sales contract.
  边境交货价(简写为DAF)
  用于卖方必须按销售合同在指定的国家边境交
  付的货物。
  delivered duty paid - DDP
  Applies to goods that the seller must deliver to the
  buyers' premises.
  完税后交货价(简写为DDP)
  这种交货价用于售货方必须在购货方的地址交
  货。
  delivered energy
  输出的能源
  delivery (of a contract)
  (按合同)交货
  delivery of bids
  投标,投递标书
  见 bid submission
  delivery system; supply system
  交货系统;供应系统
  demand deposit
  Deposits payable within thirty days.
  活期存款
  指在30天以内可以提取的存款。
  demand management
  Influence over the wants of buyers, usually
  consumers, e.g. advertising.
  需求调节;需求管理
  对买方(通常指消费者)的需求施加影响,例如
  做广告。
  demand money
  短期款
  见 call money
  91
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  demand note
  即期票据
  demand pull factors
  Factors that attract migrants into another country.
  需求拉动因素,吸引因素
  指吸引移民到另一个国家去的因素。
  demand pull inflation
  A rise in prices brought about by consumers and
  investors with rising incomes as they compete for a
  relatively limited supply of valuable goods.
  需求拉动型通货膨胀
  由于消费者和投资者收入的增加,使他们竞相购
  买供应量相对有限的贵重物品,从而带动价格上
  涨。
  demand shift
  需求变动
  dematerialization of manufactures
  The phenomenon whereby the service content of
  manufactured goods is increasing.
  制成品物质成分减少
  指在制造品中劳务的内容不断增加的现象。
  demerit goods
  A merit good in which the merit is negative, e.g.
  alcohol consumption.
  无益货物
  一种具有反面意义的有益货物,例如酒精类消费
  品。
  demographic transition; transition*
  人口结构转型
  demonstration activity
  示范活动
  demonstration effect
  示范效应
  demonstration plot
  示范田
  demonstration school; laboratory school; model
  school; practice school
  A school attached to a teacher-training
  establishment in order to allow students to observe
  experienced teachers at work and to undertake
  teaching practice themselves.
  示范学校;实验学校; 模范学校;实习学校
  师范院校附属学校,其目的是让学生观察有经验
  的教师的工作,并进行教学实习。
  demurrage
  The money payable to the owner for the delay for
  which the owner is not responsible in loading and/or
  discharging after the laytime has expired.
  滞期费
  由非业主责任所造成的装卸货时间超过规定的
  期限而应付给业主的钱。
  dendrothermal power plant
  以木材为燃料的发电厂
  denominated in (dollars, etc.)
  (用美元等)标价、计价
  departmental forces
  部门劳力
  见 force account
  departmentalization [education]
  分科制 [教育]
  dependency allowance
  抚养津贴,家属津贴
  dependency ratio
  Proportion of children and old people in a
  population in comparison with everyone else.
  抚养率
  指在总人口中,儿童和老人与其他人口的比率。
  dependent
  家属
  depletion allowance, reserve
  An allowance for exhaustion of a natural resource.
  耗竭限度,藏量
  指一项自然资源可耗竭的限度。
  deposit
  储量,存款
  见 geothermal deposit
  deposit liabilities
  存款负债额
  depositor rate of interest; borrowing rate [banks]
  The rate of interest paid by banks on deposits.
  存款利率;借款利率 [银行]
  银行对存款支付的利率
  92
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  depository bank
  A bank that is designated and authorized to accept
  deposits of funds belonging to the federal
  government or other government bodies, or funds
  from other banks which the latter are required by law
  to maintain as reserve against deposits.
  受托银行,存款银行
  被指定和授权的银行,该银行接受联邦政府或其
  它政府机构的储蓄资金,或法律要求其它银行作
  为储蓄准备金的资金。
  depreciation
  折旧
  见 accelerated depreciation; accumulated
  depreciation; allowance for depreciation; defeered
  depreciation; straight-line depreciation
  depreciation allowance
  折旧被抵
  见 reserve for depreciation
  depreciation on a straight line; straight line
  depreciation
  直线折旧法
  depressed industry
  萧条工业
  Deputy [Dev. Comm.; IDA]
  代表[国际开发协会;发展委员会]
  Deputy Secretary General [ICSID]
  副秘书长 [解决投资争端国际中心]
  deregulate
  取消管制
  derivative instruments
  A contract whose value changes as prices move in a
  related or underlying commodity or financial
  instrument. The term covers standard futures and
  options, as well as over-the-counter swaps, options
  and similar instruments.
  衍生金融工具
  一种合同,其价值随着有关或特定商品或金融工
  具的价格变动而变化。这一名词包括标准期货和
  期权,以及场外掉期、选择权和其它类似的金融
  工具。
  design
  设计,图案,图样
  design capacity
  设计能力
  design engineering
  设计工程
  design speed
  The highest continuous safe vehicular speed as
  governed by the design features of a highway.
  设计速度
  由一条公路设计特点所决定的最高连续安全行
  车车速。
  design standards
  设计标准
  designated forest
  Forest legally set aside for preservation or
  production.
  指定森林
  法定作为保留或生产的森林。
  Designating Authority (of Panel Members) [ICSID]
  (小组委员会委员的)指定权利 [解决投资争端
  国际中心]
  designer
  设计师;设计人
  desk officer
  国别业务负责人
  desk study
  案头研究
  desktop publishing
  案头出版
  despatch money; dispatch money
  The money payable by the owner if the ship
  completes loading or discharging before the laytime
  has expired.
  速谴费
  船舶预定装卸货时间内完成装卸时,货主应付的
  奖金。
  destination taxes
  目的地税
  detailed design, engineering
  详细设计
  93
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  deterrent
  阻挠力量;阻挠因素;威慑力量
  developing island country
  发展中岛国
  development
  发展,开发
  亦见 area development; engineering development;
  Evaluation Capability Development Program; land
  development; letter of development policy;
  management development; manpower development;
  site development; skills development; staff
  development; whole farm development; World
  Development Indicators
  development area
  开发区
  development bank
  开发银行
  development bond
  开发债券
  Development Committee*
  发展委员会
  development credit agreement [IDA]
  开发信贷协议 [国际开发协会]
  development drilling
  Drilling in a known producing field as opposed to
  exploratory drilling.
  开发性钻探
  在已知的生产性油田进行的钻探。区别于勘测性
  的钻探。
  development finance company - DFC
  开发金融公司(简写为DFC)
  development finance institution - DFI
  发展金融机构(简写为DFI)
  development period (of a project, of a company)
  (一个项目,一个公司的)开发期
  development planner
  开发计划人员;发展规划的制定者
  development planning
  开发计划,发展规划
  deworm
  祛除寄生虫
  diagnostically related groups - DRG
  Groups of related ailments for which identical fee
  schedules can be prepared.
  征侯类同群体(简写为DRG)
  疾病类型相关、可以编制相同的医疗费用表的群
  体。
  diesel fuel; diesel oil
  柴油
  diesel (fired) power plant
  柴油发电厂
  dietary energy supply - DES
  Kilocalories per capita per day of food consumption.
  A standard measure of food intake.
  食物能量供应(简写为DES)
  每人每日食物消费的卡路里,是衡量食物摄入的
  标准尺度。
  dilution
  搀水
  见 stock dilution
  diminishing returns
  收益递减
  见law of diminishing returns
  dip [stockbreeding]
  药浴 [畜牧业]
  dipping tank
  药浴池
  direct contracting [procurement]
  Award of a contract without using competition.
  直接签订合同 [采购]
  不经招标而直接签订合同 。
  direct costing
  The process of assigning costs as they are incurred to
  products and services.
  直接成本计算
  根据在生产和服务中发生的成本费用确定成本
  的过程。
  94
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  direct labour
  直接用工
  见 force account
  directed credit
  定向信贷
  directed economy
  指令性经济
  见 command economy
  direction of lending
  贷款方向
  directly unproductive profit seeking (DUP)
  activities
  直接谋求非生产性利润的活动(简写为DUP)
  direct overhead budget
  In the World Bank, a budget for those overhead
  expenses controlled by the manager. Include office
  equipment, direct communications, equipment
  depreciation, field office costs, supplies and
  materials.
  直接管理的间接费用预算
  指在世界银行内直接由经理控制的那部分间接
  费用的预算,包括办公设备、直接通讯、设备折
  旧、驻外办事处费用____、办公用品等。
  direct shopping [procurement]
  Procurement based on direct comparison of price
  quotations. No bidding documents are used.
  直接询价采购 [采购]
  在对报价直接比较的基础上进行的采购。不采用
  招标文件。
  direct workd
  直接用工工程
  见 force account
  dirty bill of lading
  不洁提单
  见 claused bill of lading
  disadvantaged group
  贫困阶层,境遇差的阶层,处于不利地位的群体
  disbursement deflator
  Coefficient used to convert disbursement amounts
  into constant dollars.
  支付缩减系数
  用来把支付额换算成不变美元的系数。
  disbursement letter
  支付信
  disbursement officer
  支付官员
  disclaimer
  放弃权利声明,不表示意见
  disclosure of information
  信息披露
  discontinuance [ICSID]
  中断诉讼 [解决投资争端国际中心]
  discount
  折扣;贴现;贴息;贴水
  discount, to [finance]
  贴现 [金融]
  discount bond
  Bond selling at a price less than its par value.
  还本时付息债券,按票面值付息债券
  以低于票面价值的价格发行的债券。
  discount factor
  How much 1 at a future date is worth today.
  折现因数,贴现折扣
  即未来的“1”在今天的价值是多少。
  discount note
  Note (i.e. short- or medium-term bond) issued at a
  discount from its face value. On maturity, the
  investor receives the full face value. The discount
  from par, thus, corresponds to the return on the
  investment.
  贴现票据
  指按面值折扣发行的票据(即短期或中期的债
  券)。票据到期时投资者可取得全额面值。因此,
  面值的贴现值相当于投资收益。
  discount rate [central bank]
  Rate at which a central bank (Federal Reserve
  System in the U.S.) (re)discounts certain bills for
  financial institutions.
  贴现率 [中央银行]
  中央银行(在美国为联邦储备银行)对金融机构
  某些票据进行(再)贴现的贴现率。
  discount rate [project appraisal; securities]
  95
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  Annualized rate of discount applied to debt
  securities issued below par (e.g. U.S. Treasury bills).
  贴现率 [项目评估]
  指低于面值发行的债券(如美国国库券)所用的
  年折扣率。
  亦见shadow discount rate; social rate of discount
  discount window [central bank]
  贴现窗口 [中央银行]
  discounted cash flow (DCF) method
  A type of analysis based on discounting cash flows
  to the present by a given discount rate. It allows an
  analyst to take into account the fact that a dollar of
  benefit received a year from today is not as valuable
  as a dollar of cost incurred today, for example,
  because if the cost had not been incurred, the dollar
  could have been invested, and in a year's time at an
  interest rate of, say, 10%, the capital would have
  grown to $1.10. Because projects vary widely in the
  pattern of their costs and benefits over time, DCF is
  necessary to place them on a common present value
  basis for comparison.
  现金流量贴现法(简写为DCF)
  一种根据给定的贴现率将现金流量折成现值的
  分析方法。它使分析人员能够认识到一年以后收
  到的一美元的效益没有今天花费的一美元成本
  那么值钱。因为假如该成本没有被花费掉,该美
  元可以进行投资,按10%的利率计算,一年后这
  笔资本将变成1.10美元。由于项目在一段时间内
  成本或效益的结构变动很大,需要用DCF方法,
  把它们放在统一的现值基础上进行比较。
  discretionary expense budget
  In the World Bank, a budget for those expenses
  directly controlled by the manager. Include salaries,
  temporary staff costs, overtime, operational travel,
  representation, hospitality, consultants, contractual
  services, internal computing and language services.
  可支配费用的预算
  指在世界银行里由经理直接控制的那些费用的
  预算,包括工资、临时职员费用、加班费、业务
  差旅费、宴请费、招待费、咨询专家费、服务合
  同、内部计算和语言翻译服务等费用。
  discretionary income
  Income available after payment of necessaries such
  as housing, taxation, etc.
  可支配收入
  指付清住房、税款等必要支出之后余下的那部分
  收入。
  discretionary liquidity
  The amount of liquidity held by the Bank above the
  minimum prescribed.
  可支配流动资金
  指世界银行持有的、超过最低限额的那部分流动
  资金。
  discretionary spending
  机动开支,可支配开支
  discussion paper
  供讨论使用的文件,讨论文件
  disease
  疾病
  见 pest and disease control; vectorborne disease;
  water-based disease; waterborne disease;
  water-washed disease
  diseconomies
  Occurs when, as a firm grows larger, management
  becomes less efficient, raw material costs rise
  because local supplies are exhausted or for similar
  reasons.
  不经济,成本费用增加
  指随着企业发展而产生的管理效率的降低,以及
  由于当地供应耗竭或其他类似原因而带来的原
  材料成本上升。
  disestablish, to
  停止活动,清理
  disguised unemployment; concealed, covert, hidden
  unemployment
  隐性失业;变相失业;潜在失业
  dishoarding
  Returning an item to either the real flow or the
  money flow so that it can be circulated, consumed or
  otherwise used in its intended function.
  减少持有量;(货币)出笼
  把一个物品回放于实物流通或货币流通之中,使
  其能够流通、被消费或发挥其应有的作用。
  disincentive
  消极刺激,反激励
  disinflation
  通货收缩,反通货膨胀
  disinflationary
  通货收缩的
  96
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  disintermediation
  1. Shift of funds away from financial intermediaries
  (commercial banks, etc.) into Treasury
  bills and other securities.
  2. Shift by large corporations away from banks to
  a parallel market, involving other large corporations.
  金融中介作用减弱
  1、把资金从金融中介机构(商业银行等)转移
  到国库券和其他证券方面去;
  2、一些大公司把资金从银行转移到和其他一些
  大公司有关的平行市场上去。
  disinvestment
  资本投资减损,投资减少,反投资
  dislocated worker
  离岗工人,下岗工人
  dispatch money
  速遣费
  见 despatch money
  disposable income
  可支配收入
  disposal
  处理
  见 waste disposal
  dispose (of) for value, to
  保值处理
  disqualification [ICSID]
  不合格;取消资格 [解决投资争端国际中心]
  dissaver
  提取储蓄存款者,超支者
  dissaving
  提取储蓄存款,动用原有储蓄,超支
  distance learning, teaching
  Teaching by remote media such as radio or
  television.
  远程学习、教学
  通过广播或电视等远距离媒体教学。
  distress borrowing
  Borrowing in a situation of extreme need when there
  is no other alternative.
  急用借款
  指由于极端需要,在别无选择的情况下进行的借
  款。
  distressed loan
  Loan on which repayment of interest and principal
  has been severely delayed or completely suspended.
  还本付息有困难的贷款
  指还本付息严重拖延或完全停止的贷款。
  distress price
  急售价格,廉价
  distress sale, selling
  廉价抛售,出售查封的货物
  distributional weight
  分配权数
  disutility
  反效用,负效用
  ditch rider; waterman
  Person responsible for supervising an irrigation
  area.
  灌区管理员
  负责监管灌区的人员。
  diversion dam
  A barrier across a stream built to turn all or some of
  the water into a diversion.
  分洪坝
  河流上建造的一个拦截物,使全部或部分河水改
  变流向。
  divestiture; divestment
  Disposition of an asset or investment by outright
  sale, employee purchase, liquidation, etc.
  售让资产;处置资产
  通过直接出售、员工认购、清算等方式处置一项
  资产或投资。
  divestment
  售让
  见 divestiture
  dividend
  股利,红利
  见 stock dividend
  dockage; wharfage; wharfage charges
  码头费;船坞费
  97
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  documentary credit
  An arrangement where a bank, on behalf of a
  customer, makes payment to a third party or
  authorizes such a payment to be made.
  跟单信用证,押汇信用证
  一种由银行代表一个客户向第三者付款或授权
  付款的安排。
  documentary evidence
  证明文件,书面证明;单据
  dollar budgeting
  Budget planning based on actual cash outlays for the
  budget, rather than for a fixed amount of items, with
  allowances for cost increases
  美元预算
  按预算的实际现金支出而不是按固定的实物类
  目所作的预算,其中留出成本增加的余地。
  dollar gap
  When the inflow of dollars into the US is high,
  causing a shortage of dollars on the international
  market.
  美元差额;美元缺口
  由于大量的美元流回美国所造成的国际市场美
  元的短缺。
  dollarization
  美元化
  domestic asset formation; domestic capital
  formation
  Gross fixed capital formation plus increase in
  stocks.
  国内资产形成;国内资本形成
  指固定资本形成总值加库存的增加量。
  domestic content
  国产成分
  domestic currency
  本币
  domestic economy
  本国经济
  domestic finance studies
  国内金融研究
  domestic preference; preference margin;
  preferential margin; margin of preference
  [procurement]
  Preference given to certain goods and services of
  domestic origin in a bidding procedure.
  国内优先;优先幅度 [采购]
  在招标程中对国内生产的某些货物和劳务给予
  优先考虑。
  domestic resource cost - DRC
  Cost of resources used in products that are not
  imported.
  国内资源成本(简写为DRC)
  在产品中使用的非进口资源的成本。
  domestic resource cost ratio
  domestic resource cost coefficient - DRCC
  国内资源成本比率,国内资源成本系数(简写为
  DRCC)
  domestic savings
  国内储蓄
  domestic value added
  The value added to a product by local or domestic
  activities.
  国内附加值
  指本地或国内的活动为产品带来的增加的价值。
  donor country
  捐助国,捐款国
  dose response relationships
  The direct relationship between a specific amount of
  environmental pollution and its environmental
  impact. This is the easiest way to cost the effects of
  pollution but is not always feasible.
  投配-反应关系
  指一定剂量的环境污染物与其对环境影响的直
  接关系。这是测算污染效应的最简易的方法,但
  并非总是可行的。
  double cropping; sequential cropping
  Planting one crop after harvesting another.
  两熟耕作法;连续耕作法
  在收获一种作物之后再种植另一种作物的耕作
  方法。
  double-day phenomenon
  Phenomenon of women being wage-earners and
  responsible for children and household tasks.
  双日现象,妇女的双重负担
  指妇女既要上班挣钱又要负责照看子女和从事
  家务劳动的现象。
  98
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  double digit inflation; two digit inflation
  两位数通货膨胀
  double entry accounting
  An accounting system in which every transaction
  results in corresponding debit and credit entries in
  the system. All credits equal all debits at all times.
  复式会计,复式簿记
  一种会计制度,其中每笔交易都分别记入相应的
  借方和贷方,无论在任何时候,贷方总额总是与
  借方总额相等。
  double factorial terms of trade
  Terms of trade where changes in productivity in both
  trading partner countries are taken into account in
  order to estimate the division of the real gains from
  trade. They therefore vary proportionately with the
  net barter terms of trade and with productivity in the
  export sector but inversely with productivity
  embodied in imports.
  双要素贸易条件,双因素贸易条件
  这种贸易条件根据贸易伙伴国家双方生产率的
  变化来估计各方从贸易中分享的实际收益。因
  此,它们的变化同净易货贸易条件和出口部门的
  生产率成正比,而同进口所包含的生产率成反
  比。
  double shift teaching system
  System where, normally because of overcrowding,
  one group of pupils is taught in the morning, the
  other in the afternoon.
  二部制教学体制
  采取这种教学制度常常是因为校舍过于拥挤,一
  组学生在上午上课,另一组学生在下午上课。
  double taxation
  A term widely used to describe double taxation of
  corporate earnings, once through corporate income
  tax and again through taxation of corporate
  dividends paid out of after-tax earnings. Also used to
  describe taxation paid on income first in one country
  and then another.
  双重征税
  这一名词被广泛用来描述对公司收益的双重征
  税:一次是通过对公司所得征税;再一次是通过
  对公司税后收益中支付的公司红利征税。本名词
  也用于描述第一次在一个国家交纳所得税,然后
  在另一国家再付一次所得税。
  double weighted borrowing cost [IBRD]
  When calculating borrowings, the IBRD takes the
  amount of the loan, multiplies it by the interest rate,
  and obtains a total for the interest. All the loans and
  all the interest totals are added. The first sum is then
  divided by the second to obtain the weighted
  average interest. This is the single-weighted borrowing
  cost. Recently, the IBRD has obtained the
  interest total by multiplying the amount of the loan
  by the interest and the number of years to maturity,
  to take into account the fact that it has loans of
  varying maturities. The weighted averaged interest
  obtained from this calculation is called the
  double-weighted borrowing cost.
  双重加权借款费用 [国际复兴开发银行]
  国际复兴开发银行在计算借款费用时,用贷款额
  乘以利率得出利息总额,再把总贷款额加上总利
  息额,然后用第一笔总额除以第二笔总额,得出
  加权平均利息,即单一加权借款成本。最近国际
  复兴开发银行改为用贷款金额乘以利率和到期
  年限(考虑到贷款有不同的到期日)的方法来求
  得利息总额。以这种方法求得的利息总额即为双
  重加权借款成本。
  doubtful debt
  可疑债务
  down payment (on the budget deficit)
  (为预算赤字所做)首期付款
  down time
  停工期;停机时间
  downgrade, to (a loan)
  (对某一贷款)降级
  downloading
  下载
  downsize, to
  缩小,裁减
  downstream effect, benefit
  下游效应,下游收益
  downstream innovations
  下游革新
  downstream plant, facilities
  后处理厂、设施
  downswing
  下降
  downturn (economic)
  99
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  下降(经济)
  downward trend
  下降趋向;下降趋势
  drainage system
  排水系统
  见 storm water drainage system
  draw, to (funds)
  提取(资金)
  drawback [customs]
  An amount of money which is collected as a customs
  duty on imported goods and then refunded when the
  goods are reshipped as exports.
  退税(海关)
  在货物进口时作为关税征收的费款,在货物作为
  出口再次运出时退还。
  drawdown
  提款;提取信贷
  drawdown of equity
  提用股本
  dressing
  铺设,修饰
  见 basal dressing; surface dressing; top dressing;
  window dressing
  dressing section, hall [slaughtering]
  Area where excess fat and bone is removed from a
  meat carcass.
  分割车间 [屠宰]
  从屠宰后的畜体上剔除肥肉和骨头的车间。
  dribble irrigation
  滴灌
  见 drip irrigation
  drift fishing
  漂移捕渔
  drill core
  钻探岩心
  drilling
  钻探
  drilling rig, platform
  钻井井架,钻井平台
  见 oil (drilling) rig
  drip irrigation; dribble irrigation; trickle irrigation
  The application of water to the soil through small
  orifices in plastic pipelines.
  滴灌
  通过塑料管道的小孔对土壤进行浇灌。
  droppage [IFC]
  When a borrower from IFC decides to cancel a loan
  before signature.
  取消借款(国际金融公司)
  国际金融公司的借款者在协议签字前决定取消
  借款。
  drop out [education]
  退学 [教育 ]
  dropout rate [education]
  退学率 [教育]
  drought stress
  Stress on a plant due to lack of water.
  干旱损害
  指作物由于缺水而受到的损害。
  drug
  药品
  见 brand name drug; generic drug
  dry farming; dryland farming
  A system of producing crops in arid and semiarid
  regions without the use of irrigation. Frequently
  alternate years of fallow and cropping are practiced.
  旱地耕作法
  指一种在干旱或半干旱土地上不使用灌溉方法
  生产作物的耕作制度。常常采用一年休耕、一年
  种植的方法。
  dryland(s) farming
  旱地耕作法
  见 dry farming
  dryland(s) management
  The management of arid and semi-arid areas.
  旱地管理
  指对干旱和半干旱地区的管理。
  dry process [cement manufacture]
  Method of manufacturing cement whereby no water
  is used in the process.
  干法 [水泥制造 ]
  100
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  指水泥制造过程中不使用水的生产方法。
  参见wet process。
  dual executive director
  Executive director of both the World Bank and the
  International Monetary Fund.
  兼任执行董事
  同时担任世界银行和国际货币基金组织的执行
  董事。
  dual purpose cattle
  Cattle used both for beef and milk.
  肉奶两用牛
  指既用于产肉又用于产奶的牛。
  dummy variable
  A constructed variable used as a means of including
  factors that are not naturally quantifiable in an
  econometric model. It may assume two and only two
  values (usually 1 and 0) used to represent the
  presence of a factor and its opposite or absence.
  虚变量
  一个虚构的变量,用来包括在经济模型中不能自
  然量化的因素。它可以假定两个(而且也仅限于
  两个)值(通常是1和0),用来代表某因素及其
  对立因素的存在或不存在。
  dumping
  倾销
  dung cake
  压实的牛粪肥
  durable goods; durables
  Any consumer good which has a significant life and
  which is not therefore immediately consumed.
  耐用品,耐用消费品
  任何具有相当长的使用寿命,因而不是立即消费
  掉的消费品。
  dust collector
  尘埃收集器
  见 precipitator
  dust separator
  尘埃分离器
  见 precipitator
  dutiable
  应征关税的
  duty free
  免关税的
  duty station
  工作地点
  dwelling core
  The basic shell of a building often constructed to
  allow family or self-help groups to have basic
  housing and add additional features themselves.
  最基本住房
  指只有基本外壳的建筑, ,常常是为低收入家庭或
  自助组织建造的基本住房,附加的设施由他们自
  己安装。
  dynamic life index [commodities]
  Index in years of a commodity, assuming a specified
  growth in rate of production.
  多年动态指数 [商品]
  指在假定一种商品的特定生产增长率条件下得
  出的多年指数。
  
  
  101
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - E -
  early intensive adjustment lending (EIAL) country
  Country that received two structural adjustment
  loans or three adjustment operations, with the first
  taking place before 1986.
  早期密集型调整借款(简写为EIAL)国家
  指那些自1986年以前至今,接受过两笔结构调整
  贷款或三个调整项目的国家。
  early (maturing) [crops]
  早熟 [作物]
  early retirement scheme
  提前退休计划
  early warning system
  预警系统
  earmark, to (funds)
  指定用途,专款
  earmarked account
  专款帐户
  earmarked tax
  专用税款
  earned income
  已实现收入,经营收入
  earned surplus
  已实现盈余,经营盈余
  earning assets
  Loans and investments.
  有收益资产,盈利资产
  即贷款和投资。
  earning power
  收益能力,盈利能力
  earnings
  收益,盈利
  earthfill dam
  Dam constructed of excavated earth material.
  土坝
  用挖掘出来的土料修筑的坝。
  earth resources satellite
  One of a series of satellites designed primarily to
  measure the natural resources of the earth.
  地球资源卫星
  主要为勘测地球上的自然资源而设计的系列卫
  星之一。
  earth road
  Unsurfaced road made entirely out of earth.
  土路
  完全用土建成、未铺路面的道路。
  ease, monetary
  Policy of reducing restrictions on the availability of
  money, e.g. by easing credit restrictions.
  银根松动,放松银根
  放松限制货币供应的政策,如放松信贷限制。
  easy money
  A condition in which a combination of relatively low
  interest rates and great credit availability exists.
  银根松动,低息借款
  指利率较低并且信贷充足的情况。
  economic and sector work - ESW
  经济与部门调研(简写为ESW)
  economic hardship
  A reason for delaying Bank or IFC repayments.
  经济困难
  是推迟对世界银行或国际金融公司还款的一个
  理由。
  economic indicator
  经济指标
  economic internal rate of return
  经济内部收益率
  见 economic rate of return
  economic life
  经济寿命
  economic man
  经济人
  economic management
  经济管理
  economic performance
  经济运行情况
  economic policy note [EDI]
  102
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  经济政策文件 [经济发展学院]
  economic price; efficiency price
  Price reflecting relative value to be assigned to
  inputs and outputs if the economy is to produce the
  maximum value of physical output efficiency.
  经济价格;效率益价格
  当经济产生物质产生效率的最大值时,价格反映
  的投入和产生的相对价值。
  economic rate of return - ERR; economic internal
  rate of return - EIRR
  An internal rate of return based on economic prices.
  经济收益率,经济回报率(简写为ERR);经济
  内部收益率,经济内部回报率(简写为EIRR)
  根据经济价格确定的内部回报率。
  economic recovery loan - ERL [World Bank]
  经济复苏贷款(简写为ERL)[世界银行]
  economic rent
  The return for the use of a factor of production in
  excess of the minimum required to provide the
  service of the factor. The surplus remaining to a
  project beneficiary after he receives the rewards
  necessary to attract physical inputs, labor,
  entrepreneurship and the willingness to bear risk.
  经济租金,经济纯利,经济报酬
  指一项生产要素所得报酬超过该要素维持现有
  用途所需的最低报酬的那部分收益。在项目受益
  人收到吸引物质投入、劳力、企业管理和承担风
  险的意愿所必需的报酬以后,盈余部分仍归他所
  有。
  economic soundness [MIGA]
  One of the criteria used in assessing a project before
  a guarantee is provided.
  经济健全性 [多边投资担保机构]
  在提供担保之前评估项目时所采用的标准之一。
  economics of regress
  The economics of negative growth. The opposite of
  economics of progress.
  倒退经济学
  负增长经济学。是增长经济学的反意词。
  economies of scale
  规模经济
  economies of scope
  Cost advantage of producing different products in a
  single firm.
  范围经济
  指在一个企业里同时生产不同产品而达到成本
  优势。
  edge bias
  In crop evaluations, inclusion of a plant on the edge
  of the square delineating the area to be measured,
  rather than excluding it, leading to an upward bias.
  边缘偏差,边角偏倚
  在评估作物时,把要测算的正方形区域边缘上的
  一株MN_þ£植物包括在内而不是排除在外,导致估计过
  高的偏差。
  effective demand*
  实际需求,有效需求
  edit (texts for publication)
  编辑,校订(供出版使用的文字)
  edited by
  编者,校订者,由……校订
  editor
  编辑,编者
  educational achievements
  教育成就
  educational background
  学历
  educational material
  教学材料,教材
  effective
  见cost effective
  effective cut-off
  见operational cut-off
  effective date
  生效日期
  effective exchange rate
  The domestic market price of a good divided by its
  border price. In effect, the exchange rate actually
  paid for a given good. Serves as an estimate of the
  shadow exchange rate for that good.
  有效汇率,实际汇率
  即某一货物的国内市场价格除以其边境价格。实
  际上是对某一货物实际支付的汇率。用来估计该
  货物的影子汇率。
  103
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  亦见real effective exchange rate
  effective interest rate
  The true rate of interest paid on an installment loan.
  有效利率,实际利率
  对一笔分期偿付的贷款所支付的实际利率。
  effective protection coefficient - EPC
  A measure of protection through import duties, etc.
  as related to domestic value added as opposed to
  total value of output. Commonly measured as the
  excess value added. It measures the protection given
  to the production process per se, not just to the
  product. Often useful as a partial, quick indicator of
  economic acceptability.
  有效保护系数(简写为EPC)
  用于衡量通过进口税等办法提供的保护。它与国
  内增加值而不是总产值相关,通常被作为额外增
  加值。它不仅仅用来衡量对产品的保护,而且用
  来衡量对生产过程本身的保护。常常可作为一种
  对经济可接受程度的有限的、快捷的指标。
  effective subsidy*
  实际补贴率,有效补贴率
  effectiveness
  生效,有效性,效益
  见 conditions of effectiveness; cost effectiveness
  effectiveness of an agreement
  协议的有效性
  effects method [project appraisal]
  A method of project evaluation originated by
  Charles Prou and Marc Chervel, widely used in
  French-speaking African countries, which involves
  valuing the product and its tradeable inputs at
  shadow prices. A comparison is made between the
  situation with the project and without the project.
  效果法 [项目评估]
  指由Charles Prou 和 Marc Chervel 创立的一种项
  目评价方法,广泛用于非洲法语国家。这种方法
  用影子价格对产品和可交易投入物进行估值,对
  “有”此项目和“无”此项目两种情况做比较分
  析。
  efficiency cost of taxation; excess burden of taxation
  The difference between the resources that the
  government gains and the sacrifice that is made by
  taxpayers.
  征税的效率成本;超额税负
  指政府获取资源与纳税人所作牺牲之间的差。
  efficiency price
  效率价格
  见 econoimc price
  efficiency price; efficient price; long-run marginal
  cost - LRMC [electricity]
  The cost of meeting an increase in consumption,
  sustained indefinitely into the future, when needed
  capacity adjustments are possible.
  效率价格;长期边际成本(简写为LRMC)[电力]
  这是为满足消费需求在无限的将来增加时,有能
  力进行必要的供电量调整的成本费用。
  efficiency unit
  效率单位
  efficiency wage
  Wages measured in cost per unit output rather than
  in actual wages received or paid.
  效率工资
  以单位产出成本而不是以实际收入或付出衡量
  的工资。
  efficient price; efficiency price; long-run marginal
  cost - LRMC [electricity]
  效率价格;长期边际成本(简写为LRMC)[电力]
  effluent charges
  Payment for direct releases into the environment.
  排污税,排污费
  对直接向环境中排放污染物所征收的费用。
  effluent sewerage; solids-free sewerage; small-bore
  sewerage
  A hybrid between a septic tank and a conventional
  sewerage system. Its distinctive feature is a solid
  interceptor tank located between the house sewer
  and the street sewer. The interceptor tank retains the
  solids, thereby allowing smaller sewers to be laid at
  flatter gradients and with fewer manholes.
  出流排污;固体物过滤排污;小口径管排污
  介于化粪池和通常的排污系统之间的一种排污
  设施。其特点是在住宅排污和街道排污系统之间
  装置一个截污池,把固体污物拦截下来,这样可
  以将较小的管道_____沿较平坦的坡度铺设,并减少检
  修口。
  18% currency [IBRD maintenance of value]
  The capital paid in to the Bank by a member country
  in its own currency. Members have to pay in 20% of
  their initial shares, of which 2% is in gold and 18%
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  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  in the national currency. This is the 18% currency.
  Though subsequent capital increases have required a
  lower national currency payment, this amount is still
  called 18% currency.
  18%的(本国)货币(股本) [国际复兴开发银
  行保值]
  指会员国以本国货币向世界银行认缴的股份。会
  员国在缴付认购股份时,只需先缴纳20%最新认
  购股份,其中2%以黄金缴纳,18%用本国货币缴
  纳,这就是所谓18%货币。虽然以后增资时要求
  缴纳的本国货币比例降低了,但这一部分仍称为
  18%货币。
  18% currency out on loan [IBRD maintenance of
  value]
  18%贷款货币[国际复兴开发银行保值]
  Egyptian cotton; kidney cotton; Sea Island cotton;
  West Indian cotton
  埃及棉;椭圆型棉;海岛棉;西印度棉
  elasticity of demand
  The percentage change induced in one factor of
  demand divided by a given percentage change in the
  factor that caused the change. For example, if the
  price of a commodity is raised, purchasers tend to
  reduce their buying rate.
  需求弹性
  由某一需求因素诱导变化的百分比,除以引起这
  一变化的因素的一定百分比的变化。例如,如果
  一种商品的价格上升,购买者趋向于降低他们的
  购买率。
  elasticity of substitution
  A measure of the ease with which one input can be
  substituted for another when responding to a change
  in the ratio of the prices of the substitution. For
  instance, given a production function, suppose that
  the ratio of the return to capital to wages declined
  1%, making labor relatively more expensive than
  capital. If the ratio of the amount of capital input to
  labor input used increases more than 1%, the
  elasticity of substitution is elastic, which implies that
  it is relatively easy to substitute capital for labor.
  替代弹性
  用一种替代物来替代一种投入物时,衡量当替代
  物的价格比率发生变化时,替代的难易程度。例
  如,在已知一个生产函数的条件下,假设资本收
  益对工资的比率下降1%,那么劳动力相对于资
  本费用上升。如资本投入量相对于劳动投入量增
  加了1%以上,那么这种替代弹性是有弹性的,
  这就意味着以资本来替代劳动相对比较容易。
  亦见constant elasticity of substitution
  elastic money
  The situation occurring in a monetary system in
  which the volume of currency in circulation can be
  varied to meet different needs.
  弹性货币
  出现于货币体制中的一种现象,流通中的货币数
  量可以随需要而变化。
  electronic funds transfer - EFT
  电子资金转帐(简写为EFT)
  eligibility; eligibility conditions
  合格;合格条件
  elegibility ceiling
  最高合格限度
  见 formal elegibility threshold
  eligibility to bid
  投标资格
  elegibility threshold
  合格限度
  见 formal elegibility threshold
  eligible [procurement]
  合格的,有资格的 [采购]
  eligible currency
  合格货币
  eligible expenses
  合格的费用
  eligible host country [MIGA]
  A member who is listed as a developing member
  country in Schedule A to the Convention.
  合格的东道国 [多边投资担保机构]
  指在《多边投资担保机构公约》的附表A中列为
  发展中会员国的会员国。
  eligible investment [MIGA]
  Investment accepted for coverage under the
  Convention. Includes equity interests, including
  medium- or long-term loans made or guaranteed by
  holders of equity in the enterprise concerned, and
  such forms of direct investment as may be
  determined by the Board.
  合格的投资 [多边投资担保机构]
  指《多边投资担保机构公约》规定的可投保的投
  105
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  资。如股本权益,其中包括有关企业的股东发放
  或担保的中长期贷款,以及由董事会确定的其他
  形式的直接投资。
  eligible paper
  Paper than can be freely traded on the market.
  合格票据
  可在市场上自由交易的票据。
  eligible risk
  可接受的风险,合格的风险
  eligible source country
  合格的来源国
  embodiment hypothesis
  Economic theory which states that investments in
  new capital equipment embody technical change.
  体现假设论
  一种经济理论_____,认为新的资本设备投资体现技术
  的变革。
  emergency reconstruction loan - ERL
  紧急复兴贷款,紧急重建贷款(简写为ERL)
  emergency recovery loan - ERL
  紧急恢复贷款(简写为ERL)
  emerging markets [securities]
  新兴市场 [证券]
  Emerging Markets Growth Fund* -EMGF [IFC]
  新兴市场发展基金(简写为EMGF)[国际金融公
  司]
  eminent domain
  The power to take private property for public use by
  the state, municipalities and private persons or
  corporations authorized to exercise functions of a
  public nature.
  征用权
  指取得私有财产用作公共用途的权利。该权利由
  国家、市政当局,以及被授权行使公共职能的私
  人或公司行使。
  emissions trading
  Pollution dischargers who release less pollution than
  the officially approved limit may sell or trade the
  difference between its discharges and the authorized
  limits to another firm which can then increase its
  amount of discharge.
  排放量交易 [环境]
  污染排放者在污染排放量低于官方批准的限量
  时,可以将其排放量同批准排放量之间的差额向
  另一厂商出售或进行交易,使后者可以增加其排
  放量。
  empower
  授权
  empowerment
  Giving political power to disadvantaged groups, e.g.
  women, children.
  给予权利,赋予权利
  给处于不利地位的群体(如妇女、儿童)以政治
  权利。
  enabling environment
  有利的环境
  enabling legislation
  实施性法案
  encashment [IDA]
  The conversion of notes and other securities paid in
  by member countries to IDA into cash.
  兑现 [国际开发协会]
  将国际开发协会会员国所付票据和其他证券兑
  换成现金。
  enclave project
  Project designed and supervised by foreign
  consultants, executed by foreign contractors and
  suppliers and managed with the help of expatriates.
  飞地项目
  指由外国咨询专家设计和监督、由外国承包商和
  供应商执行、并在外籍人员帮助下进行管理的项
  目。
  end-of-mission document
  出差总结报告
  end of pipe pollution control
  Control of pollution where it is discharged rather
  than in the production cycle.
  排放口污染控制
  在排放处而不是在生产过程中对污染加以控制。
  end use (of a commodity)
  (商品的)最终用途
  end use (energy) efficiency
  (能源的)最终使用效率
  106
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  end use tax
  最终使用税
  energy
  能源
  亦见 alternative energy; biomass energy;
  commercial energy; constant energy intensity;
  conventional energy; net energy ratio
  energy balance*
  能源平衡法
  energy affiliate
  Proposed organization, subsidiary of the World
  Bank, dealing with lending for energy. Never
  actually set up.
  能源附属机构
  世界银行提议成立的发放能源贷款的附属机构。
  实际从未成立。
  energy assessment
  能源评估
  energy audit
  A survey of energy usage in a system or organization
  and an examination of how energy may be used more
  economically.
  能源审计
  指对一个系统或组织能源使用情况的调查,并考
  察如何能更经济地使用能源。
  energy cascading
  The utilization of energy, otherwise wasted, in the
  performance of work matched to the characteristics
  of the energy, e.g. the use of waste heat from an
  industrial process for a variety of purposes in
  sequence, performing work at a lower temperature at
  each stage. The sequence may include air heating,
  steam raising and water heating.
  能源分级利用法
  为了不浪费能源而根据其特点物尽其用的方法。
  例如根据不同目的利用工业过程中产生的废热,
  按温度由高到低的顺序,用于空气加热、生产蒸
  汽、水加热,等等。
  energy conservation
  能源节约,节能
  energy cropping
  The growth of plants to be used for energy needs
  (i.e. wood, oil-bearing plants).
  能源作物
  为了满足能源需要而种植的作物(如树木、油料
  作物)。
  energy-efficient
  有效使用能源的
  energy-intensive
  能源密集型,大量消耗能源的
  energy lending
  能源贷款
  engender
  Considering issues from the point of view of gender,
  relations between the sexes.
  社会性别观点,考虑社会性别问题的
  从社会性别和两性之间关系出发考虑问题的观
  点和方法。
  engineered road
  A planned earth road.
  规划修筑的土路
  engineering
  工程
  亦见 design; design engineering; detailed design,
  engineering; environnmental engineering; financial
  engineering; heavy (engineering) industry;
  preliminary design, engineering
  engineering consultant
  工程顾问,工程咨询顾问
  engineering design
  工程设计
  engineering development
  工程开发
  engineering industry
  工程工业
  engineering, preliminary
  前期工程,预备工程
  engineering related technical assistance; hard
  technical assistance
  Technical assistance geared towards engineering
  projects as opposed to institution related technical
  assistance.
  与工程有关的技术援助;硬技术援助
  针对工程项目而进行的技术援助;区别于与机构
  107
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  有关的技术援助。
  engineering studies
  工程研究
  enhance new debt, to
  增加新债
  enhanced recovery [oil]
  Increased recovery from a reservoir achieved by
  artificial means or by the application of energy
  extrinsic to the reservoir.
  强化采集,强化回收 [石油]
  利用人为手段或采用石油储藏以外的能源,从石
  油储藏中增加回收开采量。
  enrollment ratio
  Ratio of pupils enrolled to total school age
  population.
  入学率
  入学学生人数与学龄儿童人数的比率。
  enrollments
  入学,入伍,注册人数,入学人数
  entrepôt trade
  The re-export trade of a country.
  转口贸易,中转贸易
  一个国家的再出口贸易。
  entrepreneur
  企业家
  entrepreneurial benefit-cost ratio - EBC
  企业家的效益-成本比率(简写为EBC)
  entrepreneurship
  企业家精神
  entries
  帐目
  见 accounting entries
  entry level
  起始级别
  environment satellite accounts
  Subsidiary national account for the environmental
  sector.
  环境卫星帐户
  环境部门的国民经济分类帐户。
  environmental action plan - EAP
  环境行动计划(简写为EAP)
  environmental (advisory) panel
  An advisory panel of independent,
  internationally-recognized, environmental
  specialists, formed to advise on projects involving
  large dams. Normally required for Bank large dam
  projects.
  环境(顾问)小组
  由独立的、国际承认的环境专家组成的顾问小
  组,其任务是对涉及到大型水坝的项目提出建
  议。世界银行的大型水坝项目通常都有这种要
  求。
  environmental assessment - EA
  An intensive examination that is required for lending
  operation that have diverse and significant
  environmental impacts.
  环境评价,环境评估(简写为EA)
  对影响环境的贷款项目所作的深入细致的审查,
  这类项目对环境有各种各样或是很大的影响。
  environmental audit
  Detailed study of the environmental problems of an
  area or industrial plant.
  环境审计
  对一个地区或工厂的环境问题所作的详细的研
  究和审查。
  environmental degradation
  Deterioration in the environment. Includes
  pathogens in the environment, indoor air pollution,
  substandard housing and extensive industrialization.
  环境降级
  指环境的恶化,包括环境中存在病原体,室内空
  气污染,低标准住房,以及大规模工业化。
  environmental engineering
  环境工程
  environmental enhancement
  Improvement to the environment. Used by the Bank
  to refer to improvement to the environment as an
  indirect effect of a project.
  环境改善
  指对环境作出的改善。世界银行用来指一个项目
  对环境改善起到的间接作用。
  environmental goods and services
  Goods and services provided for environmental
  protection purposes.
  108
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  环境货物和服务
  为环保目的提供的货物和服务。
  environmental health, sanitation
  环境保健、卫生
  environmental hotspot
  Area on the Earth where there is a considerable and
  often unique species diversity.
  环境热点
  地球上相当重要的、并且往往是独一无二的物种
  多样化地区。
  environmental impact assessment - EIA
  Evaluation of the effect of a project on the
  environment.
  环境影响评估(简写为EIA)
  对一个项目对环境的影响的评价。
  environmental management plan
  环境管理方案
  见 mitigation plan
  environmental reconnaissance
  Bank mandated study, carried out by independent,
  recognized experts during project identification, to
  ensure that potential environmental effects are
  identified, ascertain the scope of further
  environmental studies and action needed,assess the
  availability of the borrower to undertake them and
  advise on the need for an environmental panel.
  环境考察
  世界银行在项目识别过程中的一项强制性研究,
  由独立、公认的专家组进行。该研究的目的是确
  认项目潜在的环境影响已经得到认明,确定需____要
  进
  
  117
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  - F -
  face value
  票面价值,面值
  facility
  资金便利,资金融通,贷款基金,设施,设备
  fact sheet
  情况说明书,基本情况介绍
  factor cost, at - f.c.
  要素成本
  factor income
  Income derived directly from the current production
  of goods and services. There are normally four main
  categories: rent; wages and salaries; interest and
  profits.
  要素收入
  直接从现时的货物和劳务生产中产生的收入。通
  常有四大类:租金、工资薪金、利息和利润。
  factor income payments
  要素收益付款
  factor price
  The price of a factor of production (e.g. land, labor
  and capital).
  要素价格
  指生产要素(例如土地、劳力和资本)的价格。
  factoring
  The purchase of trade debts, usually without
  recourse.
  代理融通,贷款保收,应收帐款让售
  购买贸易债务,通常无追索权。
  factory farming
  工厂化农业
  factory gate price
  出厂价格
  见 ex factory price
  facultative reinsurance
  Reinsurance of a specific risk.
  临时分保,临时再保险
  对某一特定的风险进行再保险。
  参见treaty reinsurance
  fair market value
  公平市价,公允市价,议价
  fair price shop
  平价商店
  fallacy of composition
  A wrong conclusion reached by taking a known fact
  about individuals and projecting it to apply to the
  entire population.
  推论的谬误
  把有关个别人的已知事实,推而广之应用于全体
  人口,从而得出的错误结论。
  family planning
  计划生育
  FAO/IBRD Cooperative Program*
  联合国粮农组织与国际复兴开发银行合作计划
  FAO/UNIDO/World Bank Working Group on
  Fertilizers*
  联合国粮农组织、工发组织与世界银行肥料工作
  组。
  farm
  农场
  farm budget
  农场预算
  farm forestry
  Forestry carried out on private farmlands.
  农田林业
  指在私人农田上经营的林业。
  farm gate price
  农场交货价格
  farm income
  农场收入
  farmer-pull innovations
  农民拉动的革新
  farming system
  农作制度
  farming systems research - FSR
  农作制度研究(简写为FSR)
  farming techniques
  118
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  农业技术,耕作技术,农场经营技术
  farming unit
  农作单位
  fast disbursing (loan); quick disbursing (loan)
  快速支付(贷款)
  fast-track procedures
  Procedures designed to facilitate negotiation of
  complex trade agreements. They give the president
  authority to conclude such agreements and submit
  them to Congress for approval or disapproval
  without amendment. Used by the Bush
  administration in the 1990-1991 Uruguay Round
  negotiations.
  快速通道程序
  一种复杂贸易协议谈判的辅助程序,它授权总统
  缔结协议,并将协议提交给国会无修改地批准
  (或否定)。美国布什政府在1990-1991年乌拉
  圭回合谈判中曾使用过这种程序。
  feasibility study
  可行性研究
  fecundity
  肥沃、多产、生育力
  Federal funds*
  联邦资金
  fee
  费用,收费
  见 availability fee; backup facility fee; commitment
  charge, fee; cost plus fixed fee contract; cost plus
  percentage fee contract; front-end fee; guarantee
  commission, fee; harbor fees; loan origination fee;
  management fee; percentage (fee) contract; service
  and support fee; stumpage fee; tuition fees; zero fee
  policy
  fee-based service [IFC]
  Services provided by IFC for which IFC charges a
  fee. Includes such services as technical assistance,
  advice on privatization, corporate strategies,
  financial risk management, project structuring,
  setting up capital markets, etc.
  收费服务 [国际金融公司]
  国际金融公司提供的一种收费性服务。服务内容
  包括技术援助、私有化咨询、公司战略、财务风
  险管理、项目结构、建立资本市场等。
  fee for lodging requests [ICSID]
  调解请求费 [解决投资争端国际中心]
  fee-for-services basis
  收费服务基础
  feed balance; feed estimate
  饲料平衡;饲料估计
  feed conversion ratio
  Ratio which makes it possible to evaluate feed
  efficiency. Obtained from the amount of product
  obtained per kilo of feed given to the animal (i.e.
  daily average profit/feed).
  饲料转化率
  评价饲料效能的一个比率, 由喂养牲口的每公斤
  饲料所获得的产量得出(即日平均利润/饲料)。
  feed estimate; feed balance
  饲料估计;饲料平衡
  feed grains
  饲料粮
  feed unit
  One pound of corn or its equivalent in feed value in
  other feeds which is fed to cattle under normal farm
  conditions.
  饲料单位
  指在正常农场条件下喂牲畜用的一磅_____玉米,或具
  有同等饲料价值的其他饲料。
  feedback (of information)
  (信息)反馈
  feedback loop
  反馈回路,反馈环路
  feeder road
  支路,公路支线
  feeder school; contributory school; preparatory
  school
  School where students go on to a specific
  higher-level school, for which it is the feeder.
  补习学校;先修学校;预科
  为某一特定的高一级的学校输送学生的学校。
  feedlot
  牧场,肥育地
  feedstock
  119
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  Substance (e.g. gas) used as raw material for its
  chemical properties in creating an end product.
  原料、给料
  作为原料,利用其化学成分,以生产终端产品的
  物质(如煤气)。
  fellow [EDI]
  研究员 [经济发展学院]
  fertility rate
  Births per thousand, usually related to individuals of
  same sex, age, marital status, etc.
  生育率
  每千人平均生育率,通常以相同性别、年龄和婚
  姻状况的人为基础。
  fiber crop
  纤维作物
  field
  矿场,田地
  见 coal field
  field agent
  现场代理人,驻地代理人
  field assignment, mission
  外勤任务,外勤工作团
  field crop
  大田作物
  field-level extension worker
  现场推广员,实地推广员
  field mission, assignment
  外勤工作团,外勤任务
  field office
  驻外办事处,驻外代表处
  field seeds
  The seed of field crops, as contrasted with vegetable
  and flower seeds.
  大田作物种子
  区别于蔬菜和花卉的种子。
  field staff
  外勤人员,驻外人员,现场工作人员
  field trip
  实地考察,现场考察,出差
  field unit [agricultural extension]
  现场工作组,实地工作组 [农业推广]
  field work
  野外工作,现场工作,实地工作
  field worker
  野外工作者,现场工作者,实地工作者
  Fifth Dimension Program
  World Bank program whereby the Bank provides
  additional IDA allocations to IDA-only countries
  that have outstanding IBRD debt, are current on
  their debt service to the Bank and have an
  IDA-support adjustment program.
  第五方面(信贷)计划
  世界银行的一种信贷计划。根据这一计划,世界
  银行向仅用国际开发协会信贷的国家(这些国家
  欠着国际复兴开发银行的贷款,正在还本付息,
  同时又有一项国际开发协会支持的调整方案)提
  供额外的国际开发协会信贷分配额
  filing of claims [MIGA]
  Submitting appropriate documentation to support a
  claim for a covered loss.
  提出索赔 [多边投资担保机构]
  提供适当的文件,以支持一项对已承保的损失提
  出的索赔。
  fill ratio [staff]
  Percentage of positions in an organization that are
  filled.
  (人员编制)满员率 [人员]
  一个机构中已经配备的人员占编制人员的比率。
  final design
  最终设计
  final design quantities
  最终设计数量
  final energy; secondary energy
  最终能源;二次能源
  finance lease; financial, full pay out lease
  A lease involving payment over an obligatory period
  of specified sums sufficient in total to amortize the
  capital outlay of the lessor and give some profit. In
  other words, the lessee pays the full value of the
  asset.
  融资租赁;金融租赁,费用全付租赁
  120
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  一种租赁方式,即在规定期限内分期向出租人支
  付规定的金额,其总数足以支付出租人的资本支
  出并使其获得一定的利润。也就是说,承租人支
  付该资产的全部价值。
  finance plan
  融资计划,筹资计划
  financial adjustment
  财务调整,金融调整
  financial claim
  金融债权,财务索赔
  financial claims of government
  政府债权,政府征税权
  financial contingency
  不可预见费用,财政应急预备费
  financial credit
  金融信贷,金融贷款
  financial deepening
  Acquisition of financial assets at a faster rate than
  nonfinancial assets.
  金融深化
  即购置金融资产的速度超过购置非金融资产的
  速度。
  financial distress
  财政困难,资金困难
  financial engineering
  Application of innovative techniques in major
  national and corporate workouts.
  金融工程
  指通过采用新技术的方法,在主要国家和公司解
  决债务问题。
  financial expenses coverage ratio
  Net income plus non-cash charges plus interest
  payments divided by interest payments plus current
  portion of long-term debt.
  财务费用偿付率
  即净收入加上非现金收费加上利息支付额,除以
  利息支付额加上长期债务的当前部分。
  financial flows
  资金流量,资金流动
  financial futures
  金融期货
  financial intermediary loan - FIL
  World Bank loan to a financial intermediary, such as
  a central bank.
  金融中介机构贷款(简写为FIL)
  指世界银行向一个金融中介机构(如中央银行)
  发放的贷款。
  financial internal rate of return
  财政内部收益率
  见 financial rate of return
  financial intrinsics
  An alternative word for financial position.
  财务实况
  财务状况的同意词。
  financial lease
  金融租赁
  见 finance lease
  financial leverage
  金融杠杆
  见 leverage
  financial package
  一揽子财务计划
  financial paper
  Commercial paper issued by financial institutions.
  金融票据
  金融机构发行的商业票据。
  financial performance, results
  财务业绩,财务工作执行结果
  financial plan
  融资计划,筹资计划,财务计划
  financial rate of return; internal rate of financial
  return; financial internal rate of return - FIRR
  The internal rate of return based on financial or
  market prices.
  财务收益率;财务内部收益率(简写为FIRR)
  根据财务或市场价格计算出的内部收益率。
  financial ratios
  财务比率
  financial replicability
  Full recovery of the financial costs of the project
  121
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  entity.
  财务可回收性
  指项目实体财务成本的全部收回。
  financial repression
  Distortion in the financial system, with negative
  interest rates, subsidy interest rates to some privileged
  borrowers, selective credit allocation, and
  excessive bureaucratic control over the financial
  system.
  金融抑制
  金融体制中的扭曲现象,包括负利率,给某些享
  有特权的借款人的利率补贴,选择性的信贷分
  配,以及对金融体制上过多的官僚控制。
  financial restraint, stringency
  金融紧缩,收紧银根
  financial spread
  Income from loans and investments minus cost of
  borrowing.
  财务利差
  即贷款和投资的收入减去借款成本。
  financial standing
  财务状况、资产状况、信用状况
  见 creditworthiness
  financial statement
  A balance sheet, income statement, funds statement
  or any supporting statement or other presentation of
  financial data derived from accounting records.
  财务报表
  各项报表,包括资产负债表、收益表、资金报表
  或从会计记录中得出任何辅助报表,或其他财务
  数据报表。
  financial year; fiscal year
  财政年度;会计年度
  financialization
  The holding of assets (e.g. savings) in financial form
  (e.g. bills, bonds, cash) as opposed to in the form of
  fixed assets (e.g. gold, real property).
  金融化
  以金融形式(如票据、债券、现金等)而不是以
  固定资产(如黄金、房地产等)形式持有资产(如
  储蓄)。
  financing gap
  筹资缺口,资金缺口,财政缺口
  financing package
  一揽子融资计划
  financing plan
  融资计划,筹资计划
  fineness (of a precious metal)
  (贵金属的)纯度
  fine tuning (of the economy)
  (经济的)微调
  firm bid rule
  Principle that a bid is irrevocable for a reasonable
  time after bid opening.
  递实盘规则
  即在开标后的合理时间内实盘不可撤消原则。
  first in, first out - FIFO
  先进先出法(简写为FIFO)
  亦见 last in, first out
  first-loss deductible [insurance]
  第一损失免赔额 [保险]
  first ranking security
  一等证券,头等证券
  first refusal right; preemptive right
  Right to have the first opportunity to purchase real
  estate when such becomes available, or right to meet
  any other offer.
  优先取舍权;优先购买权
  在有房地产或其它可购买的财物出让时所具有
  的优先购买权。
  first year rule - FYR [project analysis]
  A method of determining when to start a project.
  Two time streams of costs and benefits (using
  one-year intervals of discounting) are subtracted.
  The project should be delayed by one year if the net
  present value of this figure is negative.
  首年规则(简写为FYR) [项目分析]
  一种决定什么时候启动一个项目的方法。即把两
  个时间系列的成本和效益(使用一年间隔进行贴
  现)相减,如果所得的差的净现值为负数,则该
  项目应推迟一年进行。
  fiscal agent
  A bank appointed by the borrower as its agent for a
  new issue of securities when no trustee has been
  appointed. Its functions include those of a principal
  122
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  paying agent and a number of the clerical functions
  but none of the fiduciary responsibilities of a trustee.
  财政代理人
  指在没有指定托管人的情况下,借款人指定一家
  银行作为发行一项证券的代理人,其职能包括首
  席支付代理以及一些事务性工作,但不包括托管
  人的受托责任。
  fiscal balance
  A balance between the receipts and expenditures of
  a government (not just taxes).
  财政预算平衡;财政收支平衡
  指一个政府的收入与支出(不仅仅是税收)之间
  的平衡。
  fiscal drag
  1. Reduction in real income due to the increase in
  income from inflation, resulting in income earners
  being placed in higher tax brackets.
  2. Action by public financial authorities with
  regard to economic activity.
  财政拖累
  1.由于通货膨胀引起收入增加,使收入获得者
  被置于较高的税率等级而导致实际收入减少。
  2.公共财政当局在涉及经济活动方面采取的行
  动。
  fiscal gap
  财政缺口
  fiscal policy
  财政政策
  fiscal revenue
  财政收入
  fiscal transparency
  Refers to the situation whereby certain partners and
  associates in certain companies are deemed to be the
  same as the company for taxation purposes. Used in
  France.
  财政透明度
  指在纳税方面,用与公司同样的标准对待某些公
  司中的某些合伙人和协作者。曾经用于法国。
  fiscal year; financial year
  财政年度;会计年度
  fishing by lamplight; lamplight fishing
  灯光捕鱼
  five day biochemical oxygen demand 生化物五天
  需氧量
  见 biochemical oxygen demand over five days (简
  写为BOD5)。
  fixed assets
  固定资产
  见 capital assets
  fixed capital
  固定资本
  见 capital assets
  fixed charge coverage*
  固定支出范围,固定支出类别
  fixed cost contract; fixed price contract
  固定成本合同;固定价格合同,标价合同
  fixed costs
  固定成本
  fixed investment
  固定资产投资
  fixed price contract; fixed cost contract
  固定价格合同;固定成本合同;标价合同
  fixed-rate financing
  固定利率融资
  fixed rate matched funding loan
  One of two types of fixed rate loans made by the
  Bank to IFC, involving amounts in various
  currencies from which currency-specific tranches
  are established to fund new fixed rate IFC loans on a
  back-to-back basis.
  固定利率匹配融资贷款
  世界银行贷给国际金融公司的两种固定利率贷
  款之一。这种贷款具有多种货币类型,按各特定
  货币分批拨付,在对销的基础上对国际金融公司
  发放的新的固定利率贷款供资。
  fixed term appointment
  固定期任用
  fixed term contract
  定期合同,固定任期合同
  fixed term staff
  根据固定任期合同聘用的工作人员
  fixed variate; predictor
  123
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  固定变量;预测因素
  fixing see price fixing
  固定,确定
  flag of convenience; open registry flag
  权宜船籍;方便旗
  flagship product
  Used to describe key publications, summarizing
  Bank policy in a major area, e.g. poverty,
  adjustment, health in Africa.
  旗帜作品
  用来指主要出版物,这种出版物概述了世界银行
  在某一主要方面的政策,例如贫困、调整、非洲
  的卫生保健问题等。
  flagship project
  Project used to promote development in a key area,
  e.g. environment, women in development.
  旗帜项目
  用来促进某一关键领域发展的项目,例如环境、
  妇女在发展中的作用等。
  flat budget
  Budget which shows no increase over previous
  budget period.
  无增长的预算
  与前一预算期相比无增长的预算。
  flat rate
  统一费率,均一费率,标准价格
  flattening out
  拉平,平稳化
  fleet [transportation]
  船队,车队 [运输]
  flexibility quotient
  Number of redeployable staff resources as a
  percentage of the total workforce.
  灵活(调配)份额
  可供重新安排的工作人员与劳动力总数的百分
  比。
  flexitime; flextime
  弹性工作时间
  flight capital
  外流资本,外逃资本
  flight of capital; capital flight
  资本外逃
  flip chart
  翻动图表
  float [banking]
  Checks, drafts, etc., in the process of collection.
  浮存[银行]
  托收过程中的支票、汇票等。
  float a loan, to
  发行债券,借入贷款
  floating capital
  That portion of the capital of an enterprise not
  invested in fixed or other capital assets but in current
  and working assets.
  流动资本,游资
  指企业资本中未投资于固定资产或其他资本资
  产、而是以流动资产形式存在的资本。
  floating cash reserve
  流动现金储备
  floating rate
  浮动利率,浮动汇率
  floating rate bond
  Bond on which the coupon is established
  periodically and calculated with reference to
  short-term interest rates.
  浮动利率债券
  这种债券的息票是定期确定的,并参照短期资金
  利率来计算。
  floating rate note
  Note issued from five to fifteen years with a fixed
  spread, usually over the six month London Interbank
  Offered Rate (LIBOR), normally with provision for
  a minimum interest rate. Primarily used by banks to
  raise dollars for their Euromarket operations.
  浮动利率票据
  这种票据期限为5到15年,利率通常为6个月伦敦
  同业拆放利率(LIBOR)加固定利差,并有最低
  利率规定。主要是银行用于为欧洲市场操作筹措
  美元。
  floating rice
  浮动水稻
  flock management; herd management
  124
  ____________________________________________________________________________________
  牧群管理
  flood control irrigation
  控制漫灌
  flooded rice
  水稻,遭洪水的水稻
  flood irrigation; spate irrigation
  A method of irrigation in which water is made to
  cover the surface of the land to a considerable depth
  and remains for a considerable period, after which so
  much of it as has not soaked in is drawn off, leaving
  the land ready for the growing of crops.
  漫灌
  指一种灌溉方法,使水漫灌地表到一定深度并保
  持一定时间,然后把未浸入地表的余水放掉,准
  备种植作物。
  flooding
  洪泛,漫灌
  见 controlled flooding
  floodplain
  洪泛区
  floodplain agriculture, cultivation
  洪泛区农业,耕作
  flood recession crop
  Crop planted on land which has recently been
  flooded.
  洪涝退后的作物
  种植在最近遭受过洪涝的土地上的作物。


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